MODELING SIMULATION AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTATION OF
TOWED TETHER SYSTEM
Except where reference is made to the work of others, the work described in this thesis is
my own or was done in collaboration with my advisory committee. This thesis does not
include proprietary or classified information.
Pradeep Chowdary Kolla
Certificate of Approval:
P. K. Raju David G Beale, Chair
Thomas Walter Professor Professor
Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering
Dan Marghitu George T. Flowers
Professor Interim Dean
Mechanical Engineering Graduate School
MODELING SIMULATION AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTATION ON
TOWED TETHER SYSTEM
Pradeep Chowdary Kolla
A thesis
Submitted to
the Graduate Faculty of
Auburn University
in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the
Degree of
Master of Science
Auburn, Alabama
December 17, 2007
iii
MODELING SIMULATION AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTATION ON
TOWED TETHER SYSTEM
Pradeep Chowdary Kolla
Permission is granted to Auburn University to make copies of this thesis at its discretion,
upon the request of individuals or institutions and at their expense. The author reserves
all publication rights.
______________________________
Signature of Author
______________________________
Date of Graduation
iv
VITA
Pradeep Chowdary Kolla, son of Sri. Ashok Kumar Kolla and Smt. Usha Rani
Kolla, was born on Dec 7th, 1983, in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh, India. He graduated with
a Bachelor?s Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Anna University, Chennai, India in
June, 2005. He joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Auburn University
in August 2005 for pursuing his graduate studies. His research interests include modeling
and simulation of systems, processes and production flow.
v
THESIS ABSTRACT
MODELING SIMULATION AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTATION ON
TOWED TETHER SYSTEM
Pradeep Chowdary Kolla
Master of Science, December 17, 2007
(B.E Anna University, 2005)
146 Typed Pages
Directed by David G Beale
Aero-dynamic drag forces and their effect on the path taken by a cable in a towed
system are studied with the aid of an advanced computational software packages. A
piece of rope (tether) is towed at the top end in a circular pattern and a body of known
mass has been attached at the other end of the rope. Based on many computer
simulations, observations have been made on the path traveled by the attached body at
the lower end of the tether, for various angular velocities. The effect of certain factors
such as internal damping, stiffness, mass-ratio and tow radii for increasing angular
velocities, on the path traveled by the attached body have been studied, by modeling and
simulations. Generally the tip radius and verticality of the lower end of the tether
increases with increase in angular velocity, reaching a maximum value prior to a jump.
The jump angular velocity range shifts towards higher velocities when parameters such as
mass ratio, tow radius and bushings stiffness and damping are increased. Superposition
plots have been obtained to visualize the envelope of space within which the tether can be
vi
found at any given angular velocity (within the range of angular velocities considered),
showing the formation of a node for angular velocities higher than jump velocity. An
experiment was performed to validate simulated results, using a 3.285E-5 lb/ft, 58? long,
Spider Wire as the tether. Based on drag coefficient parameter values that best fit the
experimental data, simulated shapes matched experimental results, as did verticality, with
maximum 33% error over a speed range of 12-25 radians/second. The use of material
with unknown damping/stiffness and the use of inexpensive and imprecise equipment
may have caused the variations between the simulated results and the experimental
results, but nevertheless did bolster confidence in the simulated results.
vii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. David G Beale for guiding me through the
various stages of this work. His confidence and support, in every aspect of my research
helped me complete this work as planned. I would like to thank Dr. P.K. Raju for his
support and guidance. I would also like to thank Dr. Dan Marghitu for serving on my
committee and also for his support during my course work.
Special thanks are due to Jake Miller, Dr. Mark Clark and Dr. Henry Burdg of
Auburn Technical Assistance Center (ATAC) for their guidance and support while
working on various simulation projects.
I would like to thank David J Banscomb, Yogesh R Kondareddy, Anil Nelaturi
and Sai Siddharth Kumar Dantu for their help during the final stage of this work. I would
also like to thank Ramsis Fargag, Lab manager Textile Engineering, for his guidance in
determining initial material required for the experiment.
I would like to show my deepest gratitude to my parents, without whose support I
would not have reached this far. Everything achieved by me, is a result of their support. I
would also like to thank my brothers Sandeep and Gautham for their love and affection.
Special thanks are due to my friends Akhila Avirneni, Ramraj Gottiparthy, Jyothi
Swaroop Gandikota, Pallavi Chitta and Dr. Mukund Karanjikar for their help and
encouragement during my graduate studies.
viii
Style manual or journal used: Guide to Preparation and Submission of Theses and
Dissertations.
Computer Software used: ADAMS 2005 R2 and Microsoft Office 2003.
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................... xiii
LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................... xvii
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Past and Present Research................................................................................... 2
1.2 ADAMS ............................................................................................................ 14
1.3 Scope of Work .................................................................................................. 15
FUNDAMENTAL MODEL............................................................................................. 16
2.1 Design of Model/System................................................................................... 17
2.2 Calculations....................................................................................................... 26
MODELING, SIMULATION AND BENCHMARKING............................................... 28
3.1 Assumptions made in Modeling ....................................................................... 28
3.2 Modeling........................................................................................................... 28
3.2.1 Tow Link............................................................................................... 31
3.2.2 Cylinder................................................................................................. 31
3.2.3 Sphere ................................................................................................... 32
3.2.4 Spherical Joints ..................................................................................... 32
3.2.5 Revolute Joint ....................................................................................... 33
3.2.6 Motion Statement.................................................................................. 33
3.2.7 Drag Forces........................................................................................... 35
x
3.3 Simulation for Preliminary Model Validation/Correlation............................... 37
3.3.1 Tip Radius and Angular Velocity ......................................................... 38
3.3.2 Comparison of the ADAMS Model Response with Published Data .... 39
3.4 Superposition in ADAMS Model ..................................................................... 42
NUMERICAL RESULTS ................................................................................................ 47
4.1 Simulation Parameters ...................................................................................... 47
4.1.1 Damping/Stiffness................................................................................. 48
4.1.2 Mass of Drogue..................................................................................... 50
4.1.3 No of Segments..................................................................................... 50
4.1.4 Tow radius ............................................................................................ 51
4.2 Simulation Results ............................................................................................ 51
4.2.1 Effect of Damping / Stiffness ............................................................... 52
4.2.1.1 Effect of Zero Stiffness-Varying Damping........................................... 52
4.2.1.1.1 Effect of Damping on Verticality ......................................................... 53
4.2.1.1.2 Effect of Damping on Tip Radius......................................................... 54
4.2.1.2 Effect of Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping.................................... 55
4.2.1.2.1 Effect of Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping on Verticality............. 56
4.2.1.2.2 Effect of Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping on Tip Radius ............ 57
4.2.1.3 Effect of Varying Stiffness and Damping............................................. 58
4.2.1.3.1 Effect of Damping/Stiffness on Verticality .......................................... 59
4.2.1.3.2 Effect of Damping on the Tip Radius................................................... 61
4.2.2 Effect of End Mass................................................................................ 63
4.2.2.1 Effect of End Mass on the Tip Radius.................................................. 64
xi
4.2.2.2 Effect of End body Mass on Verticality ............................................... 70
4.2.3 Effect of Tow Radius............................................................................ 71
4.2.3.1 Effect of Tow Radius on Verticality..................................................... 72
4.2.3.2 Effect of Tow Radius on Tip Radius .................................................... 73
4.2.4 Time Response Plot .............................................................................. 77
Investigations into an Experimental System for Validation with Application to Realistic
Tether Materials................................................................................................................ 81
5.1 Experimental Setup........................................................................................... 81
5.1.1 Table Top.............................................................................................. 82
5.1.2 DC Motor.............................................................................................. 82
5.1.3 DC Motor Speed Controller.................................................................. 83
5.1.4 Aluminum Beam................................................................................... 84
5.1.5 Tachometer ........................................................................................... 85
5.1.6 Digital Cameras .................................................................................... 88
5.1.7 Tether .................................................................................................... 88
5.1.7.1 Weight method...................................................................................... 88
5.1.7.2 Microscopic Method ............................................................................. 89
5.2 Operation Procedure and Measurements .......................................................... 94
5.3 Limitations in Experimental Validation Procedure .......................................... 97
5.4 ADAMS Modeling Based on Experimental Setup ........................................... 98
5.5 Comparison of ADAMS Simulation with Experimental Data ....................... 101
5.5.1 Correlation Based on Verticality Data Plots....................................... 101
5.5.1.1 Effect of Co-Efficient of Drag on Verticality (ADAMS Results) ..... 104
xii
5.5.2 Correlation Based on Snap Shots and Superposition Pattern for
Verticality ............................................................................................................. 104
5.5.3 Correlation Based on Snap Shots and Superposition Pattern for Tip
Radius ............................................................................................................. 106
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................ 108
6.1 Future Work.................................................................................................... 109
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 111
APPENDIX ?A............................................................................................................... 114
Tables ? ADAMS Simulation data and Published data [8] ........................................ 114
APPENDIX-B................................................................................................................. 117
ADAMS/SOLVER DATA SET ................................................................................. 117
xiii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Simple Tether Mass System........................................................................... 17
Figure 2.2: Hoerner?s Cross-Flow Principle..................................................................... 19
Figure 2.3: Resolution of Forces...................................................................................... 21
Figure 2.4: Original Model and Discretized Model at Stationary Position ...................... 23
Figure 2.5: Differences between Types of Modeling ....................................................... 23
Figure 2.6: Views of the Model ........................................................................................ 25
Figure 3.1: Discretized ADAMS Model........................................................................... 30
Figure 3.2: Step Function Curve....................................................................................... 34
Figure 3.3: System at Stationary Position......................................................................... 37
Figure 3.4: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity Curve generated by ADAMS .................... 39
Figure 4.1: Screen-Shot showing Bushing Element ......................................................... 48
Figure 4.2: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity: Varying Damping-Zero Stiffness.............. 54
Figure 4.3: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity: Varying Damping-Zero Stiffness............. 55
Figure 4.4: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity: Varying Stiffness - Constant Damping..... 57
Figure 4.5: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity: Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping ...... 58
Figure 4.6: Plot of Verticality Vs Angular Velocity: Various Damping and Stiffness
Values ............................................................................................................................... 60
Figure 4.7: Plot of Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity: Various Damping and Stiffness
Values ............................................................................................................................... 62
xiv
Figure 4.8: Path Taken by End Mass: Angular Velocities less than 0.225 rad/s.............. 62
Figure 4.9: Path Taken by End Mass: Angular Velocities less than 8.30-8.34 rad/s-No
Damping............................................................................................................................ 63
Figure 4.10: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity: Effect of Mass Ratio............................... 65
Figure 4.11: Path Taken by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 0.5, Angular Velocity 3.00-3.5 rad/s
........................................................................................................................................... 66
Figure 4.12: Path Taken by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 0.5, Angular Velocity 8.30-8.35
rad/s................................................................................................................................... 66
Figure 4.13: Path Taken by End mass: Mass Ratio - 0.75, Angular Velocities 8.3-8.35
rad/s................................................................................................................................... 67
Figure 4.14: Path Taken by End mass: Mass Ratio - 0.75, Angular Velocities 3.0-3.5
rad/s................................................................................................................................... 67
Figure 4.15: Path Taken by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 1.023, Angular Velocities 3.0-3.04
rad/s................................................................................................................................... 68
Figure 4.16: Path Taken by End mass, Mass Ratio - 1.023, Angular Velocities 8.3-8.34
rad/s................................................................................................................................... 68
Figure 4.17: Path Traveled by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 1.1, Angular Velocity 3.0-3.5
rad/s................................................................................................................................... 69
Figure 4.18: Path Traveled by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 1.1, Angular Velocity 8.3-8.45
rad/s................................................................................................................................... 70
Figure 4.19: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity: Mass Ratio (Mm) from 0.50 ? 1.1 .......... 71
Figure 4.20: Effect of Tow Radius: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity.............................. 72
Figure 4.21: Effect of Tow Radius: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity ............................. 74
xv
Figure 4.22: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius- 7 inch,....................................... 75
Angular Velocity 12-12.50 rad/s....................................................................................... 75
Figure 4.23: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius 8 inch, ........................................ 75
Angular Velocity 12.0-12.5 rad/s...................................................................................... 75
Figure 4.24: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius-9 inch,........................................ 76
Angular Velocity 12.0-12.50 rad/s.................................................................................... 76
Figure 4.25: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius- 10 inch,..................................... 76
Angular Velocity 12.0-12.5 rad/s...................................................................................... 76
Figure 4.26: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius- 11 inch,..................................... 77
Angular Velocity 12.0-12.50 rad/s.................................................................................... 77
Figure 4.27: Time Response Plot: Tip Radius Vs Time (No Jump)................................. 78
Figure 4.28: Time Response Plot: X-Position Vs Time (No Jump) ................................. 78
Figure 4.29: Time Response Plot: Tip Radius Vs Time (Jump)....................................... 79
Figure 4.30: Time Response Plot: X Position Vs Time (Jump) ....................................... 80
Figure 5.1: DC Motor ....................................................................................................... 82
Figure 5.2: DC Motor Speed Controller ........................................................................... 84
Figure 5.3: Bottom view of the Setup with Aluminum Beam (Tow Link) and Thread
(Tether) ............................................................................................................................. 85
Figure 5.4: DC Motor, Speed Controller and Tachometer ............................................... 87
Figure 5.5: Snapshot-1 of a Multi-Strand Braided Material (Spider Wire-fishing line)
using a Microscope ........................................................................................................... 90
Figure 5.6: Snapshot-1 of a Multi-Strand Braided Material (Spider Wire-fishing line)
using a Microscope ........................................................................................................... 91
xvi
Figure 5.7: Experimental Setup- Front View.................................................................... 92
Figure 5.8: Experimental Setup Bottom View.................................................................. 93
Figure 5.9: Snap Shot to Measure Elevation of the End of the Tether ............................. 94
Figure 5.10: Bottom View of the System; Shape of the Tether........................................ 96
Figure 5.11: ADAMS Model based on the Experimental Setup ...................................... 98
Figure 5.12: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity - ADAMS Model for Experiment
Validation- Varying Speed ............................................................................................. 100
Figure 5.13: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity - ADAMS Model- Experimental
Validation-Varying Speed .............................................................................................. 100
Figure 5.14: Path Taken by Tether- ADAMS Model- Experimental Validation- Varying
Speed............................................................................................................................... 101
Figure 5.15: Comparison of Experimental and Simulation Data: Verticality Vs Angular
Velocity........................................................................................................................... 102
Figure 5.16 Snap Shot of ADAMS Model- Experimentation Model ............................. 104
Figure 5.17: Snap Shot of Experimental Model ............................................................. 105
Figure 5.18: Super Position Screen Shot: ADAMS Model based on Experimentation.. 105
Figure 5.19: Screen Shot of Pattern of the Tether .......................................................... 106
Figure 5.20: Snap Shot of the Experiment: Bottom View.............................................. 107
xvii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Damping Values-Zero Stiffness ...................................................................... 53
Table 4.2: Stiffness Values-Constant Damping................................................................ 56
Table 4.3: Damping Values-Zero Stiffness ...................................................................... 59
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The concept/operation of a simple pendulum has been studied for ages.
Theoretically speaking a simple pendulum, once set in motion, never comes to a stop in
presence of vacuum. One of the factors that slows down and eventually gets a simple
pendulum to a stop in presence of air is the resistance offered by the air. This resistance
in other terms is also knows as ?drag? and the forces causing this resistance are called
?drag forces?. The magnitude and direction of drag forces are dependent to a certain
extent on various parameters such as the type of material (co-efficient of drag) and
geometry of the object. The drag forces on any system can be easily resolved into forces
along the three dimensional axes for easy computations. One can approximate the drag
forces acting on standard shaped bodies from published data without any difficulty. In the
present day with the advancement of technology and the availability of computational
and analysis software packages, the study of drag forces or ?aero-dynamic drag forces?
and in turn their effect on the path taken by a cable in a towed system, can be easily
performed. In this work a study has been performed on a towed-tether (cable) system. A
piece of rope (tether) is towed at the top end in a circular pattern and a body of known
mass has been attached at the other end of this rope. One can expect drag forces, inertia
forces and gravity to be acting on this system. Interesting observations have been made in
2
terms of the path traveled by the attached body at the lower end of the tether, for various
angular velocities. The primary objective of this work is to identify and study the effect
of certain factors on the path traveled by the attached body by modeling and simulations.
1.1 Past and Present Research
Towed cable systems have been studied for several years because of the possible
applications they offer such as delivery and pickup of loads from remote locations. The
following describes/reviews some of the related literature.
The method of exchange of goods between a moving aircraft and people on the
ground was first patented by Chilowsky, [1] in the year 1931. This was the first
documented method to provide a means of communication between a moving aircraft and
the ground. A similar method with a detailed approach has been patented by Smith, [2] in
the year 1939 with the development of a hopper attached with a parachute for lowering it
in an upright position. Anderson [3] in 1942 patented his practical method and apparatus
for delivery and pickup of load by an aircraft in flight in a pre-determined path. Apart
from the characteristics of the load, various parameters such as drag, gravity, inertia,
speed, altitude, differences in tension cable were taken into account to determine the path
that needs to be followed. Nate Saint, a missionary pilot to Ecuador, was one of the first
persons to practically apply the concept behind ?towed cable systems? to delivery gifts to
the people of Ecuador [4].
3
Research has been done for several years considering the various aspects of the
towed cable concept. A brief summary of part of the research that has been done is
written in the following paragraphs.
Genin and Citron [5] studied the degree of coupling between longitudinal and
transverse modes of motion using a non-linear mathematical model of an extensible
(flexible) cable in a uniform flow field. The systems of equations used were hyperbolic
and the method of characteristics aided in obtaining the solutions for the system of
equations. The degree of coupling between the two modes of motion was evaluated by
examining and altering the associated coupling terms in the system of equations. The
longitudinal motion seems to be uncoupled from the transverse motion. The transverse
dynamic motion creates centripetal acceleration. The increase in centripetal acceleration
increases the magnitude of the longitudinal motion thereby stabilizing the system. The
effect of coupling, between the transverse and longitudinal modes of motion, caused by
tension was also studied. The authors suggested that the coupling effect of the tension
can be studied/ evaluated by examining the transverse motion without considering the
effect of centripetal acceleration. The authors also identified the presence of a closed
loop effect wherein the transverse motion affects the centripetal acceleration through the
tension which in turn affects the transverse motion.
4
Winget and Huston [6] discussed a three-dimensional non-linear finite element
dynamic model of a tether (cable/chain). The cable was divided into segments made up of
a series of links connected by ball and socket joints. The properties of each segment of
the cable such as size, shape, mass and also the number of segments chosen are arbitrary.
This model is assumed to have 3N+3 number of degrees of freedom where N indicates
the number of links. The authors, based on the governing equations of motion which were
numerically integrated using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method, developed a computer
code, which when provided with the required input data such as the number of links,
masses etc. In order to validate the accuracy of the developed code, a sample example of
an off-shore oil rig configuration has been simulated.
Russell and Anderson [7] studied a lumped mass model having two degrees of
freedom to understand the equilibrium and stability of a circularly towed cable. The
model consisted of an inextensible mass-less rod with a lumped mass attached to the end.
The model has also been evaluated to examine the effect of various types of drags such as
viscous drag and viscous drag with a cross-wind. To evaluate the effect of crosswinds
having a constant magnitude on the motion of the system, a linearized model has been
used. When the case of ?no-drag? was considered, all the drag-dependent terms were set
to zero and as a result the ?stiffness? and ?damping? matrix became symmetric and
purely gyroscopic respectively. When the gyroscopic effects were considered, a
stabilizing effect on the lower branch of the tip radius curve was seen and the instabilities
present prior to considering this effect changed forms from static to dynamic. For the
5
?viscous drag? effect, the appropriate system of equations chosen were called as coupled
transcendental equations and were in general difficult to solve. When the co-efficient of
viscous drag (non-dimensional co-efficient) was close to the critical co-efficient there
was a possibility of three non-linear jumps two of which occur when the 1) system jumps
from larger tip radius to smaller tip radius when the angular frequency was increased 2)
system jumps from a smaller tip radius to a larger tip radius when the angular frequency
was decreased and 3) the system jumps from a larger tip radius to a smaller one when the
angular frequency is decreased while the bar segment is assumed to be on the upper
portion of the stable curve.
Russell and Anderson [8] studied the equilibrium and stability of an elastic cable
whose top/upper end was towed in a horizontal plane at a constant velocity in a circular
path by using a finite element approach. The fluid/aerodynamic drag was mainly
composed of the tangential component and the normal component which are directly
proportional to the square of the respective velocity components. Newton-Raphson
method was used to solve the non-linear algebraic equations of motion. The major
assumptions made by the authors are that the co-efficient of drags in the normal and
tangential directions, density of the material and the diameter of the segment remain
constant over the entire length of each segment. The stability analysis was performed
based on the assumption of an infinitesimal motion about a given nonlinear equilibrium
position. The theoretical data obtained were in good agreement with that of the
6
experimental data. Per the authors a jump from one configuration to the other were
typically observed in non-linear spring-mass systems.
Leonard and Nath [9] studied the various differences/similarities between the
finite element methods and the lumped parameters method in regard to oceanic cables.
Several cases were considered to determine the effectiveness/ relative efficiencies of
either of the methods. Both the methods were compared in regard to the treatment of
force and mass distribution of a tethered system and also the stresses, dynamics and
kinematics that result. The parameters considered were topological considerations,
internal loads / inertial loads, external loads such as cable weight, buoyancy,
hydrodynamic inertia forces, and hydrodynamic drag. After each of the parameter was
studied, the authors concluded that FEM would provide a closer approximation to the
continuum approach if curved elements were used and either FEM or Lumped mass
approach would provide equivalent results if straight line elements were used. It was also
suggested that if the length of each segment or distance between the nodes was reduced,
the inaccuracies from not considering the true mass distribution, incase of the lumped
parameter approach, would be greatly reduced.
Zhu and Rahn [10] investigated the dynamic response of a circularly towed cable-
body system with fluid drag. The system considered included, about the steady state, a
non-linear and linear vibrational equations. The steady state equations were solved
7
numerically via a shooting technique and the vibrational equations were linearized and
discretized using a Galerkin?s method. The numerical results obtained indicated that the
stable single-valued solutions (Tip radius and verticality) for a given range of angular
velocities always existed for low rotational speeds whereas for high rotational speeds
with small drag and large end mass multi-valued steady-state solutions were found to
exist.
Jones and Krausman [11] studied a tethered aerostat?s response to turbulence and
other disturbances with the help of a computer program developed for nonlinear dynamic
simulation. Dynamic motion of a ballonet air, tether and six degrees of freedom of the
aerostat has been considered for the development in the theoretical model. The simulated
computer data has been compared with that of the experimental data obtained from a
series of instrumented flights with a 365 tethered aerostat. The aerodynamic forces and
moments for the theoretical model have been based on the experimentally determined
coefficients of drag using a rotating-arm tank. The tether has been modeled such that it
has finite number of straight elastic segments. Consecutive segments of tether were either
connected by universal joints or nodes at which the mass of each segment is
concentrated. The effect of tension and internal damping has been used in the
computation of the drag force. The aerodynamic drag forces on each segment of the
tether, cylindrical segment, are proportional to the square of the respective relative
velocities. The effect of turbulence has also been considered and for tethered flights
above an altitude of 2000 ft, the turbulence has been assumed to be isotropic. When the
8
experimental data was compared to the simulated data, it was found that there was a
reasonable match with certain exceptions. The exceptions were attributed to either the
inaccuracies in turbulence model or to the measuring/data transferring procedure. It was
also found that the experimental model was highly damped when compared to the
simulated model based on the tether tension excursions.
Nakagawa and Obata [12] studied the longitudinal stabilities in an aerial-towed
system which consisted of a rigid, symmetric towed body and a long flexible,
inextensible/inelastic cable with a circular cross-section. Lagrange?s equations, with the
approximation of finite degrees of freedom for the cable motion, were used for the
derivation of the governing equations of motion for the towed system. The motion of the
towed system was categorized into steady-state and perturbed motions based on an initial
consideration of the system moving in a steady state configuration. The aerodynamic
drag forces used in this work by the author were based under the assumption of cross-
flow principle, at sub-critical Reynolds numbers, according to Hoerner [13]. The
linearized equations of motion of the system were based on the assumption that the
perturbations of motion are small. The stability analysis of the system was evaluated for
different cases which include 1) straight cable configuration with two different towed
systems a) body and b) sphere; and 2) curved cable configuration with a towed body
system. The cable was assumed to have a uniform cross-section along its length and the
sphere was assumed to be made up of homogeneous material with only the aerodynamic
drag force acting on the sphere. Several diameters of the towed sphere were considered,
9
for the stability analysis of the towed sphere system, along with evaluation of the size
effect on the dynamics of the system. It was found that, for small diameters of the sphere,
all vibration modes were split into new modes called ?wave-down? and ?wave-up?
modes out of which some of the wave-down modes become unstable. This unstable
motion of the wave-down mode was called as the ?cable flutter?. For the towed system
case, the aerodynamic effects on the system dynamics have been studied for which the
stability derivatives are the most important characteristics in the evaluation of system
stability. The ?pitching? and ?pendulum? modes as identified by the author were
influenced by the stability derivatives. In case of the stability analysis of the curved cable
configuration, similar results as that of the towed system with straight cable configuration
were obtained except for the ?bowing? mode which becomes unstable. The unstable
motion of this mode was called as the ?bowing flutter?.
Etkin [14] developed a mathematical model in order to compute the stability of
towed bodies subjected to fluid-dynamic forces, efficiently. The developed model
consisted of a cable, flexible and elastic with internal damping, as a means of connecting
two bodies (towing body and towed body). When the model developed was applied to a
practical application such as the case of a pendant vehicle towed by a short cable attached
to an aircraft orbiting at a constant speed, inherent lateral instabilities were found to occur
(when cable was attached to the center of gravity of the towed body) for certain ranges of
aircraft speeds which were later eliminated by means of proper cable attachment (either
above or ahead of the center of gravity of the towed body). The longitudinal instabilities
10
were not discussed by the author for the example considered, in regard to the cable
attachment, as there were no noticeable instabilities.
Pai and Nayfeh [15] developed a full nonlinear cable model, which accounts for
the various cables models as special cases, based on energy approach. The model has also
taken into account the various factors such as the effect of static and dynamic loads,
Poisson?s effect on the cross-sectional area, geometric instabilities, compressibility,
material non-uniformities and initial sags. Per the authors linear couplings and non-linear
couplings, have been observed in the nonlinear equations of motion, as a result of the
initial sags and static loads, and due to Poisson?s effect and large deflections respectively.
Kanman and Huston [16] developed an algorithm to model the dynamics of both
towed and tethered cable systems. The algorithm accounts for both fixed and varying
lengths of the tether. Finite number of segments either rigid links or chains were used in
the model which were connected by friction less spherical joints. No assumption was
made indicating uniform/constant properties of each finite segment of the tether. The
mass of each segment has been assumed to be lumped at the end of each link segment.
The model was developed to account for tether towed in marine environment
(hydrodynamic effects). The external forces such as the drag, buoyancy and weight forces
on each and every link are the same for a finite segment with constant length. The
procedures developed/used for the theoretical model were coded into algorithms for a
11
FORTRAN program called DYNOCABS. The developed software had the capabilities of
solving open-loop, closed loop nonlinear dynamic analysis and steady-state open-loop
linear analysis. The closed-loop analysis would be of use, if used for testing the towed-
body autopilot designs.
Lambert and Nahon [17] conducted a dynamic analysis on a streamlined tethered
aerostat held to the ground using a single tether. The tether has been modeled based on a
lumped mass approach. Finite difference approach has been used to linearize the system
of equations. The stability of several longitudinal and transverse modes has been studied
with respect to varying wind speed and length of the tether. The continuous cable has
been discretized into smaller elements (straight elastic element) and the forces were
subjected to act at the end of each element of the discretized model. It was further
mentioned that the visco-elastic properties of the material is the cause of the internal
forces acting within each element. The tension caused inside the cable element has been
assumed / considered to act along the tangential direction. The external forces acting on
any given cable element were due to the aerodynamic drag and the gravity. The lowest
frequency modes out of the 33 modes have been studied and the higher frequency modes
have been neglected as they were not likely to obtain significant motions in the actual
system. The correlation of the behavior at the lower frequency modes were in good
agreement with that of the analytical predictions. The stability of the system also
improved with increase in wind speed to a certain value after which the stability
decreases to reach steady state with the exception of a lateral pendulum mode. The effect
12
of the length of the tether on all modes of stability has a similar effect of increasing
stability with increase in tether length again with the exception of the lateral pendulum
mode. The lateral pendulum mode, an exceptional case, has better stability with shorter
lengths at high speeds and longer lengths at low speeds.
Williams and Trivailo [18] studied the transitional dynamics of an aerial towed
system when the aircraft changes it flight from a straight to a circular path. The dynamics
of the system were modeled using a discretized approach. The performance of the system
under consideration was evaluated based on two cases 1) Transition of the aircraft with a
deployed cable from a straight to a circular path and 2) Deployment of the cable while the
aircraft is in a circular path. The study of the flight transition from straight to circular
path has been accomplished by means of a relatively simple variation in the tow point
velocity. It was found that the end of the cable became slack as a result of a traveling
wave along the length of the cable, caused by the transition of the flight from straight to
circular path for a known system parameters (aircraft circular path radius and speeds) that
would lead to optimal/desired system performance. The second case were the cable was
deployed while the aircraft is in a circular path seems to be a better alternative provided
the deployment of the cable has been achieved using a smaller rate. Two strategies were
considered for the cable deployment rate 1) Heuristic law (in which the rate of
deployment is high for most of part of deployment) and 2) Fuzzy logic control law.
When the cable is deployed at a larger rate, certain instabilities can be seen. These
13
instabilities were found to be significantly lowered if the cable deployment rate is
proportional to the length of the deployed cable.
Williams and Trivailo[19] studied the equilibrium and stability solutions for a
Towed Aerial system attached with a Wind-sock. The equilibrium configurations of the
system have been determined based on an inverse approach in combination with the
lumped parameter discretization of the cable being considered. In general for long cables
the drogue orbit radius is almost close to the center of the circular path taken by the
drogue. It was also observed that the drogue orbit radius becomes smaller if the towed
body had a higher drag to weight ratio (wind-sock). The approximate value of the co-
efficient of drag for this closed end wind-sock is approximated to be equivalent to 1.35,
by Hoerner [13], based on the projected/frontal area. Based on this observation, the
authors suggested that a high drag body/device (wind-sock) should be placed at an
optimal position between the two ends of the tether in order to achieve/obtain the lowest
orbit radius.
Paul Williams and Pavel Trivailo studied the transient dynamics of a twin aircraft
cable system using lumped parameter models for the simplicity and the relative ease of
applying the model for later equilibrium analysis and transient dynamic studies. The
advantage of the use of two aircraft for the pickup of a single payload is that the
components of tension in each of the cable are ideally balanced (nullified) thereby
14
ensuring that that payload is held at a near stationary position at the center of the circular
path. The original concept of the use of twin aircrafts for retrieving a payload was given
by Alabrune [21, 22]. The techniques/procedures required for the maneuvering two
aircrafts to lift the payload from the ground and for the ?tow-in? and ?tow-out?
maneuvers were discussed by Alabrune [21, 22] and proposed by Wilson [23]
respectively.
1.2 ADAMS
Adams is a multi-body dynamics software used to study and analyze the complex
behavior of mechanical assemblies. This software allows one to optimize the designs by
process called virtual prototyping. All of this can be done without the actual need to built
physical prototypes. The core ADAMS package consists of Adams/View, Adams/Solver
and Adams/Post-processor. The Adams/View is the module in which the
system/prototype can either be imported / designed. Applied forces, motions, stiffness,
etc can be given as inputs into the model using this module. Once the model is built, the
software checks the system for any modeling errors and then solves the simultaneous
system of equations using the Adams/Solver. The results of the solved model, is then
presented in the appropriate form such as plots, reports, etc. Extension modules of Adams
such as Controls can be used to analyze control systems such as hydraulics, pneumatics
15
1.3 Scope of Work
The research work mentioned above indicates that equilibrium and stability
analysis of the towed cable and aerostat system under consideration have been studied
and considered for various configurations and tether models. The tip radius and
verticality for a given range of angular velocities have been obtained based on the given
motion. The current work involves the use of an available computer package/software to
model and obtain the system response for a given range of angular speeds. The obtained
simulation results have been benchmarked to the published work in this field [8] to
validate the accuracy and appropriateness of the software model. After benchmarking the
model was exercised to expose the effects of parameter variations in drag, tether stiffness,
damping, combined stiffness and damping, tow radius and end mass. Results included
response plots versus speed, the presence or absence of jump phenomena, helical shaped
tether path and tether enveloped, including the presence of nodes at high speeds beyond
the jump. Since tethers are made of fabric structures and materials that have yet to be
tested, an experiment was setup. The experiment was used to correlate the simulation and
experimental results for tether like material with unknown co-efficient of drag. The effect
of certain parameters on the system under consideration has also been studied based on
the simulations and the results have been presented in chapter 4.
16
CHAPTER 2
FUNDAMENTAL MODEL
A fundamental model has been developed in order to study tether motion
using multi-body dynamics simulation software with equations modeling aerodynamic
drag forces. The tether is replaced with a multi-link model connected by spherical (ball)
joints, without major complexities associated with it. The model under consideration is
said to be accurate if either it can be correlated to published results, or by correlating
simulation and experimental results. Several researchers [7][8][10][11][12][14] have
worked on similar and not-so-similar. The work done by other researchers either involved
the development of computer-based simulation and models based on the specific systems
under consideration [11][16], or the theoretical evaluation of a given system of governing
equations [7][8][10]. The current work involves the use of an existing commercial
software package known as ADAMS [24] to automatically formulate the equations of
motion and to solve those equations numerically to determine the path taken by the tether
for various cases. All equation nonlinearities are accounted for in the software. Inertia
forces are automatically generated by the software, along with standard elements such as
linear springs and dampers. User-written functions and subroutines are accessible so that
complex applied forces such as aerodynamic drag can be incorporated into the model.
The equations that are required for this project include input motions and applied
17
aerodynamic drag forces that act along the entire length of the tether. Aerodynamic drag
forces depend on the type of material, cross-sectional area of the element and length of
the segment being considered. The model considered here consists of a discretization of
the tether into a series of rigid links connected by spherical joints. Simulation results
from this model compare favorably to those of other models (see chapter 3).
2.1 Design of Model/System
The Figure 2.1 shows the simple sketch of a tether-mass system. The top of a tether of
length ?L?, mass ?M?, diameter ?D? and weight per unit length ?W? is attached to the
towing link and the bottom is attached with a concentrated end mass also called a
?drogue? (optional).
Figure 2.1: Simple Tether Mass System
18
The towing link is pinned to the ground and rotates about this position at a pre-
defined constant speed. The path being taken by the top of the tether attached to a towing
link and the mass being towed are represented by the two circles above and below
respectively. ?Rt? represents the radius of the path taken by the towing member. ?Rd?
represents the radius of the path taken by the drogue attached at the bottom. The vertical
distance between the two ends of the tether is represented by the height h and is termed
?Verticality? as pointed out by Zhu [10].
The parameter with the greatest variation in this model is the aerodynamic drag
coefficient CD. The aerodynamic drag forces are calculated for a cylinder by the
following formula based on Morison?s equation:
F = 0.5 * C * d* (VWIND-VCYLINDER) ^2
Where,
d ? Diameter of the cylinder
VWIND ? Velocity of wind
VCYLINDER ? Velocity of cylinder
C - Co-efficient of drag
? ? Angle of attack
? = 90- ?
19
The co-efficient of drag for an inclined cylinder, in the normal and tangential
directions below the Reynolds number below the critical number, is given by Hoerner
[13].
Figure 2.2: Hoerner?s Cross-Flow Principle
The Figure 2.2 shows the cross-flow principle and the associated formulae are shown
below.
CN = CD-BASIC * (sin2?)
CL = CD-BASIC * (sin (?) * cos2 (?))
CD = CD-BASIC * (sin3?)
Where,
CD-BASIC - Coefficient of Drag based on material properties
CD - Coefficient of Drag
20
CN - Coefficient of drag in the normal direction
CL - Coefficient of drag (lift)
The above mentioned formulae were not used; instead a constant value for the coefficient
of drag in the normal direction has been used in the simulations. The coefficient of
drag(lift) has been neglected (since ? = 0).
The aerodynamic forces are directly proportional to the square of the relative
velocity components of the segment (equation 2.1). The aerodynamic drag forces acting
on each segment of the tether can be resolved into two components of force, namely
normal force and tangential force. The normal component of the drag force FN acts in the
normal direction (perpendicular to the length of the tether) and the tangential component
of the drag force FT acts in the tangential direction (along the segment of the tether) as
shown in the Figure 2.3. These forces can further be resolved and combined along the
three dimensional axes system as shown below:
FX = FN-X + FT-X (2.2)
FY = FN-Y + FT-Y (2.3)
FZ = FN-Z + FT-Z (2.4)
Where,
FN ? Normal component of Drag Force
FT ? Tangential component of Drag Force
21
FX ? Combined X component of Normal and Tangential drag forces
FY ? Combined Y component of Normal and Tangential drag forces
FZ ? Combined Z component of Normal and Tangential drag forces
Figure 2.3: Resolution of Forces
Other researchers neglected the tangential component of the drag force, and
justified this based on experimental results and the fact that it very small relative to the
normal component [10]. This assumption was also used here, although it is by no means
necessary. It is by means of the interaction between the various forces acting on the
tether system (such as aerodynamic drag forces, inertia force, forces due to gravity and
input motions from the towing link) that the overall motion can be calculated, graphed
and animated for system analysis.
22
The model is developed in ADAMS using the basic elements such as links,
spherical joints, cylinders and unidirectional applied forces. The advantage of using
ADAMS is that it automatically calculates inertial and joints forces. The entire tether has
been modeled with finite number of rigid and inelastic elements (cylinders), connected by
spherical joints. Hence the tether is broken up into smaller segments to achieve better
results as shown in Figure 2.4. The accuracy of the results will depend upon the number
of finite links the tether is divided into. The mass moment of inertia of the associated
segment of the tether is small and is calculated by ADAMS based on the shape and
dimensions of the link. In anticipation of future elastic (spring-mass) modeling of this
tether system as shown in Figure 2.5, the drag forces have been transferred to act at the
ends of each segment instead of acting at the center of mass. Therefore three forces act at
the end of each segment. These are the X, Y, Z components of the drag force acting in the
X, Y and Z directions respectively.
At the moment, there is no external cross-wind blowing acting on/against the
tether, hence only the absolute velocity will used for determining the drag forces. When
cross-flow is present, the relative velocity of the tether with respect to the cross-wind
velocity must be used in the drag force calculation (equation 2.1). The wind force,
generated as a result of the angular motion of towing member and acting on the tether is
due to the motion of the tether and is always opposite to the direction of motion.
23
Figure 2.4: Original Model and Discretized Model at Stationary Position
Figure 2.5: Differences between Types of Modeling
24
The 2-D drawing of the discretized model developed is shown in the Figures 2.6a and b.
The drag forces along the three directions are given by the following equations
(0.5) ^ 2Fx density c A Vx= ? ? ? ? ? (2.5)
(0.5) ^ 2Fy density c A Vy= ? ? ? ? ? (2.6)
(0.5) ^ 2Fz density c A Vz= ? ? ? ? ? (2.7)
Where,
A = Frontal Drag surface area
c = Co-efficient of Drag in the normal direction = 1.2
V = Velocity of the segment
density = Density of air = 43.40277778E-06 Lb-mass/inch^3
25
a) Z-Y View of the Model b) X-Y View of the Model
Figure 2.6: Views of the Model
The above formulae will be modified to include the normal and tangential components of
force while being fed into ADAMS. It has been assumed that the diameter of the thread
(tether) does not deform diametrically in this case and hence
D d* ? (2.8)
Where,
D* = deformed diameter of the tether
d = diameter if the tether
26
2.2 Calculations
The factor that has been given utmost importance is the drag forces acting at the
ends of each segment. The drag force formulae are fed into the unidirectional force
module using the function builder in ADAMS/VIEW. The symbolic form of the drag
forces that would be fed into ADAMS is given below
2(0.5 / 386) * * * *F density A c V= ? Lb-Force (2.9)
Where,
A = d * L
L = length of the segment (finite element length) = 5.15 inch, [8]
The presence of a factor (1/386) in equation 2.9 is to ensure the resultant force obtained
from the equation has a unit in Lb- force. For simplicity, the finite number of links is
limited to 5 and hence there would be 5 Parts/segments.
A typical drag force in the X, Y and Z direction that would be fed into the
software is shown below for the first segment:
2 2 2
Fx = (-0.5*(43.40277778E-06/386)*(0.0185*5.15))*
*( (VX(PART_3.cm)) + (VY(PART_3.cm)) (VZ(PART_3.cm)) *
*(1.2*VX(PART_3.cm))
+ (2.10)
27
2 2 2
Fy = (-0.5*(43.40277778E-06/386)*(0.0185*5.15))*
*( (VX(PART_3.cm)) + (VY(PART_3.cm)) (VZ(PART_3.cm)) *
*(1.2*VX(PART_3.cm))
+ (2.11)
2 2 2
Fz = (-0.5*(43.40277778E-06/386)*(0.0185*5.15))*
*( (VX(PART_3.cm)) + (VY(PART_3.cm)) (VZ(PART_3.cm)) *
*(1.2*VZ(PART_3.cm))
+ (2.12)
Where,
VX (PART_3.cm) = X-direction Velocity of the center of mass marker of Part 3
VY (PART_3.cm) = Y-direction Velocity of the center of mass marker of Part 3
VZ (PART_3.cm) = Z-direction Velocity of the center of mass marker of Part 3
?Part 3? represented in the above formula corresponds to the first segment of the
discretized tether.
28
CHAPTER 3
MODELING, SIMULATION AND BENCHMARKING
The chapter explains the assumptions made, modeling procedure and correlation
of the data obtained from the model with the data obtained from published work [8].
3.1 Assumptions made in Modeling
? No external cross-wind induced forces are acting on the system
? The system can be modeled by a combination of rigid links and spherical joints,
implying that the tether will not stretch significantly.
? Coefficient of Drag forces acting on the tether(cylinder) is based on the cross-
flow principle [13]
? Tangential component of the drag force has been neglected
3.2 Modeling
ADAMS/View is the software module that is used to graphically display the
motion the tether takes during the course of the analysis for various towing speeds. The
shape the tether takes can be verified with experimental data provided the modeling is
29
sufficiently detailed and the parameter values used in the analytical model match with
those in the experiment.
The model developed in ADAMS consists of the following essential components
namely
1) Tow Link analogous to an aircraft (example)
2) Cylindrical shaped links analogous to a tether
3) A spherically-shaped link to model the drogue
4) Spherical Joints
5) Revolute Joint
6) Motion Statement at the top of revolute joint
7) Drag Forces
Numerical data for this analytical model has been taken from published data used
in an experiment [8] so that this model can be compared with that of an existing
analytically developed model. The discretized ADAMS model showing all the above
mentioned elements is shown in Figure 3.1
30
Figure 3.1: Discretized ADAMS Model
31
3.2.1 Tow Link
The Tow link is the component used for simulating the motion, for example an
aircraft moving in a circle. The length of this link is considered to be the tow radius
(?Rt?) with which the entire system has been modeled. For practical applications
involving delivery or pickup of objects [3][4] using an aircraft, the tow radius depends on
the minimum circular path that an aircraft takes. In this case the tow radius would be in
order of several 100 ft. Such large amounts of tow radius would be highly difficult to be
achieved in a laboratory environment. Hence the values of tow radius chosen for the
models are chosen relatively small, to obtain a correlation between the simulation and
experimental data. Most existing research work done by authors mentioned in Chapter
1(Past and present research) have non-dimensionalized their work. This work has not
been non-dimensionalized as one of the main objectives of this work is to validate the
ADAMS model with that existing work. The link is fixed at one end to the ground in
ADAMS with a revolute joint. This revolute joint is given a motion statement so that the
link rotates about this fixed joint with the chosen angular velocity. The weight and width
of the link have no effect on the simulation results and hence are irrelevant.
3.2.2 Cylinder
Cylindrical links are used to represent the tether. The entire length of the tether
(L) is equally divided into 5 equal segments. The following data [8], (obtained from the
experimental setup) has been used to model the cylindrical segments analogous to the
32
section of the tether. The mass of each segment depends on the length of the segment
being considered and is uniformly distributed.
Length of tether = 25.75 inch
Radius of tether = 0.0185 inch
No of elements to divided into = 5
Weight of the tether = 9.697020833 E-5 lb
Density of tether = 1.4009665 Lb-m/(inch^3)
3.2.3 Sphere
A Spherical element has been used to model the light weight drogue attached at
the bottom of the tether. This drogue can also be considered as the weight that has to be
dropped or picked up at a stationary location on the ground as discussed in [xx]. The
following values [8] have been used to model a sphere.
Diameter = 0.148 inch
Weight = 9.921 E-05 lb
3.2.4 Spherical Joints
In general, a tether is flexible and bending along the length of the tether is
expected. A spherical joint between the smaller segments allows for this bending. These
33
spherical joints allow only rotational degrees of freedom at the joints which can be
considered to account for the flexible nature or any tether.
3.2.5 Revolute Joint
A revolute joint is used to connect the link element to the ground, apart from
allowing the required rotatory motion at the joint. The direction of this revolute joint
depends on the desired axis of rotation about which the link should rotate. A motion
statement is given to this revolute joint to create the required motion about this joint
3.2.6 Motion Statement
A motion statement is a function / formula added to generate the required motion
(angular motion) at the relevant joint. A motion statement can be applied to any joint. In
this model it has been applied to the revolute joint connected between the ground and one
end of the link. This motion provides the required rotating motion (speed) for the link.
A constant value can be used to generate a constant motion. A varying function
(like STEP, figure 3.2) is used to create a smooth curve and can also be used to
constantly vary the speed based on the parameters used in the function. A varying
parameter is used for modeling purposes as it can vary the speed constantly based on the
input data and can also help in generating transient and instability state results which will
34
be discussed later. The motion statement (angular motion of the towing member based
on displacement) used for this model is given by the formula
STEP (TIME, 0, 0, 2000, 15)*TIME
Angular motion based on velocity is given by:
STEP(TIME,0,0,2000,15)
Figure 3.2: Step Function Curve
Step Function
A Step function is used to smooth out the output of any given function such as
drag forces and motion statements.
The syntax for a STEP FUNCTION in ADAMS is
STEP (Parameter, x0, h0, x1, h1)
35
Where,
?Parameter? is the factor associated to the points x0 and x1. In this model the parameter
is the time.
3.2.7 Drag Forces
The drag force is susceptible to the uncertainty in the drag coefficient and
variations in cross-sectional area of the tether. If these forces are not properly modeled,
differences between experiment and simulated solution can be large. The simulation data
from this model has been verified with that of published data [8] to ensure that the drag
forces are appropriately modeled. The drag forces, in general, would be modeled such
that they act at the center of mass of any link. But in this model they are modeled such
that they act at the end of the link. The length of each segment is considered to be small
and also considering the future discretization of the tether using spring-mass (elastic
modeling) as shown in Figure 2.5, the drag forces are modeled to act at the end of each
segment. The drag forces are applied at each end of the section along the three-axis X, Y
and Z. The forces along X and Z are responsible for the tip radius at the drogue end. The
force along Y is responsible for the lift (verticality) of the drogue.
Example of the Drag force in the X-direction, used in this model (incorporating the step
function) is
2 2 2
Fx = STEP(time,0,0,1,1)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-06/386)*(Tether_Length*Tether_Radius))*
*( (VX(PART_3.cm)) + (VY(PART_3.cm)) (VZ(PART_3.cm)) *
*(1.2*VX(PART_3.cm))
+
36
The above formula is the normal component of the drag force acting, at the end of
the segment, along the X direction. The terms ?1.2 * VX (PART_3.cm) is the factor
accounting the normal component where 1.2 is the co-efficient of drag in the normal
direction. The formula for accounting either the normal or the tangential component of
the drag force is the almost the same. Similarly the formula of drag force in the Y and Z
directions are given below
2 2 2
Fy = STEP(time,0,0,1,1)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-06/386)*(Tether_Length*Tether_Radius))*
*( (VX(PART_3.cm)) + (VY(PART_3.cm)) (VZ(PART_3.cm)) *
*(1.2*VY(PART_3.cm))
+
2 2 2
Fz = STEP(time,0,0,1,1)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-06/386)*(Tether_Length*Tether_Radius))*
*( (VX(PART_3.cm)) + (VY(PART_3.cm)) (VZ(PART_3.cm)) *
*(1.2*VZ(PART_3.cm))
+
Different views of the ADAMS model built, at stationary position, are shown in Figure
3.3.
37
Figure 3.3: System at Stationary Position
3.3 Simulation for Preliminary Model Validation/Correlation
Modeling without validation cannot be used for further analysis of the system, under
consideration. In order to validate the ADAMS model, the model has to be compared
with that of the data from a similar work. In order to compare the current work with past
work, the following data has been obtained from the experimental procedure [8], and will
be used for validating the ADAMS model developed.
D = Diameter of the Tether = 0.0185 inch
d = Diameter of the Drogue = 0.148 inch
L = Length of the Tether = 25.75 inch
38
W = Weight of the Silk Thread = 4.519 E -05 Lb/ft
M = Mass of Drogue = 9.921 E -05 Lb
Rt = Tow radius = 9 inch
In order to validate the accuracy of the ADAMS model, the model has been
simulated (based on the data listed above) and outputs have been verified with the model
under consideration. The parameters that were compared are the ?End Mass (Drogue)
Path (Tip) Radius and Verticality?. The dependence of the tip radius (end mass path
radius) on the angular velocity of the towing member is discussed in the next section. The
results obtained by simulating the ADAMS modeled for different parameters have been
discussed in detail in the next chapter.
3.3.1 Tip Radius and Angular Velocity
The radius of the path the drogue follows is known as the tip radius. The tip
radius depends on the angular velocity of the towing member, in this model the towing
member is the link. ADAMS/VIEW plots the angular velocity of the link and the tip
radius with respect to time and later the time factor can be removed to obtain a plot
between tip radius and angular velocity. The graph (Figure 3.4) shows the dependence of
Tip Radius on the angular velocity without any damping, using a motion statement that
defines a slow increase in angular velocity. The motion statement used is given below.
From the graph it can be inferred that the tip radius increases steadily with angular
39
velocity until it reaches a point where the tip radius changes rapidly as a result of
instability. After the zone of instability, the tip radius decreases slowly.
Motion Statement = STEP(time,0,0,2000,15)*time
Tip Radius
0.000
5.000
10.000
15.000
20.000
25.000
0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 12.000 14.000 16.000
Angular Velocity
Tip
R
ad
ius
Tip Radius
Figure 3.4: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity Curve generated by ADAMS
3.3.2 Comparison of the ADAMS Model Response with Published Data
In order to compare the data obtained from published research [8] to that of the
data generated using ADAMS, slight change in the motion statement has been made. For
this comparison, the ADAMS model has been simulated at a constant angular velocity
instead of a uniformly increasing angular velocity. The velocity at which the model has
40
been simulated is based on the data, mentioned above. The data (Tip Radius and
Verticality) obtained has been plotted with respect to angular velocity and the resultant
plots have been compared. The simulation data and the published data to which the
results have been compared are shown in Tables 3.2 - 3.4 in the Appendix.
Figure 3.5: Comparison of Tip Radius; ADAMS Data with Published Results
Figure 3.5 shows the plot comparing the Tip radius of the published research [8]
and the ADAMS generated simulation data. It can be seen that there is a good agreement
between the two sets of data. The tip radius, in general for both curves, increases with
increase in angular velocity for the first section of the plot and for the second section of
the plot the tip radius decreases with increase in angular velocity.
TIP RADIUS COMPARISION
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15
Angular Velocity (rad/sec)
Tip
R
ad
ius
(in
ch
)
Reference [8] Results
ADAMS RESULTS
41
Figure 3.6: Comparison of Verticality; ADAMS Data with Published Results
In Figure 3.6 the verticality plot of the two sets of data has been plotted for
comparison. The reference position for the verticality measurement, for these curves, is
taken at the end of the tow member. The plot indicates that the verticality data of the two
plots are in agreement. From the plot it can be inferred that the verticality (elevation from
the ground) increases with increase in angular velocity, reaches a highest position, after
which the verticality starts to decrease and until a near constant value has been attained.
The above graphs (verticality and tip radius) and tables (Appendix-A) clearly indicate
that the developed ADAMS model is accurate.
VERTICALITY COMPARISON
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00
Angular Velocity (rad/s)
Ve
rti
ca
lity
(in
ch
)
ADAMS
Reference [8]
42
3.4 Superposition in ADAMS Model
The ADAMS model has been used to obtain the superposition data of the tether
for various angular velocities. Superposition data gives an approximate idea about the
pattern traced by the tether. The following figures 3.12-3.15, shows the superposition
images. The images in figures 3.12 and 3.13 are before the jump (zone on instability) and
the two images shown in figures 3.14-3.15 are the superposition images after the jump.
One interesting results is the presence of a ?node? occurring at speeds after the jump.
43
a) Front View
b) Top View
c) Isometric View
Figure 3.12: Superposition Screen Shot: Angular Velocity 4.82- 4.94rad/s
44
a) Front View
b) Top View
c) Isometric View
Figure 3.13: Super Position Screen Shot: Angular Velocity 7.03-7.14 rad/s
45
a) Front View
b) Top View
c) Isometric View
Figure 3.14: Super Position Screen Shot: Angular Velocity 9.42-9.51 rad/s
46
a) Front View
b) Top View
d) Isometric View
Figure 3.15: Super position Screen shot; Angular Velocity 11.91-12.02 rad/s
47
CHAPTER 4
NUMERICAL RESULTS
The effects of certain known parameters, on the shape/pattern (Tip Radius
and Verticality) exhibited by the tether are discussed in this chapter. In order to study the
effect of the parameters, each of these has been modified and in turn the effect of the
modification has been evaluated. The following section describes the parameters that
would be changed and whose effect on the system will be analyzed.
4.1 Simulation Parameters
Simulations were run to determine the effect of the following parameters on the
pattern taken by the tether
1) Damping/Stiffness
2) Mass of the drogue
3) No of Segments
4) Tow radius
48
4.1.1 Damping/Stiffness
Damping is very important in order to damp out most unwanted oscillations. The
segments tend to oscillate about the joint connecting one another and hence to reduce the
oscillations at the joints bushings (shown in figure) have been used. The stiffness is a
material property.
Figure 4.1: Screen-Shot showing Bushing Element
A bushing element [24] applies a linear force/torque that represents the
forces/torques acting between two parts over a distance, in directly applying forces to
create the appropriate amount of damping and stiffness. This element applies both forces
and torques along the three-dimension axis. The amount of damping and stiffness
49
required in the model can be achieved based on the appropriate input values for the
damping and stiffness values in the translational and rotational directions. One can define
the forces and torques using six components (FX, FY, FZ, TX, TY, and TZ).
FX = KX * Xx (4.1)
FY = KY * Yy (4.2)
FZ = KY * Zz (4.3)
TX = RX * Ax (4.4)
TY = RY * Ay (4.5)
TZ = RY * Az (4.6)
Where,
FX, FY, FZ ? Forces acting along the three dimensional axis X, Y, Z
TX, TY, TZ ? Torques acting along the three dimensional axis X, Y, Z
Xx, Yy, Zz ? Bushing deformation
Ax, Ay Az ? Projected small angle of rotational displacement
KX, KY, KZ ? Stiffness along the three dimensional axis X, Y, Z
Different damping and stiffness values, for bushings, have been considered and
here we study the affect of damping, stiffness and a combination of both (based on a
constant stiffness-damping-ratio). The model has been simulated initially without any
50
damping medium and later the bushings have been activated to analyze the effect of
different damping /stiffness values.
Other Damping Medium
The other damping medium that can be used to add damping to the model is the
Frictional Damping, which has not been considered in this work.
4.1.2 Mass of Drogue
The Mass of drogue attached at the bottom of the tether has a major effect on the
path the tether takes. The mass of the attached body has been modified and the effect of
this modification has been discussed.
4.1.3 No of Segments
The number of links will have an effect on the accuracy of the simulation data
generated to a certain extent depending on the length of each segment. The tether, in this
model, has been modeled to have 5 segments/links. The reason for discretizing the model
to contain the above mentioned number of segments is due to the agreement of the
simulation data with published work [8]. The effect of increase in the number of links has
not been considered as a result of good correlation between the Adams model and the
published data [8].
51
4.1.4 Tow radius
The distance between the fixed end of the link and the end attached to the tether is
known as the tow radius in the model. The tow radius of the system has been modified to
study the effect of varying tow radius on the system?s output parameters (Tip radius and
Verticality), while maintaining the other parameters as a constant.
4.2 Simulation Results
In chapter 3 the accuracy of the simulation model has been validated by
comparing the simulation results with that of the published data similar to the current
work. Knowing that the model is accurate, the effect of certain parameters listed in
section 4.1 such as attached end mass, damping and tow radius on the tip radius and
verticality have been discussed in this section. In order to observe response over wide
range of speeds on the tip radius and the verticality, a motion statement defining a slowly
increasing velocity in time has been created with a step function. As discussed above a
step function creates a smooth transition between values which have a large
difference/range. The slope of the step function depends on the parameters used(X0, X1,
H0, H1). If the difference between the X0 and X1 is large and the difference between the
H0 and H1 is small then the step function creates a curve with a lower slope. This curve
ensures that the rate of increase in the angular speed is small. For most simulations the
following step function has been used
STEP (TIME, 0, 2000, 0, 15)
52
It is also desired to have an idea about the path in which the ?attached mass? travels,
when the end of the towing member takes a circular pattern.
4.2.1 Effect of Damping / Stiffness
The effect of damping/stiffness has been studied by varying the
?damping/stiffness values? associated with the bushing damping. The tip radius and
verticality of the end mass for various cases (varying damping, varying stiffness and
varying stiffness and damping) have been determined and plotted as shown in the
following sections
4.2.1.1 Effect of Zero Stiffness-Varying Damping
The effect of varying damping based on a constant stiffness in the bushing has
been studied in this section. The plots of Tip radius and verticality with respect to
Angular velocity have been discussed below
53
Table 4.1: Damping Values-Zero Stiffness
Zero Stiffness- Varying damping
Series Damping Values (N-mm-sec/deg) Stiffness value (N-mm/deg)
Series ? 1 0.0000010 0
Series ? 2 0.0000050 0
Series ? 3 0.0000100 0
Series ? 4 0.0000150 0
Series ? 5 0.0000200 0
Series ? 6 0.0001000 0
Series ? 7 0.0002000 0
4.2.1.1.1 Effect of Damping on Verticality
The graphs in Figure 4.2, shows the effect of bushing damping on the verticality
of the end mass. The plots have been generated using 8 different damping values as
shown in the above table.
54
Verticality Vs Angular Velocity- Zero Stiffness- Varying Damping
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00
Angular Velocity (Rad/s)
Ve
rti
ca
lity
(In
ch
)
Series-0 (No damping)
Series-1
Series-2
Series-3
Series-4
Series-5
Series-6
Series-7
Figure 4.2: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity: Varying Damping-Zero Stiffness
The graph shown in Figure 4.2, shows that the plots for various damping values
overlap on each other indicating that the verticality is not affected by the change in the
damping values(with zero bushing stiffness) being considered. This indicates that a speed
steady-state conditions has been achieved at each speed, where the joint angle is not
changing in time hence no damping torques are present to affect the motion.
4.2.1.1.2 Effect of Damping on Tip Radius
The graphs in Figure 4.3, shows the effect of bushing damping on the tip radius of
the end mass. The plots have been generated using 8 different damping values as shown
in the above table.
55
Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity -Zero Stiffness-Varying Damping
No Damping
Damping-1
0.000
5.000
10.000
15.000
20.000
25.000
0.000 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000 7.000 8.000 9.000 10.000
Angular Velocity
Tip
R
ad
ius
No Damping
Damping-1
Damping-2
Damping-3
Damping-4
Damping-5
Damping-6
Damping-7
Figure 4.3: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity: Varying Damping-Zero Stiffness
The graph shown in Figure 4.3, shows that the plots for various damping values
overlap on each other indicating that the tip radius is not affected by the change in the
damping values(with zero bushing stiffness) being considered.
4.2.1.2 Effect of Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping
The effect of varying damping based on a constant stiffness in the bushing has
been studied in this section. The plots of Tip radius and verticality with respect to
Angular velocity have been discussed below.
56
Table 4.2: Stiffness Values-Constant Damping
Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping
Series
Stiffness Value
(N-mm-sec/deg)
Damping Value
(N-mm/deg)
Series ? 1 0.000001 0.000001
Series ? 2 0.000010 0.000001
Series ? 3 0.000050 0.000001
Series ? 4 0.000080 0.000001
Series ? 5 0.000100 0.000001
Series ? 6 0.000120 0.000001
Series ? 7 0.000500 0.000001
4.2.1.2.1 Effect of Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping on Verticality
The verticality plot versus angular velocity is shown in Figure 4.4. It can be seen
from the plot in the below figure, that the curves associated with ?Series -1, and 2?
overlap on each other. Similar is the case with curves ?Stiffness -3 and 7?. For Stiffness
curves 4-6, as the stiffness values are increased, the jump phenomenon observed in the
respective curves shifts towards higher angular velocities.
57
Verticality vs Angular Velocity, Varying Bush Stiffness-Constant damping
Series-1
Series-2
Series-3
Series-4
Series-5
Series-6
Series-7
0.0000
2.0000
4.0000
6.0000
8.0000
10.0000
12.0000
14.0000
16.0000
18.0000
0.0000 2.0000 4.0000 6.0000 8.0000 10.0000 12.0000
Angular Velocity (Rad/s)
Ve
rti
ca
lity
(In
ch
) Series-1
Series-2
Series-3
Series-4
Series-5
Series-6
Series-7
Figure 4.4: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity: Varying Stiffness - Constant Damping
4.2.1.2.2 Effect of Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping on Tip Radius
The plot of tip radius versus angular velocity is shown in Figure 4.5. It can be
seen from the plot shown in the below figure, that the curves associated with ?Series 1, 3
and 7? overlap on each other. For curves associated with series 4-6, as the stiffness values
are increased, the jump phenomenon observed in the respective curves shifts towards
higher angular velocities. An exception to this trend can be seen in curve associated with
?Series 2 and 3?. It can be expected that in general the jump phenomenon increases with
increase in stiffness but for the plot associated with ?Series-7?, the jump region (zone of
58
instability) shifts towards lower angular velocities instead of shifting towards higher
angular velocities.
Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity, Varying Bush Stiffness-Constant Damping
Series-1
Series-2
Series-3 Series-4
Series-5
Series-6
Series -7
0.0000
5.0000
10.0000
15.0000
20.0000
25.0000
0.0000 2.0000 4.0000 6.0000 8.0000 10.0000 12.0000
Angular Velocity (Rad/s)
Tip
R
ad
ius
(In
ch
) Series-1
Series-2
Series-3
Series-4
Series-5
Series-6
Series -7
Figure 4.5: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity: Varying Stiffness-Constant Damping
4.2.1.3 Effect of Varying Stiffness and Damping
The effect of varying damping and stiffness in the bushing has been studied in this
section. The plots of Tip radius and verticality with respect to Angular velocity have been
discussed below.
59
Table 4.3: Damping and Stiffness Values
Varying Stiffness- Varying damping
Series
Damping Value
(N-mm-sec/deg)
Stiffness Value
(N-mm/deg)
Series ? 0 0 0
Series ? 1 1.00E-06 1.00E-07
Series ? 2 1.00E-05 1.00E-06
Series ? 3 1.00E-04 1.00E-05
Series ? 4 1.00E-03 1.00E-04
Series ? 5 1.00E-02 1.00E-03
4.2.1.3.1 Effect of Damping/Stiffness on Verticality
The graph in Figure 4.6 shows the effect of bushing damping and stiffness on the
verticality of the end mass. The plots have been generated using five different damping
and stiffness values and have been compared with a ?no damping and stiffness? (Series-
0) plot as shown in the above table.
In general from any plot (Verticality Vs Angular Velocity) the verticality
increases with increase in angular velocity, reaches a highest point after which the
verticality rapidly attains a lower value (zone of instability). Further, as the angular
velocity increases after the zone of instability (?Jump?), the verticality of the attached
masses starts to increase.
60
It can be inferred from the plot (Figure 4.6) that the verticality, in general,
increases with increase in damping and stiffness values. Also, as the damping and
stiffness values are increased the zone of instability (?Jump?) is shifted towards higher
angular velocities and eventually the zone of instabilities does not exist for curves
associated with higher damping and stiffness values (Series -4 and Series-5). Curves
associated with ?Series-1?, and ?Series-0? overlap on each other as the value of damping
and stiffness chosen for ?Series-1? is almost close to zero (1.0e-005 and 1.0E-006
respectively). Similarly the curves associated with ?Series-4? and ?Series-5? overlap on
each other indicating that the value of damping and stiffness might not have an affect
after a certain point.
Verticality vs Angular Velocity
-5.00000
0.00000
5.00000
10.00000
15.00000
20.00000
0.00000 2.00000 4.00000 6.00000 8.00000 10.00000 12.00000 14.00000 16.00000
Angular Velocity
Ve
rti
ca
lity
Series-0
Series-1
Series-2
Series-3
Series-4
Series-5
Figure 4.6: Plot of Verticality Vs Angular Velocity: Various Damping and Stiffness
Values
61
4.2.1.3.2 Effect of Damping on the Tip Radius
The Figure 4.7 shows, effect of damping and stiffness on the tip radius of the end
mass (drogue or attached mass) for varying angular velocities. The graph has 6 series of
damping and stiffness curves which also include a ?no damping and stiffness? curve for
reference comparison.
Conclusions similar to that of the verticality plots can be made for the tip radius
curves. As the damping and stiffness values are increased, in figure 4.8, the zone of
instabilities(?Jump?) in the tip radius curve are shifted towards higher angular velocities
and eventually the zone of instability cannot be seen for higher damping and stiffness
values (Series-3, 4, 5). The rate of increase in tip radius for ?Series-3? curve increases
steadily with increase in angular velocity whereas for ?Series - 4?, and ?Series-5? curves
the rate of increase in tip radius is very high for lower angular velocities and the rate of
increase, decreases with increase in angular velocity and eventually at every high speeds
it can be seen that the verticality starts to decrease.
For all the above plotted series, the end-mass follows almost a circular pattern
without major deviations as shown in the Figure 4.8 (path taken by end mass-without any
damping and stiffness), for angular velocities below 0.225 rad/sec.
62
Tip Radius vs Angular Velocity
-5.00000
0.00000
5.00000
10.00000
15.00000
20.00000
25.00000
0.00000 2.00000 4.00000 6.00000 8.00000 10.00000 12.00000 14.00000 16.00000
Angular Velocity
Tip
R
ad
ius
Series-0
Series-1
Series-2
Series-3
Series-4
Series-5
Figure 4.7: Plot of Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity: Various Damping and Stiffness
Values
Path Travelled by End Mass for Angular velocity 0-0.225 rad/s
-10.00
-8.00
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
-10.000 -8.000 -6.000 -4.000 -2.000 0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10.000
No Damping
Figure 4.8: Path Taken by End Mass: Angular Velocities less than 0.225 rad/s
No Damping and Stiffness
63
Path Taken at Angular Velocity 8.30-8.34 rad/sec
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
-6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00
No Damping- Angular Velocity 8.30-8.34
Figure 4.9: Path Taken by End Mass: Angular Velocities less than 8.30-8.34 rad/s-
No Damping
For angular velocities between 8.30 -8.34 rad/ sec, the path traveled by the end
mass is shown in Figure 4.9. It can be seen from both the figures that the path traveled is
almost a circular pattern and that the center of the circular path followed by the end mass
is at the origin.
4.2.2 Effect of End Mass
The mass of the attached ?End Mass? has been modified with respect to the other
parameters in the system and the effect on the Tip radius and Verticality has been plotted.
The reason for considering this type of effect is based on applications such as delivery
and pickup of different masses. It should be noted that there is no damping medium
64
included in this and so stable circular paths need not be achieved for all runs. A factor
called ?Mass ratio? has been defined as
mass/ weight of the attached bodyMass ratio (Mm) mass/weight of the tether=
The plots of the tip radius and verticality versus angular velocities, and the path taken by
the end mass (attached body or drogue) are shown in the following figures.
4.2.2.1 Effect of End Mass on the Tip Radius
Figure 4.10 shows the plots (Tip radius) for the various mass ratios (Mm). In
general the tip radius increases with increase in angular velocity, reaches a maximum
value and after which it starts to decrease. The zone of instability occurs for all the mass
ratios except for mass ratio equals 0.5. Even after the zone of instability the tip radius
decreases. The curves associated with Mass ratios 0.75 and mass ratios 1.1 overlap over
each other.
65
Tip Radius for end body-Mass Ratio 0.5
Mass Ratio 0.5
Mass ratio 0.75
Mass Rato 1.023
Mass ratio 1.1
0.000
5.000
10.000
15.000
20.000
25.000
0.00000 2.00000 4.00000 6.00000 8.00000 10.00000 12.00000 14.00000 16.00000
Angular Velocity (rad/s)
Tip
R
ad
ius
Mass Ratio 0.5
Mass ratio 0.75
Mass Rato 1.023
Mass ratio 1.1
Figure 4.10: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity: Effect of Mass Ratio
Figures 4.11-4.18 shows the path taken by the end mass for various mass ratios
ranging from 0.5 to 1.1 and for two different ranges of angular speeds. The plot of the
?path taken by the end mass? associated with lower speed range (3.0-3.5 rad/s), shows a
thicker circular pattern when compared with the higher speed ranges (8.30-8.35rad/s).
The reason for this difference can be attributed to the range of speeds considered for the
two cases and a small probability that the attached end mass hasn?t reached a stable
condition/path at lower speeds. (Note: The scaling on each graph is different, a close look
at the numbers in the plot will indicate that the path taken is/or close to a circle)
66
Path Followed by the end body-Mass Ratio 0.5
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
-20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00
Angular speed around 3.0-3.5 rad/s
Figure 4.11: Path Taken by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 0.5, Angular Velocity 3.00-3.5
rad/s
Path Followed by the end body-Mass Ratio 0.5
-8.00
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
-8.00 -6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00
Angular speed around 8.30-8.35 rad/s
Figure 4.12: Path Taken by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 0.5, Angular Velocity 8.30-8.35
rad/s
67
Path Taken for Angular Velocity 8.30-8.35 rad/s
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
-6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00
Mass ratio 0.75
Figure 4.13: Path Taken by End mass: Mass Ratio - 0.75, Angular Velocities 8.3-
8.35 rad/s
Path Taken for Angular Velocity 3.00-3.5 rad/s
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
-25.00 -20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Mass ratio 0.75
Figure 4.14: Path Taken by End mass: Mass Ratio - 0.75, Angular Velocities 3.0-3.5
rad/s
68
Path Taken by End Mass, Angular Velocities 3.0-3.5 rad/s
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
-25.00 -20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Mass ratio 1.023
Figure 4.15: Path Taken by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 1.023, Angular Velocities 3.0-
3.04 rad/s
Path Taken at Angular Velocity 8.30-8.34 rad/sec
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
-6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00
Mass Ratio 1.023, ANgular Velocity 8.30-
8.34
Figure 4.16: Path Taken by End mass, Mass Ratio - 1.023, Angular Velocities 8.3-
8.34 rad/s
69
Path Taken for Angular velocity 3.00-3.5 rad/s
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
-25.00 -20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Angular velocity 3.00-3.5 rad/s
Figure 4.17: Path Traveled by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 1.1, Angular Velocity 3.0-3.5
rad/s
70
Path Taken for Angular velocity 8.30-8.35 rad/s
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
-6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00
Angular velocity 8.30-8.45 rad/s
Figure 4.18: Path Traveled by End Mass: Mass Ratio - 1.1, Angular Velocity 8.3-
8.45 rad/s
4.2.2.2 Effect of End body Mass on Verticality
The following Figure 4.19 shows the plot of verticality versus angular velocity for
varying mass ratios. From the plot it can be seen clearly that the verticality curves for the
mass ratios below 1 (in this case two mass ratios 0.5 and 0.75 without any damping
medium) nearly overlap on top of each other. For mass ratios (Mm) above 1.0 the
verticality increases with angular velocity and also the zone of instability shifts to the
right. That means the zone of instability occurs at higher angular velocities. (The
comparison has been made based on 2 sets of data for Mm<1 and 2 sets of data Mm > 1,
for certain Mm =1.25, the simulation could not be run successfully).
71
Verticality
-10.00
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
90.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00
Angular Velocity
Ve
rti
ca
lity
Mass Ratio 0.50
Mass Ratio 0.75
Mass Ratio 1.023
Mass Ratio 1.1
Figure 4.19: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity: Mass Ratio (Mm) from 0.50 ? 1.1
4.2.3 Effect of Tow Radius
The length of the tow member has been changed to study the affect of the tow
radius on the verticality, tip radius and the path taken by the end body. The plots of tip
radius, verticality and the path traveled by the end body for various tow radii are shown
in the following Figures 4.20-4.25.
72
4.2.3.1 Effect of Tow Radius on Verticality
It can be seen from the graph in Figure 4.20 that the verticality increases with
increase in angular velocity. An interesting observation is that there are no instabilities in
the curves of lower and higher tow radii such as less than 8 inches and greater than 11
inches.
Verticality vs Angular velocity
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00
Angular Velocity (rad/s)
Ve
rti
ca
lity
Tow Radius 7
Tow Radius 8
Tow Radius 9
Tow Radius 10
Tow Radius 11
Figure 4.20: Effect of Tow Radius: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity
Also as the tow radius increases, the maximum elevation that the end body will
attain before the zone of instability, if any, increases. The zone of instability shifts
towards higher angular velocities as the tow radius increases and eventually it disappears
at higher tow radii. The shift in the zone of instability is greater when the tow radius
73
increases from 9 to 10 inches. After the zone of instability, the verticality of all the plots
increases with increase in angular velocity, with almost all the curves having the same
rate of increase. For the tow radius of 11 inch, no instability zone exists and the
verticality keeps increasing with increase in angular velocity. For this curve though the
verticality increases, the rate of increase in verticality decreases with increase in angular
velocity.
4.2.3.2 Effect of Tow Radius on Tip Radius
Figure 4.21 shows the plot of tip radius versus angular velocity. In general the tip
radius of the end mass will increase with increase in angular velocity reaching a largest
radius after which the tip radius starts to decrease. The zone of instability occurs while
the tip radius is decreasing. The zones of instability are not observed for lower and higher
tow radii below 8 and above 11 inches. For tow radius between 8 and 11 inches the zone
of instabilities shifts towards higher angular velocities with increase in tow radius.
74
Tip radius vs Angular Velocity
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00
Angular Velocity (rad/s)
Tip
ra
diu
s (
inc
h) Tow Radius 7
Tow Radius 8
Tow Radius 9
Tow radius 10
Tow Radius 11
Figure 4.21: Effect of Tow Radius: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity
The following Figures 4.22-4.26 shows the path taken by the end body for various
tow radii at angular velocities between 12.00-12.50 rad/s. In this case most of the plots
seem to be circle without any major complexities. The circles in the plot seems to
thicker, the reason for this is that the range of speeds considered and a small probability
that the attached end mass has not reached a stable path ( One can never expect the path
to be at a constant value without any variations). (Note: The scaling on each graph is
different, a close look at the numbers in the plot will indicate that the path taken is/or
close to a circle)
75
Path Taken - Tow radius 7 inch, Angular Velocity 12.0-12.50 rad/s
-3.00
-2.00
-1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
-3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00
Tow radius 7
Figure 4.22: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius- 7 inch,
Angular Velocity 12-12.50 rad/s
Path Taken - Tow radius 8 inch, Angular Velocity 12.0-12.50 rad/s
-4.00
-3.00
-2.00
-1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
-4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
Tow radius 8
Figure 4.23: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius 8 inch,
Angular Velocity 12.0-12.5 rad/s
76
Path Taken - Tow radius 9 inch, Angular Velocity 12.0-12.5 rad/s
-4.00
-3.00
-2.00
-1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
-4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
Tow radius 9
Figure 4.24: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius-9 inch,
Angular Velocity 12.0-12.50 rad/s
Path Taken - Tow radius 10 inch ANgular Velocity 12.0-12.5 rad/s
-4.00
-3.00
-2.00
-1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
-4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
Tow Radius - 10 inch
Figure 4.25: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius- 10 inch,
Angular Velocity 12.0-12.5 rad/s
77
Path Taken - Tow radius 11 inch Angular Velocity 12.00-12.50 rad/s
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
-25.00 -20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Tow radius 11 inch
Figure 4.26: Path Traveled by End Mass: Tow Radius- 11 inch,
Angular Velocity 12.0-12.50 rad/s
4.2.4 Time Response Plot
The following Figure 4.27 shows a general time response plot (Tip Radius Vs
Time) of the Tip radius of the end mass. The plot in the figure indicates the tip radius
decreases (no sudden change) with increase in time (no jump).
78
Tip Radius - Time Response Plot
0.000
2.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000
12.000
14.000
16.000
18.000
20.000
0.000 100.000 200.000 300.000 400.000 500.000 600.000 700.000
Time (sec)
Tip
R
ad
ius
(In
ch
)
Figure 4.27: Time Response Plot: Tip Radius Vs Time (No Jump)
The following Figure 4.28 gives the time response plot of the X-position of the tip
of the end mass associated with the above plot (Figure 4.27).
Tip Radius - Time Response Plot
-20.000
-15.000
-10.000
-5.000
0.000
5.000
10.000
15.000
20.000
0.000 100.000 200.000 300.000 400.000 500.000 600.000 700.000
Time (sec)
Ti
p R
ad
ius
(In
ch
)
Figure 4.28: Time Response Plot: X-Position Vs Time (No Jump)
79
Figure 4.29 shows the time response plot (Tip Radius Vs Time) of the Tip radius
of the end mass. The plot in the figure indicates the tip radius decreases quickly (sudden
change) with increase in time, during the instability zone (?Jump?).
X Position- Time Response
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
620.00 640.00 660.00 680.00 700.00 720.00 740.00 760.00 780.00
Time (sec)
X
Po
sit
ion
Figure 4.29: Time Response Plot: Tip Radius Vs Time (Jump)
The following Figures 4.30 gives the time response plot of the X-position of the
tip of the end mass associated with the above plot (figure 4.29).
80
X Position- Time Response
-25.000
-20.000
-15.000
-10.000
-5.000
0.000
5.000
10.000
15.000
20.000
25.000
620.00 640.00 660.00 680.00 700.00 720.00 740.00 760.00 780.00
Time (sec)
X
Po
sit
ion
Figure 4.30: Time Response Plot: X Position Vs Time (Jump)
81
CHAPTER 5
Investigations into an Experimental System for Validation with Application to Realistic
Tether Materials
5.1 Experimental Setup
An experimental setup has been constructed to verify the data generated by the
ADAMS Model. This setup consists of the following
1) Table Top
2) DC Motor
3) DC Motor Speed Controller
4) DC Power Source
5) Electrical Wiring
6) Aluminum Beam
7) Tachometer
8) Digital Cameras
82
5.1.1 Table Top
A wooden table top of approximately 64 inch x 38 inch x 1 inch is used as the
supporting member for the entire setup. Holes have been drilled at the center of this table
top for attaching the DC motor by means of an aluminum plate and screws. This table is
placed at an elevation of approximately 76 inches in order to provide ample clearance for
observing the ?Verticality? effect and also to accommodate larger tether lengths.
5.1.2 DC Motor
Figure 5.1: DC Motor
The following are some of the properties of the motor
12 Volts DC Permanent Magnet,
Reversible motor with Continuous Duty
Sleeve bearing
470 rpm @ 0.140 amps no load speed.
300 rpm @ 25 oz-in torque 0.650 amps
83
160 rpm @ 20 oz-in torque0.850 amps
Dimensions:
Diameter 1-3/8"
Length 2-3/4"
Offset shaft:
Diameter 0.1875"
Length 13/16"
Face mount. Three tapped holes.
5.1.3 DC Motor Speed Controller
A Speed controller is an electrical circuit that has been built (Ramsey DC Motor
Speed Controller Kit No.MSC1C) in order to regulate the speed of the motor. The control
of the motor speed has been achieved by regulating the resistance, through the controller,
in series to the motor. The controller acts as a resistance connected to the motor in series.
When the resistance is set to zero or at the lowest level the motor starts running at its full
rated rpm and as the resistance is increased slowly, the speed of the motor goes down.
The resistance can either be increased or decreased by the turning a resistance knob on
the front panel of the speed controller. The speed controller used for this experiment can
be seen in the experimental setup in Figures 5.2.
84
Figure 5.2: DC Motor Speed Controller
5.1.4 Aluminum Beam
This Aluminum beam of approximately one foot in length, analogous to the
?Link? member in ADAMS, has been used in this experiment which acts as a towing
member. Aluminum has been selected because of its light weight and high strength to
weight ratio. Holes have been drilled at the appropriate locations to accommodate varies
tow radii. One end of this beam is attached to the shaft of the DC motor with the help of a
set screw while the tether is attached to the other end of the beam through one of the
holes based on the required tow radius. The image of the beam used along with the tether
is shown in Figure 5.3
85
Figure 5.3: Bottom view of the Setup with Aluminum Beam (Tow Link) and Thread
(Tether)
5.1.5 Tachometer
A tachometer is a device that is used to measure the speed of a rotating object.
The speed of any object is usually measured using one of the following methods
a) Contact
b) Non-Contact
86
Contact type tachometers usually work on the principle of contact. The tip of the
tachometer is brought in contact to that of a rotating member. The rotating member
rotates the tachometer tip, which in turn displays the speed of the rotating member. This
type of tachometer cannot be used for the current experiment as it is difficult to measure
the speed of the motor while the tether is in motion.
Non-contact type tachometer usually works on the principle of reflectivity. A
reflecting signal or light is used in determining the speed of angular velocity of any
rotating member. A reflective material is attached to the tip of the rotating member to
reflect the signal emitted/generated by the tachometer. The reflected signal is in turn read
by the tachometer which finally displays the speed of the rotating member. This type of
tachometer is suitable for the current project as it might not obstruct the smooth operation
of the tether system. The image of a non-contact type tachometer used along with a motor
and dc motor speed controller is shown in Figure 5.4
87
Figure 5.4: DC Motor, Speed Controller and Tachometer
The specifications of the non-contact type tachometer used are given below
Display : Large 5 digit 1.22" (31mm)
LCD Rotation speed : Laser Non-contact 2.5-99,999 RPM
Resolution Laser
? 0.1 RPM (2.5 to 999.9 RPM)
? 1 RPM (over 1,000 RPM)
Accuracy : ? 0.05% + 1 digit
Memory function : Last, Max, Min values
Update time : 0.8 seconds (over 60 rpm)
Detection Distance : 2-20" (50 -500mm)
Operating Temperature: 32-122?F (0-50?C)
88
5.1.6 Digital Cameras
Two digital cameras were used to determine the approximate position (tip radius)
and also the verticality of the lower end of the tether. The two cameras have been
operated simultaneously so that the tip radius and verticality can be determined at the
appropriate speed. A measuring chart has been used as reference for measurement
purposes. The measuring chart and the cameras are on either side as illustrated
5.1.7 Tether
A synthetic thread (Spider wire manufactured by Berkeley analogous to a tether)
has been used for experimental purposes. One end of the thread with the required length
is attached to the aluminum beam. In this experiment a drogue has not been attached at
the bottom end of the tether. The diameter of the thread being considered is very
important. It is required to have a smaller diameter so that the aerodynamic drag is
minimal. The diameter of the thread being considered is so small which cannot be
determined using calipers. This can be determined by two methods
a) Weight Method
b) Using Microscope
5.1.7.1 Weight method
If the density of the material of the thread is know then computing the
diameter becomes simple. The weight of a known length of thread is measured using
89
a micro-scale. Once the weight has been determined, it is simple to calculate the
weight per unit length of the material and later the diameter can be calculated by the
following formula
Weight = mass * (Pi)* (radius)^2 * Length
From which radius can be determined.
5.1.7.2 Microscopic Method
A microscope of the required magnification can be used to determine the
diameter of the thread. The measurement scale on a microscope is placed
perpendicular to the axis of the thread. The scale of the microscope is placed such that
it is at one end of the thread (tether). This position is located and set as a reference
point. The table on which the thread specimen is placed is moved in the y-direction
perpendicular to the axis of the thread. The amount by which the table is moved gives
a display of the diameter of the thread. This procedure is repeated several times in
order to get the average diameter.
The first step in of the experimental procedure is to determine certain properties of the
material being used for the tether such as the diameter and any other properties that are
required for the ADAMS model verification. The material being used as the tether has
been pre-twisted and consists of three to four individual strands. Because of the twist and
the combination of the two strands, there is always a possibility that the diameter is not as
predicted based on weight and so is the case with the density. Hence the diameter of the
90
tether has been determined using a microscope. The snapshot of two threads, used in the
experiments, from the microscope is shown in Figures 5.5-5.6
The properties of the material (Spider Wire) used (given and calculated) are listed
below
Weight of the material (for 3 yards in length) = 0.1341 gm
Diameter of the thread/tether = 9.429134E-003 inch
Density of the material (based on calculated diameter) = 0.392017E-02 Lb/inch^3
Length of the tether = 58 inch
Figure 5.5: Snapshot-1 of a Multi-Strand Braided Material (Spider Wire-fishing
line) using a Microscope
91
Figure 5.6: Snapshot-1 of a Multi-Strand Braided Material (Spider Wire-fishing
line) using a Microscope
Figures 5.7-5.8 shows the front and bottom view of the experimental setup of the
system. A measuring chart, can be seen in figure 5.6, is used to measure the verticality of
the tip of the tether.
92
Figure 5.7: Experimental Setup- Front View
93
Figure 5.8: Experimental Setup Bottom View
94
Figure 5.9: Snap Shot to Measure Elevation of the End of the Tether
5.2 Operation Procedure and Measurements
Once the system has been setup, the DC Source is switched on with the DC Speed
Controller. A knob on the controller is turned in clockwise direction to decrease the
resistance offered by the controller. As the resistance decreases the current passing to the
motor increases and the motor starts rotating similar to the link element in ADAMS. It
should be noted that in order to achieve a desired speed a certain amount of time is
required as the motor needs to overcome initial static friction and inertia to achieve
desired speed. Hence certain amount of time has been allocated to achieve a steady state
speed. The speed of the motor has been measured using the digital tachometer. For a
given controller setting, speed fluctuates by ?5 rpm.
95
A constant speed on the motor could never be attained and this is due to the type
of motor and speed controller being used (A high precision motor and speed controller
should part of the equipment is accurate data is required). After the speed has been
measured and found to be almost a constant, the measurements are taken. For measuring
the verticality, as mentioned earlier a measuring chart has been used. Two measuring
charts were left hanging along the center of the table as shown in the Figure 5.7 and the
camera is placed on the opposite end so that the tether is between the measuring chart and
the camera. After the desired speed has been attained, the camera is placed in the plane
containing the tip of the tether end and as close to the tether and several images are taken
to get the trace of the tip so that the average verticality of the tip and also the front view
pattern of the tip end can be determined using a computer. The images captured, as
shown in Figures [5.8, 5.9], have the tip of the tether, and the reference measuring chart
from which approximate (not accurate) readings can be taken. This procedure is repeated
for each and every speed. The measured values are later plotted to determine a pattern for
the verticality of the tether tip which is later compared with the ADAMS MODEL
verticality pattern. The tip radius of the end of the tether/thread cannot be determined
based on the current experimental setup because of the limitations (distance between the
tip end, the reference scale is larger ? the projection of the tip end onto the reference scale
will not be accurate) in the experimental procedure for measuring tip radius listed below.
A snap shot (bottom view) of the system is shown in Figure 5.10. This snapshot gives an
idea about the shape of the tether for given angular velocity of the towing link (aluminum
beam).
96
Figure 5.10: Bottom View of the System; Shape of the Tether
97
5.3 Limitations in Experimental Validation Procedure
There are certain limitations in the experimental model. The following are some
of the limitations
? The measurements have to be made in the plane containing the tip of the tether
and the camera.
? The tether tip and the reference scale should be as close as possible. If the
distance is large, the readings taken will not be accurate. The Tip radius data
could not be obtained.
? The measurement procedure followed gives only a rough estimate and need not
produce accurate values because of the afore-mentioned limitations.
? The diameter of the tether measured using the microscope need not be an accurate
value because of the wavy nature of the tether as a result of the twist. In order to
get an accurate measure, several readings have been taken at both the crests and
the trough and an average value has been used.
? Stiffness of the material being used could not be determined
? The co-efficient of drag for the material being considered is not known as the
material is hairy in nature, strands are twisted and the diameter is not constant. In
the subsequent sections, in attempting to correlate between the Adams model and
the experimental data, various coefficients of drag were selected to determine an
approximate range of the drag coefficient based on experimental results
Hence exact modeling of the physical system in ADAMS cannot be achieved.
98
5.4 ADAMS Modeling Based on Experimental Setup
It should be noted that the ADAMS simulation runs so far are based on values
taken from published data [8]. In order to verify the appropriateness of the drag force
equations and the feasibility of the ADAMS model, minor modifications to the existing
ADAMS model are required. These modifications are minor in terms of the dimensions
of the thread being used, properties in terms of density of the material/thread and also the
removal of the drogue from the existing ADAMS model. The Figure 5.11 depicts the
ADAMS model of the 58 inch tether, used in the physical system. The modeling of this
system consisting of 29 links is similar to that of the previous models.
Figure 5.11: ADAMS Model based on the Experimental Setup
99
The following data has been used to model the physical system in ADAMS.
The properties of the material (Spider Wire) used (given and calculated) are listed below
Weight of the material (for 3 yards in length) = 0.1341 gm
Diameter of the thread/tether = 9.429134E-003 inch
Density of the material (based on calculated diameter) = 0.392017E-02 Lb/inch^3
Length of the tether = 58 inch
The major difference between the ADAMS model for experimental validation and
the ADAMS model for other simulations can be seen in the motion statement. For
experimental validation, simulations are run for specific angular speeds using a step
function. A step function has been used to ensure that angular velocity of the link
increases smoothly. The link is also made to rotate at the given angular velocity for a
specific duration, say at least 25 seconds, after the desired angular velocity has been
achieved. The stiffness of the material has been calculated and will be applied at the
joints if required for fine tuning the ADAMS model. The verticality and the tip radius of
the tether end have been plotted for each of the desired angular velocities. The graphs
depicting the tip radius and verticality along with the path the tip of the tether follows for
a varying angular velocity is shown in the following Figures 5.12-5.14. (Note that scale
on these graphs in not uniform in the X and Y direction, hence it is advised to look at the
numbers.)
100
Verticality Vs Angular velocity - Braided material
-35.00
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
0.00 500.00 1000.00 1500.00 2000.00 2500.00 3000.00
Angular velocity (rad/s)
Ve
rti
ca
lity
(in
ch
)
Verticality- Braided material
Figure 5.12: Verticality Vs Angular Velocity - ADAMS Model for Experiment
Validation- Varying Speed
Tip Radius Vs Angular velocity - Braided material
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0.00 500.00 1000.00 1500.00 2000.00 2500.00 3000.00
Angular velocity (rad/s)
Tip
ra
diu
s (
inc
h)
Tip Radius - Braided material
Figure 5.13: Tip Radius Vs Angular Velocity - ADAMS Model- Experimental
Validation-Varying Speed
101
Path taken by Tether- Braided material- Angular Velocity 12.0-13.0 rad/s
-10.00
-8.00
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
-10.00 -8.00 -6.00 -4.00 -2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00
Path taken by Tether- Braided material
Figure 5.14: Path Taken by Tether- ADAMS Model- Experimental Validation-
Varying Speed
5.5 Comparison of ADAMS Simulation with Experimental Data
5.5.1 Correlation Based on Verticality Data Plots
As measurement of verticality cannot be done accurately, the experimental and
simulation results have been correlated based on the data obtained as well as the shape of
the curve. The graph showing the comparison of the experimental and the simulation data
is shown in Figure 5.15.
102
Verticality vs Angular velocity
Verticality Experiment-
Braided
Verticality ADAMS-Co-
efficient of drag=1
Verticality ADAMS- Co-
efficient of Drag 0.5
Verticality-ADAMS- Co-
efficient of Drag 0.75
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0.000 5.000 10.000 15.000 20.000 25.000 30.000
Angular Velocity (rad/s)
Ve
rti
ca
lity
(in
ch
)
Verticality Experiment-Braided
Verticality ADAMS-Co-efficient of drag=1
Verticality ADAMS- Co-efficient of Drag
0.5
Verticality-ADAMS- Co-efficient of Drag
0.75
Verticality-ADAMS- Co-efficient of Drag
0.25 with
Figure 5.15: Comparison of Experimental and Simulation Data: Verticality Vs
Angular Velocity
The above figure shows the verticality data from the experiment, using a tether
like material (braided fishing lining), along with the ADAMS simulation data for various
co-efficient of drags. As the co-efficient of drag in the experiment is unknown, it
becomes difficult to correlate between the ADAMS data and the experimental data.
Several simulations were run, with different coefficients of drag values and the various
plots were compared to obtain an estimate of the coefficients of drag for the material
under consideration. The there is a small amount of bending stiffness present in he
material and from that it was conjectured that a small amount of bushing stiffness is
required and was added to the simulation. The plot (Figure 5.14) indicates that the tether
material has a co-efficient of drag in the range of 0.25 (with stiffness) to 0.50. It can be
103
seen from the graph that error between the curves ?Experiment-Unknown Co-efficient?
and the ?Co-efficient of Drag = 0.5? is relatively large when compared to the curves
?Experiment-Unknown Co-efficient? and the ?Co-efficient of Drag = 0.25 with
stiffness?. Simulations for the coefficients of drag in the range of 0.25 to 0.50 have not
been performed because of instabilities in the verticality curve at higher angular
velocities. It can be inferred that the coefficient of drag in the range of 0.25 to 0.50 and
close to 0.25 (approximately) gives a realistic match between the experimental results
and the ADAMS simulation data, as the error between the two curves is small and both
the curves seem to have the same slope. There seems to be an offset between the curves
and this is because of the unknown co-efficient of drag. Also as mentioned above the
measuring procedure that was employed to get the data is not highly accurate and only
provides a rough estimate. It should also be noted that no damping has been considered
most of the time while running the ADAMS simulations whereas there is a possibility of
certain amount of damping to be present in the experiment. As a result of several factors
including damping, an exact match between the experimental data and the ADAMS data
was not obtained.
From Figure 5.15 can be inferred that the elevation of the tip of the tether
increases (the elevation has been considered from the top end of the tether attached to the
towing link) with increase in angular velocity for both the experimental data and the
ADAMS data. When the towing member is at a stationary position, the elevation of the
tip end of the tether is equivalent to the length of the tether and as the angular velocity of
104
the towing member increases, the tip of the tether rises from its current position
increasing the elevation (verticality) of the tether end.
5.5.1.1 Effect of Co-Efficient of Drag on Verticality (ADAMS Results)
The graph in Figure 5.15 also shows the effect of changing co-efficient of drag on
the verticality of the lower tip end of the tether. From the plot it can be inferred that as
the co-efficient of drag increases the verticality of the lower tip end of the tether material,
based on ADAMS simulations, decreases for a given angular velocity.
5.5.2 Correlation Based on Snap Shots and Superposition Pattern for Verticality
Figure 5.16 Snap Shot of ADAMS Model- Experimentation Model
105
Figure 5.17: Snap Shot of Experimental Model
Figure 5.18: Super Position Screen Shot: ADAMS Model based on Experimentation
106
From Figures 5.16-5.17, it can be seen that the pattern taken by the tether in the
experiment and in the simulation is almost the same for a given angular velocity of
approximately 24 rad/s. Hence the experimental pattern of the tether has been validated
with the ADAMS model pattern. Figure 5.18 shows the super-position plot of the
ADAMS model at a speed of 24rad/s
5.5.3 Correlation Based on Snap Shots and Superposition Pattern for Tip Radius
In order to correlate the pattern (as correlating the numerical data was not
feasible) the lower end of the tether takes, the pattern of the curve in ADAMS and the
shape of the tether in the experiment have been correlated.
Figure 5.19: Screen Shot of Pattern of the Tether
107
Figure 5.20: Snap Shot of the Experiment: Bottom View
Figure 5.19 shows the ADAMS model screen shot of the bottom view of the
tether at approx 24 rad/s angular speed. Figure 5.20 shows the Bottom view of the tether
at approximately the same speed rotating in the opposite direction with respect to the
simulation screen shot.
It can be inferred from the figures that the path traveled by the tether in the ADAMS
model and also in the experiment is the almost the same. A slight bent in the ADAMS
model can be seen at the end section of the tip. This might be attributed to the un-
modeled bending stiffness of the material. The tether in the physical system has some
bending stiffness which has not been represented in the ADAMS model.
108
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS
The model has been developed and simulated to obtain a general pattern for tip
radius and verticality for varying angular velocities. The preliminary accuracy of the
model has been established by correlating the results of the simulation using published
data [8]. The model is in excellent agreement (tip radius and verticality) with the
published data. Further, the effect of various parameters such as tow radius, mass of the
drogue and the damping/stiffness in the bushings on the verticality, tip radius and the
path traveled by the end mass has been studied using simulation models and presented.
The phenomenon of jump mentioned in existing published work [8], [10] was observed.
The effect of all the considered parameters on the tip radius and verticality, in general,
has an overall effect that can be seen. As the value of parameters such as bushing
damping and stiffness, mass ratio and tow radius are increased, larger amounts of tip
radius and verticality can be seen for a certain angular speeds. In general as the tow
radius, mass ratio and damping/stiffness values are increased, the tip radius and
verticality of the lower end of the tether material increases with increase in angular
velocity (prior to the jump) and also the zone of instability shifts towards higher angular
velocities. An exception to that general trend mentioned above can be seen in case of
Damping/stiffness in the bushings. The zone of instability shifts towards higher angular
109
velocities and eventually disappears, as the parameter values are increased. Furthermore
an experimental model has been constructed to correlate between the ADAMS model and
the experiment. As a result of certain limitations in constructing the experimental setup
based on existing simulation parameters, a physical system (experimental setup) was
constructed and later the ADAMS model replicating the physical system, that was
developed, was modeled and the data of the two was compared. The results (pattern of
the data) seem to have an agreement and the off-shift in the curves has been attributed to
the inaccuracies in the experimental procedure, unknown co-efficient of drag, properties
of the material and also on the type of equipment. An approximate value (range) for the
coefficient of drag for the material under consideration has been obtained based on trial
and error. The superposition screen shots from ADAMS shows the space enveloped by
the tether for the range of speed in consideration and also the formation of a node along
the length of the tether at higher angular velocities. .
6.1 Future Work
Apart from validating the experimental model with the ADAMS simulation, this
work has identified the key factors that would be required for accurate modeling of the
system in ADAMS. This work has identified the need for high precision equipment such
as DC motors, speed controllers and measuring equipment for effective experimental
validation. The future work can include experimentation for determining the effect of
various material types including number of filaments and the nature of twist between
various filaments (strands), determination of co-efficient of drag for various material
110
(using wind tunnel tests) on the system response. The existing model (without the towing
member) can also be used to develop control system models used for controlling the
position of the balloon or aerostat. The software can be used to model and simulate
various cases that would be considered in future, without the need to built physical
prototypes.
111
REFERENCES
1. Chilowsky C, ?Method and Device for Establishing and Communication Between
Aircraft in Full Flight and the Ground?, US Patent 1,829,474, Oct 27, 1931
2. Smith B.B., ?Method and Apparatus for Cargo Loading and Discharging in
Flight?, US Patent 2,151,395, Mar 21, 1939
3. Anderson V. R., ? Method and Apparatus for Pickup and Delivery by Aircraft in
Flight?, US Patent 2,295,537, Sept 15, 1942
4. Hitt, R.T., Jungle Pilot, Discovery House Publishers, 1997
5. Genin, Joseph., Citron, Stephan J., ? Coupling of Longitudinal and Transverse
motions of a Flexible Cable in a Uniform Flow Field?, The Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America, pages 438-440, Volume 52, Issue 1,1972
6. Winget, J.M., Huston, R.L., ?Cable Dynamics-A Finite Segment Approach?,
Computers and Structures, pages 475-480, Volume 6, 1976.
7. Russell, J.J., Anderson, W.J., ?Equilibrium And Stability of a Whirling Rod-mass
System?, International journal of non-linear mechanics, pages 91-101, Volume
12, 1977
112
8. Russell, J.J., Anderson, W.J., ?Equilibrium and Stability of a circularly Towed
Cable Subject to Aerodynamic Drag?, Journal of Aircraft, pages 680-686,
Volume 14, Issue 7, 1977.
9. Leonard J.W., Nath, J. H., ?Comparison of finite element and lumped parameter
methods for oceanic cables?, Engineering structures, pages 153-167, volume 3,
Issue 3, 1981
10. Zhu, F., Rahn, C.D., ?Stability Analysis of a Circularly Towed Cable-Body
System?, Journal of Sound and Vibration, pages 435-452, Volume 217, Issue 3,
1988
11. Jones S.P., Krausman, J.A., ?Nonlinear Dynamic Simulation of a Tethered
Aerostat?, Journal of Aircraft, pages 679-686, Volume 19, Issue 8, 1982
12. Nakagawa, N., Obata, A., ?Longitudinal Stability Analysis of Aerial Towed
Systems?, Journal of Aircraft, pages 978-985, Volume 29, Issue 6, 1992
13. Hoerner, S.F., ?Fluid Dynamic Drag?, 1965
14. Etkin, B., ? Stability of a Towed Body?, Journal of Aircraft, pages 197-205,
Volume 35, Issue 2, 1998
15. Pai, P.F., Nayfeh, A. H., ?Fully Nonlinear Model of Cables?, AIAA Journal,
pages 2993-2996, Volume 30, Issue 12, 1992
16. Kamman, J. W., Huston, R. L., ? Modeling of Variable Length Towed and
Tethered Cable Systems?, Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, pages
602-608, Volume 22, Issue 4, 1999
113
17. Lambert, C., Nahon, M., ?Stability Analysis of a Tethered Aerostat?, Journal of
Aircraft, pages 705-715, Volume 40, Issue 4, 2003
18. Williams, P., Trivailo, P., ?A Study on the Transitional Dynamics of a Towed-
Circular Aerial Cable System?, AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference
San Francisco, California, 15-18 August 2005
19. Williams, P., Trivailo, P., ? Stability and Equilibrium of a Circularly-Towed
Aerial Cable System with an Attached Wind-Sock?, AIAA Atmospheric Flight
Mechanics Conference San Francisco, California, 15-18 August 2005
20. Williams, P., Trivailo, P., ? Dynamics and Equilibrium of a Twin ?Aircraft-Cable
System for Payload Retrieval?, AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference
Keystone, Colorado, 21-24 August 2006
21. Alabrune, F., ?Art of Aerial Transportation?, US Patent, 2,298,912, Oct 1942
22. Alabrune, F., ?Transportation Method?, US Patent, 2,373,086, April 1945
23. Wilson, F.M., ?Aerial Transport of Payloads with vertical Pickup and Delivery?,
US Patent 4,416,436 Nov 1983
24. ADAMS Software, www.mscsoftware.com
25. Cotton, R. B., ?Aerial Pick-Up and Delivery System?, US Patent 3,351,325 Nov
1967
114
APPENDIX ?A
Tables ? ADAMS Simulation data and Published data [8]
Table A.1: ADAMS Simulation Data and Published data (experiment) [8]
Dimensional- Reference[8] ADAMS RESULTS
Rotational
frequency(rad/sec)
Tip
Radius(inch)
Rotational
Frequency Tip Radius
0 8.999625 0 9
0.967932438 10.0425 0.967932438 9.595774
1.935864875 13.1325 1.935864875 11.82879
2.903797313 16.7375 2.903797313 16.3878
3.871729751 19.3125 3.871729751 19.45769
4.646075701 21.115 4.646075701 19.95883
5.807594626 21.63 5.807594626 19.44684
7.162700039 10.3 7.162700039 7.833152
7.356286526 7.725 7.356286526 7.001798
8.711391939 5.15 8.711391939 4.531192
10.06649735 3.8625 10.06649735 3.679532
11.22801628 3.3475 11.22801628
12.77670818 2.8325 12.77670818 3.018009
115
Table A.2: Published data (experiment) [8] - verticality
Experimental data [8]
Rotational
Frequency
Verticality( non-
dimensional)
Second
Solution(if
any)
Verticality
(Dimensional)
Second
Solution(if
any)
0 1 25.75
0.5 0.98 25.235
1 0.73 18.7975
1.5 0.42 10.815
2 0.8 0.3 20.6 7.725
2.5 0.82 21.115
3 0.8 20.6
3.5 0.72 18.54
3.75 0.65 16.7375
116
Table A.3: ADAMS Simulation Data ?Verticality
ADAMS RESULTS
Rotational Frequency
(Dimensional) (rad/s)
Verticality ( non-
dimensional) (inches)
Verticality (Dimensional)
(inches)
0.00 1.00 25.75
1.94 0.99 25.5384
3.87 0.75 19.343
5.81 0.47 12.1
7.74 0.79 20.388
9.68 0.80 20.563
11.62
13.55 0.61 15.68
13.75 0.59 15.28
13.9 0.59 15.19
117
APPENDIX-B
ADAMS/SOLVER DATA SET
ADAMS/View model name: model_1
!
!-------------------------------- SYSTEM UNITS ------------------------
---------
!
UNITS/FORCE = POUND_FORCE, MASS = POUND_MASS, LENGTH = INCH, TIME =
SECOND
!
!----------------------------------- PARTS ----------------------------
---------
!
!----------------------------------- Ground ---------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='ground'
PART/1, GROUND
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_3'
MARKER/3, PART = 1, QP = 9, 25.75, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_4'
MARKER/4, PART = 1, QP = 9, 20.6, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_5'
MARKER/5, PART = 1, QP = 9, 15.45, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_6'
MARKER/6, PART = 1, QP = 9, 10.3, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_7'
MARKER/7, PART = 1, QP = 9, 5.15, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_8'
MARKER/8, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_9'
MARKER/9, PART = 1, QP = 0, 25.75, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_30'
MARKER/30, PART = 1, QP = 0, 25.75, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
118
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_50'
MARKER/50, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 1.570796327, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_52'
MARKER/52, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_54'
MARKER/54, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_56'
MARKER/56, PART = 1, QP = 9, 5.15, 0, REULER = 1.570796327,
1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_58'
MARKER/58, PART = 1, QP = 9, 5.15, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_60'
MARKER/60, PART = 1, QP = 9, 5.15, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_62'
MARKER/62, PART = 1, QP = 9, 10.3, 0, REULER = 1.570796327,
1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_64'
MARKER/64, PART = 1, QP = 9, 10.3, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_66'
MARKER/66, PART = 1, QP = 9, 10.3, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_68'
MARKER/68, PART = 1, QP = 9, 15.45, 0, REULER = 1.570796327,
1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_70'
MARKER/70, PART = 1, QP = 9, 15.45, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_72'
MARKER/72, PART = 1, QP = 9, 15.45, 0, REULER = 3.141592654,
1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_74'
MARKER/74, PART = 1, QP = 9, 20.6, 0, REULER = 1.570796327,
1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_76'
MARKER/76, PART = 1, QP = 9, 20.6, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_78'
MARKER/78, PART = 1, QP = 9, 20.6, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
119
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_79'
MARKER/79, PART = 1, QP = 0, 25.75, 0, REULER = 2.361096869,
0.9530150445
, 4.185955205
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_80'
MARKER/80, PART = 1, QP = 9, 20.6, 0, REULER = 2.361096869,
0.9530150445
, 4.185955205
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_81'
MARKER/81, PART = 1
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_84'
MARKER/84, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 1.570796327, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_86'
MARKER/86, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_88'
MARKER/88, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_89'
MARKER/89, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 1.570796327, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_90'
MARKER/90, PART = 1, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 1.570796327, 1.570796327, 0
!
!------------------------------------ Part ----------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='PART_2'
PART/2, MASS = 1.106627442, CM = 32, IP = 8.753636861, 8.699018605,
0.0919669325
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_10'
MARKER/10, PART = 2, QP = 0, 25.75, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_11'
MARKER/11, PART = 2, QP = 9, 25.75, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_18'
MARKER/18, PART = 2, QP = 9, 25.75, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_31'
MARKER/31, PART = 2, QP = 0, 25.75, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='cm'
MARKER/32, PART = 2, QP = 4.5, 25.75, 0, REULER = 4.71238898,
1.570796327
, 1.570796329
120
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_47'
MARKER/47, PART = 2, QP = 9, 25.75, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
!------------------------------------ Part ----------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='PART_3'
PART/3, MASS = 1.939404137E-005, CM = 33, IP = 4.286528671E-005
, 4.286528671E-005, 8.297013328E-010
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_12'
MARKER/12, PART = 3, QP = 9, 25.75, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_19'
MARKER/19, PART = 3, QP = 9, 25.75, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_20'
MARKER/20, PART = 3, QP = 9, 20.6, 0
!
! adams_view_name='cm'
MARKER/33, PART = 3, QP = 9, 23.175, 0, REULER = 3.141592654,
1.570796327
, 1.570796327
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_39'
MARKER/39, PART = 3, QP = 9, 20.6, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_48'
MARKER/48, PART = 3, QP = 9, 25.75, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_73'
MARKER/73, PART = 3, QP = 9, 20.6, 0, REULER = 1.570796327,
1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_75'
MARKER/75, PART = 3, QP = 9, 20.6, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_77'
MARKER/77, PART = 3, QP = 9, 20.6, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='CYLINDER_2'
GRAPHICS/2, CYLINDER, CM = 12, LENGTH = 5.15, RADIUS = 0.00925
!
!------------------------------------ Part ----------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='PART_4'
PART/4, MASS = 1.939404167E-005, CM = 34, IP = 8.623104905E-004
, 8.623104905E-004, 1.669089881E-008
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_13'
MARKER/13, PART = 4, QP = 9, 20.6, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
121
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_21'
MARKER/21, PART = 4, QP = 9, 20.6, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_22'
MARKER/22, PART = 4, QP = 9, 15.45, 0
!
! adams_view_name='cm'
MARKER/34, PART = 4, QP = 9, 18.025, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_40'
MARKER/40, PART = 4, QP = 9, 20.6, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_41'
MARKER/41, PART = 4, QP = 9, 15.45, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_67'
MARKER/67, PART = 4, QP = 9, 15.45, 0, REULER = 1.570796327,
1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_69'
MARKER/69, PART = 4, QP = 9, 15.45, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_71'
MARKER/71, PART = 4, QP = 9, 15.45, 0, REULER = 3.141592654,
1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='CYLINDER_3'
GRAPHICS/3, CYLINDER, CM = 13, LENGTH = 5.15, RADIUS = 0.00925
!
!------------------------------------ Part ----------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='PART_5'
PART/5, MASS = 1.939404167E-005, CM = 35, IP = 8.623104905E-004
, 8.623104905E-004, 1.669089881E-008
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_14'
MARKER/14, PART = 5, QP = 9, 15.45, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_23'
MARKER/23, PART = 5, QP = 9, 15.45, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_24'
MARKER/24, PART = 5, QP = 9, 10.3, 0
!
! adams_view_name='cm'
MARKER/35, PART = 5, QP = 9, 12.875, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_42'
MARKER/42, PART = 5, QP = 9, 15.45, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_43'
122
MARKER/43, PART = 5, QP = 9, 10.3, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_61'
MARKER/61, PART = 5, QP = 9, 10.3, 0, REULER = 1.570796327,
1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_63'
MARKER/63, PART = 5, QP = 9, 10.3, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_65'
MARKER/65, PART = 5, QP = 9, 10.3, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='CYLINDER_4'
GRAPHICS/4, CYLINDER, CM = 14, LENGTH = 5.15, RADIUS = 0.00925
!
!------------------------------------ Part ----------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='PART_6'
PART/6, MASS = 1.939404167E-005, CM = 36, IP = 8.623104905E-004
, 8.623104905E-004, 1.669089881E-008
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_15'
MARKER/15, PART = 6, QP = 9, 10.3, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_25'
MARKER/25, PART = 6, QP = 9, 10.3, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_26'
MARKER/26, PART = 6, QP = 9, 5.15, 0
!
! adams_view_name='cm'
MARKER/36, PART = 6, QP = 9, 7.725, 0, REULER = 3.141592654,
1.570796327
, 1.570796327
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_44'
MARKER/44, PART = 6, QP = 9, 10.3, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_45'
MARKER/45, PART = 6, QP = 9, 5.15, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_55'
MARKER/55, PART = 6, QP = 9, 5.15, 0, REULER = 1.570796327,
1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_57'
MARKER/57, PART = 6, QP = 9, 5.15, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_59'
MARKER/59, PART = 6, QP = 9, 5.15, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
123
! adams_view_name='CYLINDER_5'
GRAPHICS/5, CYLINDER, CM = 15, LENGTH = 5.15, RADIUS = 0.00925
!
!------------------------------------ Part ----------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='PART_7'
PART/7, MASS = 1.939404167E-005, CM = 37, IP = 8.623104905E-004
, 8.623104905E-004, 1.669089881E-008
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_16'
MARKER/16, PART = 7, QP = 9, 5.15, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_27'
MARKER/27, PART = 7, QP = 9, 5.15, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_28'
MARKER/28, PART = 7, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='cm'
MARKER/37, PART = 7, QP = 9, 2.575, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_46'
MARKER/46, PART = 7, QP = 9, 5.15, 0, REULER = 0, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_83'
MARKER/83, PART = 7, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 1.570796327, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_85'
MARKER/85, PART = 7, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_87'
MARKER/87, PART = 7, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='CYLINDER_6'
GRAPHICS/6, CYLINDER, CM = 16, LENGTH = 5.15, RADIUS = 0.00925
!
!------------------------------------ Part ----------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='PART_8'
PART/8, MASS = 9.921004634E-005, CM = 38, IP = 2.173096855E-007
, 2.173096855E-007, 2.173096855E-007
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_17'
MARKER/17, PART = 8, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_29'
MARKER/29, PART = 8, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='cm'
MARKER/38, PART = 8, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 1.570796327, 1.570796327, 0
!
124
! adams_view_name='MARKER_49'
MARKER/49, PART = 8, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 1.570796327, 1.570796327, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_51'
MARKER/51, PART = 8, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_53'
MARKER/53, PART = 8, QP = 9, 0, 0, REULER = 3.141592654, 1.570796327
, 3.141592654
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_82'
MARKER/82, PART = 8, QP = 9, 0, 0
!
! adams_view_name='ELLIPSOID_7'
GRAPHICS/7, ELLIPSOID, CM = 17, XSCALE = 0.148, YSCALE = 0.148, ZSCALE
= 0.148
!
!------------------------------ DYNAMIC GRAPHICS ----------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_1_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/13, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 1, EMARKER = 49
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_2_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/14, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 2, EMARKER = 51
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_3_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/15, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 3, EMARKER = 53
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_4_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/16, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 4, EMARKER = 55
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_5_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/17, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 5, EMARKER = 57
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_6_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/18, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 6, EMARKER = 59
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_7_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/19, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 7, EMARKER = 61
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_8_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/20, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 8, EMARKER = 63
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_9_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/21, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 9, EMARKER = 65
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_10_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/22, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 10, EMARKER = 67
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_11_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/23, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 11, EMARKER = 69
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_12_force_graphic_1'
125
GRAPHICS/24, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 12, EMARKER = 71
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_13_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/25, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 13, EMARKER = 73
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_14_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/26, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 14, EMARKER = 75
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_15_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/27, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 15, EMARKER = 77
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_16_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/28, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 16, EMARKER = 83
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_17_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/29, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 17, EMARKER = 85
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_18_force_graphic_1'
GRAPHICS/30, FORCE, ETYPE = SFORCE, EID = 18, EMARKER = 87
!
!-------------------------------- CONSTRAINTS -------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='JOINT_3'
JOINT/3, SPHERICAL, I = 22, J = 23
!
! adams_view_name='JOINT_4'
JOINT/4, SPHERICAL, I = 24, J = 25
!
! adams_view_name='JOINT_5'
JOINT/5, SPHERICAL, I = 26, J = 27
!
! adams_view_name='JOINT_6'
JOINT/6, SPHERICAL, I = 28, J = 29
!
! adams_view_name='JOINT_7'
JOINT/7, REVOLUTE, I = 30, J = 31
!
! adams_view_name='JOINT_1'
JOINT/8, SPHERICAL, I = 18, J = 19
!
! adams_view_name='JOINT_2'
JOINT/9, SPHERICAL, I = 20, J = 21
!
! adams_view_name='MOTION_1'
MOTION/1, ROTATIONAL, JOINT = 7, FUNCTION = step(time,0,0,2000,15)*time
!
!----------------------------------- FORCES ---------------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='BUSHING_1'
!BUSHING/1, I = 39, J = 40, C = 1.998551504E-008, 1.998551504E-006
!, 1.998551504E-006, K = 7.994206017E-008, 7.994206017E-006,
7.994206017E-006
126
!, CT = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, KT = 0.1, 0.1, 0.1
!
! adams_view_name='BUSHING_2'
!BUSHING/2, I = 41, J = 42, C = 1.998551504E-008, 1.998551504E-006
!, 1.998551504E-006, K = 7.994206017E-008, 7.994206017E-006,
7.994206017E-006
!, CT = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, KT = 0.1, 0.1, 0.1
!
! adams_view_name='BUSHING_3'
!BUSHING/3, I = 43, J = 44, C = 1.998551504E-008, 1.998551504E-006
!, 1.998551504E-006, K = 7.994206017E-008, 7.994206017E-006,
7.994206017E-006
!, CT = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, KT = 0.1, 0.1, 0.1
!
! adams_view_name='BUSHING_4'
!BUSHING/4, I = 45, J = 46, C = 1.998551504E-008, 1.998551504E-006
!, 1.998551504E-006, K = 7.994206017E-008, 7.994206017E-006,
7.994206017E-006
!, CT = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, KT = 0.1, 0.1, 0.1
!
! adams_view_name='BUSHING_5'
!BUSHING/5, I = 47, J = 48, C = 1.998551504E-008, 1.998551504E-006
!, 1.998551504E-006, K = 7.994206017E-008, 7.994206017E-006,
7.994206017E-006
!, CT = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, KT = 0.1, 0.1, 0.1
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_1'
SFORCE/1, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 49, J = 50, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(((43.40277778E-
06*0.47*(PI/4)*(0.148**2)))/386))*(sqrt(((VX(38))**2)+((VY(38))**2)+((V
Z(38))**2)))*((1)*VX(38)+ 0.00*VX(38))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_2'
SFORCE/2, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 51, J = 52, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(((43.40277778E-
06*0.47*(PI/4)*(0.148**2)))/386))*(sqrt(((VX(38))**2)+((VY(38))**2)+((V
Z(38))**2)))*((1)*VZ(38)+ 0.00*VZ(38))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_3'
SFORCE/3, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 53, J = 54, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(((43.40277778E-
06*0.47*(PI/4)*(0.148**2)))/386))*(sqrt(((VX(38))**2)+((VY(38))**2)+((V
Z(38))**2)))*((1)*VY(38)+ 0.00*VY(38))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_4'
SFORCE/4, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 55, J = 56, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(36))**2)+((VY(36))**2)+((VZ(36))**
2)))*(1.2*VX(36)+ 0.00*VX(36))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_5'
SFORCE/5, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 57, J = 58, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
127
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(36))**2)+((VY(36))**2)+((VZ(36))**
2)))*(1.2*VZ(36)+ 0.00*VZ(36))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_6'
SFORCE/6, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 59, J = 60, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(36))**2)+((VY(36))**2)+((VZ(36))**
2)))*(1.2*VY(36)+ 0.00*VY(36))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_7'
SFORCE/7, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 61, J = 62, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(35))**2)+((VY(35))**2)+((VZ(35))**
2)))*(1.2*VX(35)+ 0.00*VX(35))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_8'
SFORCE/8, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 63, J = 64, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(35))**2)+((VY(35))**2)+((VZ(35))**
2)))*(1.2*Vz(35)+ 0.00*VZ(35))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_9'
SFORCE/9, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 65, J = 66, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(35))**2)+((VY(35))**2)+((VZ(35))**
2)))*(1.2*VY(35)+ 0.00*VY(35))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_10'
SFORCE/10, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 67, J = 68, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(34))**2)+((VY(34))**2)+((VZ(34))**
2)))*(1.2*VX(34)+ 0.00*VX(34))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_11'
SFORCE/11, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 69, J = 70, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(34))**2)+((VY(34))**2)+((VZ(34))**
2)))*(1.2*VZ(34)+ 0.00*VZ(34))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_12'
SFORCE/12, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 71, J = 72, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(34))**2)+((VY(34))**2)+((VZ(34))**
2)))*(1.2*VY(34)+ 0.00*VY(34))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_13'
SFORCE/13, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 73, J = 74, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(33))**2)+((VY(33))**2)+((VZ(33))**
2)))*(1.2*VX(33)+ 0.00*VX(33))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_14'
SFORCE/14, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 75, J = 76, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
128
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(33))**2)+((VY(33))**2)+((VZ(33))**
2)))*(1.2*VZ(33)+ 0.00*VZ(33))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_15'
SFORCE/15, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 77, J = 78, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(43.40277778E-
06/386)*(2*0.00925*5.15))*(sqrt(((VX(33))**2)+((VY(33))**2)+((VZ(33))**
2)))*(1.2*VY(33)+ 0.00*VY(33))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_16'
SFORCE/16, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 83, J = 84, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(((43.40277778E-
06*1.2*(2*0.00925*5.15)))/386))*(sqrt(((VX(37))**2)+((VY(37))**2)+((VZ(
37))**2)))*((1)*VX(37)+ 0.00*VX(37))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_17'
SFORCE/17, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 85, J = 86, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(((43.40277778E-
06*1.2*(2*0.00925*5.15)))/386))*(sqrt(((VX(37))**2)+((VY(37))**2)+((VZ(
37))**2)))*((1)*VZ(37)+ 0.00*VZ(37))
!
! adams_view_name='SFORCE_18'
SFORCE/18, TRANSLATIONAL, I = 87, J = 88, ACTIONONLY, FUNCTION =
, STEP(time, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)*(-0.5*(((43.40277778E-
06*1.2*(2*0.00925*5.15)))/386))*(sqrt(((VX(37))**2)+((VY(37))**2)+((VZ(
37))**2)))*((1)*VY(37)+ 0.00*VY(37))
!
!------------------------------ DATA STRUCTURES -----------------------
---------
!
! adams_view_name='MARKER_18_MEA_1'
VARIABLE/1, FUNCTION = VM(18,0)
!
! adams_view_name='MEA_PT2PT_12'
VARIABLE/12, FUNCTION = DX(82,81,0)
!
! adams_view_name='MEA_PT2PT_13'
VARIABLE/13, FUNCTION = DZ(38,81,0)
!
! adams_view_name='PART_8_MEA_1'
VARIABLE/14, FUNCTION = DY(38,0,0)
!
! adams_view_name='MOTION_1_MEA_1'
VARIABLE/15, FUNCTION = WM(31,30)
!
!------------------------- GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION -----------------
---------
!
ACCGRAV/JGRAV = -386.0885827
!
!----------------------------- ANALYSIS SETTINGS ----------------------
---------
!
129
KINEMATICS/ERROR = 1.0E-005, MAXIT = 100
!
OUTPUT/REQSAVE, GRSAVE
!
RESULTS/XRF
!
END