Taylor Kriging Metamodeling For Simulation Interpolation,
Sensitivity Analysis And Optimization
Except where reference is made to the work of others, the work described in this
dissertation is my own or was done in collaboration with my advisory committee. This
dissertation does not include proprietary or classifled information.
Heping Liu
Certiflcate of Approval:
Alice E.Smith
Professor
Industrial and Systems Engineering
Saeed Maghsoodloo, Chair
Professor
Industrial and Systems Engineering
Tin-Yau Tam
Professor
Mathematics and Statistics
George T. Flowers
Dean
Graduate School
Taylor Kriging Metamodeling For Simulation Interpolation,
Sensitivity Analysis And Optimization
Heping Liu
A Dissertation
Submitted to
the Graduate Faculty of
Auburn University
in Partial Fulflllment of the
Requirements for the
Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Auburn, Alabama
May 09, 2009
Taylor Kriging Metamodeling For Simulation Interpolation,
Sensitivity Analysis And Optimization
Heping Liu
Permission is granted to Auburn University to make copies of this dissertation at its
discretion, upon the request of individuals or institutions and at
their expense. The author reserves all publication rights.
Signature of Author
Date of Graduation
iii
Vita
Heping Liu, son of Minglai Liu and Shuai Yuan who have three children together with
two daughters, Minhua Liu and Minhong Liu, was born in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province,
China. Heping graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics from Nanchang
University in July, 1999. In July, 2003, he received a Master degree in Management Sciences
and Engineering from Chinese Academy of Sciences. He entered the Graduate School at
Auburn University in August, 2004 and earned a Master degree in Industrial and Systems
Engineering in December, 2007. On October 8, 2006, Heping married Yanli Chen. Together
they have one daughter born on June 14, 2008.
iv
Dissertation Abstract
Taylor Kriging Metamodeling For Simulation Interpolation,
Sensitivity Analysis And Optimization
Heping Liu
Doctor of Philosophy, May 09, 2009
(M.S., Auburn University, 2007)
(M.S., Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2003)
(B.S., Nanchang University, 1999)
197 Typed Pages
Directed by Saeed Maghsoodloo
The dissertation explores Kriging metamodeling for the interpolation, sensitivity anal-
ysis and optimization of simulation models with costly computational or economic expenses.
The key theoretical contribution is that a novel Kriging model based on Taylor expansion
is developed and named Taylor Kriging (TK) where Taylor expansion is used to identify
a drift function. Taylor expansion has excellent nonlinear function approximation capabil-
ities, thus enhancing the interpolation potentials of Kriging. Another contribution is the
use of sample standard deviation as the metric for in uence distance of covariance, which
makes simulations with data of difiering magnitudes have a consistent measurement unit.
The partial difierentiation equation of Kriging is developed and used together with
analysis of variance to assist in sensitivity analysis on a simulation model. A physical
simulation case based on cost estimation shows that Kriging sensitivity analysis is efiective.
While fltting metamodels, the dissertation compares the simulation interpolation accuracy
v
of Kriging with those of regression and artiflcial neural networks. A signiflcant feature is
that the comparison considers multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and speciflcation error.
A novel simulation optimization algorithm named SOAKEA is created. SOAKEA inte-
grates Kriging with evolutionary algorithms to optimize simulation models with costly run-
time expenses. The properties of SOAKEA are investigated, and some important empirical
conclusions about parameter settings are obtained. Several typical multimodal benchmark
functions are used to test and compare SOAKEA with other well-known metaheuristics.
The results indicate that SOAKEA is a promising optimization tool for simulation models
with expensive running costs.
The Kriging software is developed in order to satisfy application needs. The software
is multi-functional and user-friendly. The software can be used not only for simulation
interpolation but also for wider interpolation applications.
vi
Acknowledgments
The author is very grateful to Dr. Saeed Maghsoodloo for his guidance, patience,
attention to details and insight, to Dr. Alice E. Smith for initializing the dissertation topic
and her guidance, help and support in the graduate study. Special thanks go to Dr. Tin-
Yau Tam for serving on the committee and his valuable advice. Dr. Huajun Huang as a
outside reader is greatly appreciated.
The work is dedicated to his wife, Yanli Chen, for her love, and to his lovely daughter,
Lucy J. Liu.
The author appreciates two sisters, Minhua Liu and Minhong Liu, for their encourage-
ment. Finally, the author would like to express the deepest gratitude to his parents, Minglai
Liu and Shuai Yuan. Their unconditional love has been and always will be the source of
strength and driving force.
vii
Style manual or journal used Journal of Approximation Theory (together with the style
known as \aums"). Bibliograpy follows van Leunen?s A Handbook for Scholars.
Computer software used The document preparation package TEX (speciflcally LATEX)
together with the departmental style-flle auphd.sty, Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0,
Microsoft Excel, Minitab, and Matlab
viii
Table of Contents
List of Tables xii
List of Figures xiv
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Research Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Research Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 Organization of Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 Literature Review 7
2.1 Origins of Kriging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 Overview of Kriging Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Kriging Applications in Simulation Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.4 Kriging Applications in Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3 Kriging Methodology 17
3.1 Kriging Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1.1 Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1.2 Advanced Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2 Drift Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.2.1 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.2.2 Mathematical Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.3 Covariance Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3.1 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3.2 Typical Covariance Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.4 Neighbor Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.5 Variance and Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.6 Analysis on Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.6.1 Algorithm Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.6.2 Parameter Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.7 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4 Theoretical Developments Of Kriging For Simulation Interpolation 36
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.2 A Novel Kriging Model Based on Taylor Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.2.1 Model Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
ix
4.2.2 Model Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.3 The Measurement of In uence Distance of Covariance . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.4 The Sensitivity Analysis Method Based on Kriging and ANOVA . . . . . . 40
4.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5 Kriging Metamodeling For Deterministic And Stochastic Simulation
Interpolation 44
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.2 Generation of Simulation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.3 Kriging Interpolation for Deterministic Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.3.1 Test Functions and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.3.2 Result Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.4 Kriging Interpolation for Stochastic Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.4.1 Test Functions and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.4.2 Result Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.4.3 Analysis on Replication and Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
6 Kriging Metamodeling For Sensitivity Analysis On Simulation Models 76
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.2 The Chosen Simulation Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.3 Development of Metamodels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.3.1 Kriging Metamodeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.3.2 Regression Metamodeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
6.3.3 Analysis on Difierent Metamodels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.4 Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.4.1 Kriging Metamodel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.4.2 Regression Metamodel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.5 Property Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.5.1 Applicability of Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.5.2 Accuracy of Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.5.3 Feasibility of Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
7 Simulation Optimization Based On Kriging And Evolutionary Algo-
rithms 107
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7.2 A Novel Simulation Optimization Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.2.1 Evolutionary Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.2.2 Development of Simulation Optimization Algorithm (SOAKEA) . . 108
7.2.3 Analysis on SOAKEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7.3 Computational Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
x
7.3.1 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.3.2 The Determination of Initial Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
7.3.3 Corrective Operations and Update of Kriging Models . . . . . . . . 121
7.3.4 The Empirical Investigation on SOAKEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
7.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8 The Kriging Application Software 135
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.2 The Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.3 Kriging Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.3.1 Data Input File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
8.3.2 Running the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
8.3.3 Data Output File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
8.4 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
8.5 Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
8.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
9 Summary And Conclusions 155
9.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
9.2 Future Research Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Bibliography 159
A Proof Of Kriging Estimator In Equation (3.11) 172
xi
List of Tables
2.1 Historical Table of Researchers? Contributions to Kriging [18] . . . . . . . . 9
5.1 AARE of First Test Function (Hmb) (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.2 AARE of Second Test Function (SHC) (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.3 AARE of Third Test Function (B2) (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.4 AARE of Fourth Test Function (Ras) (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.5 Parameter Settings of Chosen Kriging Models for Four Test Functions . . . 57
5.6 ARE Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Four Test Functions (%) . 57
5.7 Paired t-test for Chosen Kriging Models in Table 5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.8 Paired t-test for Chosen Kriging Models in Table 5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.9 L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Hmb Function - 1 . . . . . . 62
5.10 L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Hmb Function - 2 . . . . . . 63
5.11 L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Hmb Function - 3 . . . . . . 64
5.12 L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Hmb Function - 4 . . . . . . 65
5.13 L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for SHC Function - 1 . . . . . . 66
5.14 L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for SHC Function - 2 . . . . . . 67
5.15 L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for SHC Function - 3 . . . . . . 68
5.16 L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for SHC Function - 4 . . . . . . 69
5.17 AARE Comparison of Difierent Replications and Variances for Hmb . . . . 72
5.18 AARE Comparison of Difierent Replications and Variances for SHC . . . . 72
xii
6.1 Table of Original Cost Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.2 Table of Normalized Cost Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.3 AAREs of Cost Estimation from Difierent Kriging Models (%) . . . . . . . 84
6.4 AREs from TK of Order 3 with Nugget Covariance Function . . . . . . . . 85
6.5 ANOVA of Actual and Kriging-estimated Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
6.6 Multicollinearity Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.7 Comparison of Estimated Costs from TK, LLR, MLR and ANN . . . . . . 93
6.8 Comparison of AREs from TK, MLR, LLR and ANN (%) . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.9 ANOVA of AREs from TK, LLR, MLR and ANN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.10 ANOVA of AREs from TK, LLR and ANN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.11 Sensitivity Analysis of TK with Nugget Covariance Function and Order 3 . 99
6.12 Sensitivity Analysis for TK of Order 3 with Nugget Covariance Function . . 101
6.13 Sensitivity Analysis for the MLR Metamodel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6.14 Sensitivity Analysis for the LLR Metamodel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.1 Simulation Optimization Algorithm Based on Kriging and EA . . . . . . . . 112
7.2 Sizes of Initial Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7.3 The Chosen Kriging Models and Their AAREs under Difierent Scenarios . 119
7.4 AAREs of Difierent Kriging Models (The Size of Initial Samples=200)(%) . 120
7.5 The Test Results of Difierent Correction Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7.6 Numbers of Simulation Evaluations for Difierent Correction Strategies . . . 126
7.7 Success Rates of Optimization Search for Difierent Correction Strategies (%) 127
7.8 Numbers of Simulation Evaluations Used in Difierent Correction Strategies 128
7.9 Chosen Kriging Models for Difierent Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
7.10 Parameter Settings of Correction Operations in SOAKEA for Difierent Cases 132
7.11 Performance Comparison of Difierent Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
xiii
List of Figures
5.1 Scatter Figure of 25 Samples from SRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.2 Scatter Figure of 25 Samples from LHD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.3 Scatter Figure of 150 Samples of First Test Function (Hmb) . . . . . . . . . 51
5.4 Scatter Figure of 50 Test Samples of First Test Function (Hmb) . . . . . . . 52
5.5 Actual and Predicted Output Means of 100 Replications of 50 Test Samples
(Hmb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.6 Actual and Predicted Output Means of 100 Replications of 50 Test Samples
(SHC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.7 Actual and Predicted Output Means of Difierent Replications of 50 Test
Samples under Difierent Variance Levels of Random Variable "(X) (Hmb) . 74
5.8 Actual and Predicted Output Means of Difierent Replications of 50 Test
Samples under Difierent Variance Levels of Random Variable "(X) (SHC) . 75
6.1 Scatter Figure of Sample Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.2 Scatter Figure of Sample Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.3 Scatter Figure of Sample Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.4 Comparison of Actual and Kriging-estimated Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.5 Comparison of Estimated Costs from Difierent Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
6.6 Comparison of AREs from Difierent Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.1 Operations of Evolutionary Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.2 The Flow Diagram of SOAKEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
7.3 Flow Diagram of Fitting an Initial Kriging Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xiv
7.4 Diagrammatic Explanation of Correction Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.5 Optimal Result Comparison of Difierent Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
8.1 The Welcome Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
8.2 The About Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
8.3 The Kriging Models Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
8.4 An Example of the Data Layout of the Input File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
8.5 The Results of Calling a Kriging Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
8.6 An Example of the Data Layout of the Output File (KrigOutputData.out) . 147
8.7 The Data Analysis Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
8.8 The Results of Calling Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
8.9 The Graphics Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
8.10 The Working Interface of the Graphics Tool Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
xv
Nomenclature
fii A component of Vector fi
fli A component of Vector fl
fi The covariance coe?cient vector of Dual Kriging
fl The base-function coe?cient vector of Dual Kriging
? [?1????N]T
? The unknown point in Taylor expansion
?2(i) Chi-square distribution with the degree of freedom equal to i
?i The regression coe?cient of the ith term in the LLR model
(r) The variogram with the distance r between two points
^` The estimator of `
?i The coe?cient of Z(Xi) in the estimator of Z(X)
?(X) A drift function (i.e., a process mean)
!i+1 An assumed linear correlation coe?cient between points Zi and Zi+1
` The regression coe?cient of Variable PC in the LLR model
?j(i) The ith integer of the jth permutation in the LHS algorithm
?ij The correlation coe?cient between variables Z(Xi) and Z(Xj)
xvi
The standard deviation
2 The variance of a normal distribution
e The process standard deviation of interpolation errors
C(X) The partition matrix formed by the covariances of X and Xi
E A partition matrix in the inverse of Kriging coe?cient matrix
F The partition matrix formed by the base functions in Kriging coe?cient matrix
f(X) [fl(X)???fM(X)]T
G A partition matrix in the inverse of Kriging coe?cient matrix
H A partition matrix in the inverse of Kriging coe?cient matrix
K Kriging coe?cient matrix
Pi The best position vector found by the ith particle in particle swarm optimization
Q A partition matrix in the inverse of Kriging coe?cient matrix
S The partition matrix formed by covariances
U [u1???uM]T
Vi The velocity vector of the ith particle in particle swarm optimization
X0 The position vector where Taylor expansion is conducted
Xi The ith position vector
Z [Z(X1)???Z(XN)]T
xvii
"(X) A random error term related to the point X
"i A random error term
? The mean of "i
?1 The cognition learning component in particle swarm optimization
?2 The social learning component in particle swarm optimization
al The coe?cient of the lth base function
b The exponent in a Power-function variogram
bi The regression coe?cient of the ith term in a multivariable linear regression
C(r) The covariance function of two points with the Euclidean distance equaling r
C0 The constant coe?cient in a covariance function
Ci The covariance between Z(Xi) and Z(X)
D The dimension number of a position vector X
d The in uence distance of covariance
DN The number of points generated by LHS
DBF(xi) The derivative of Kriging base function with respect to xi
E0 The number of simulation inputs generated by computer experimental design in
SOAKEA
F F statistic
xviii
F(i;j) F distribution with the degrees of freedom equal to i and j
F(x1;???;xD) The multivariable linear regression model
F0:05;ij The inverse function of F distribution at the cumulative of 0.95 with numerator
degrees of freedom equal to i and denominator degrees of freedom j
F0 A speciflc value of F statistic
fl(X) The lth base function
G0 A correction strategy in SOAKEA: a correction per G0 updated generations
H0 Null hypothesis
H1 Alternative hypothesis
J A test in statistic
M The number of base functions
m The highest order of Taylor expansion
M0 The size of an initial population of an evolutionary algorithm
m0 The number of corrected individuals in SOAKEA
MCi The model coe?cient of the ith base function
N The number of observed points in a fltting set
P P-value
p The constant coe?cient in Power-function and Logarithmic variograms
xix
pij The jth component of Pi
r The Euclidian distance between two points in a vector space
R2 R-square
R2a Adjusted R-square
ri The Euclidian distance between X and Xi
rand() A random disturbance term
S Sample standard deviation
Sij The covariance between Z(Xi) and Z(Xj)
t t statistic
t(i) t distribution with the degree of freedom equal to i
U(0;1) A uniform distribution in the interval [0;1]
Ujk A uniform variate generated from U(0;1)
ul The Lagrange multiplier
vij The jth component of Vi
xi The ith component of the position vector X
x0i The normalized value of xi
xjk The jth component of the kth position vector
ya The actual value of dependent variable y
xx
yp The predicted value of dependent variable y
Z(X) A stochastic function (or process)
xxi
Chapter 1
Introduction
This chapter flrst introduces the research background and motivation for the disserta-
tion, illustrates the objectives that the research needs to achieve, and then gives the research
methods adopted. Finally, the chapter shows how the dissertation is organized.
1.1 Background and Motivation
Many scientiflc disciplines use simulation to describe and analyze real-world compli-
cated systems in order to gain insights into such systems. Due to complexity of systems,
analytical modeling methods generally become infeasible. Although a simulation model is
only an abstraction of a real-world complicated system, it can consider numerous details
and constraints in the system, which enables it to closely resemble the real system and thus
become very useful.
However, simulation models are often computationally expensive. Under resource con-
strained environments, obtaining enough simulation outputs to satisfy the needs such as
performing sensitivity analysis and flnding optimal inputs becomes very di?cult. Thus,
it is desirable and necessary to use metamodeling methods (deflned below) to establish a
functional relationship for known simulation inputs and outputs and then use the functional
relationship to estimate likely outputs for the inputs which have not yet been simulated. The
estimated output values could be used for sensitivity analysis, optimization, and decision
making.
1
According to Wikipedia encyclopedia [56], metamodeling is to analyze, construct and
develop the frames, rules, constraints, models, and theories applicable that are useful for
modeling a predeflned class of problems. Metamodeling was initially developed from neuro-
linguistics in the beginning of the twentieth century [79]. Kleijnen [73] discusses how to use
metamodeling to perform sensitivity analysis, optimization, and validation and veriflcation.
From the perspective of simulation modeling, Kleijnen et al. [72] deflne a metamodel as an
approximation of the true input and output function implicitly deflned by a given simulation
model. They think that a metamodel is much simpler than the underlying simulation model.
There are many difierent metamodeling methods such as design of experiments, re-
gression, neural networks, and so on, to build a functional relationship of simulation inputs
and outputs by bridging the gap between the known and unknown information. Essen-
tially, these methods can be called predictive modeling. Considered from the viewpoint of
statistical theory, predictive modeling is generally known as inference.
Kriging is a well-proven geostatistical metamodeling technique. Because of the precise
interpolation feature, Kriging has been applied to some areas and achieved success. Kriging
is named after Krige, a mining engineer in South Africa. In the 1950?s, Krige flrst applied
the technique to the estimation of gold deposits [17, 81]. Kriging estimates are Best Linear
Unbiased Estimators (BLUE). By identifying and mathematically representing the under-
lying functional relationship in known observation points, Kriging can predict the function
values of unobserved points.
In this dissertation, Kriging is proposed as a metamodeling method to build a functional
relationship for simulation inputs and outputs to realize the precise interpolation and to
assist the sensitivity analysis and optimization operations of simulation modeling. The
2
simulation models considered here are (assumed to be) computationally expensive, and
they can be deterministic, stochastic or physical simulation models.
1.2 Research Objectives
The research objectives mainly include three aspects.
First, the dissertation explores Kriging metamodeling for simulation interpolation. The
main objective is to use Kriging to interpolate simulation outputs to reduce computational
expenses caused by running a simulation model. Kriging is improved by introducing Taylor
expansion to act as a base function and sample Standard Deviation (SD) as the metric
for in uence distance of covariance. Simulation interpolation capabilities of Kriging are
compared with those of regression and artiflcial neural networks. Multicollinearity, het-
eroscedasticity, and speciflcation errors of metamodeling are emphasized.
The second objective is to use Kriging to assist in sensitivity analysis of a simulation
model. The partial difierentiation equation of Kriging is developed. A sensitivity analysis
method based on the partial difierentiation equation and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA)
is built for simulation modeling.
The third objective is involved in Kriging metamodeling for simulation optimization.
A novel simulation optimization algorithm is created which can integrate Kriging with
evolutionary algorithms to search for optimal inputs of a simulation model.
In addition, the multi-functional Kriging application software is developed in order to
satisfy wide application needs of Kriging.
3
1.3 Research Methods
The theoretical research is an important feature. The dissertation theoretically im-
proves Kriging models. A novel Kriging model based on Taylor expansion is developed to
enhance the simulation interpolation capabilities of Kriging. In addition, sample standard
deviation is used as the metric for in uence distance of covariance, thus making difierent
simulation problems have a consistent measurement.
Kriging models are explicit and difierentiable, which makes it feasible to use their
analytic features to assist the sensitivity analysis on simulation models. A methodology
contribution to sensitivity analysis of simulation modeling is that a partial difierentiation
equationofKrigingisdevelopedandusedtogetherwithANOVAtoassistsensitivityanalysis
on simulation models.
Empirical research is another important aspect. The dissertation uses many empirical
cases to investigate the interpolation capabilities of Kriging metamodeling in deterministic,
stochastic and physical simulations. Kriging is empirically used to analyze the sensitivity of
a simulation model to inputs. For the developed simulation optimization algorithm, several
simulated benchmark functions are used to test its efiectiveness.
Additionally, comparison and contrast is widely used. For a test case, difierent models
or methods are used to implement simulation interpolation or optimization to analyze and
compare their advantages and disadvantages.
1.4 Organization of Dissertation
The dissertation is divided into nine chapters, and the organization of contents is as
follows.
4
In Chapter Two, the origins and applications of Kriging are reviewed. The Kriging
origins reviewed include its early formulation and development process. The application
review of Kriging focuses on simulation interpolation and optimization.
Chapter Three presents the Kriging methodology. The basic principles and structure
components of Kriging are introduced. The introduced components include drift functions,
covariance functions, neighbor structures, and variance of interpolation errors. The impor-
tant properties of Kriging are further discussed.
Chapter Four introduces the theoretical contributions of the dissertation. A novel
Kriging model based on Taylor expansion is developed and named Taylor Kriging. Its crucial
properties are provided. Sample standard deviation is used to deflne in uence distance of
covariance in covariance functions of Kriging. A sensitivity analysis method using a partial
difierentiation equation of Kriging and ANOVA is established.
Chapter Five empirically investigates the interpolation efiectiveness of Taylor Kriging
for deterministic and stochastic simulation by using some simulated cases based on bench-
mark functions. The critical insights from the empirical investigation are given.
Chapter Six empirically analyzes how to use the sensitivity analysis method based on
Kriging and ANOVA to perform sensitivity analysis on a simulation model. The chosen
simulation model is a physical simulation related to cost estimation. The potentials of the
sensitivity analysis method are compared with those of regression.
Chapter Seven establishes a novel hybrid simulation optimization algorithm by inte-
grating Kriging and evolutionary algorithms. The properties and parameter settings of
algorithm are analyzed in detail. The empirical applications of the algorithm to simulation
optimization are investigated.
5
Chapter Eight introduces the developed Kriging application software. The software has
a user-friendly graphic interface. The details about how to manipulate the multi-functional
application software are demonstrated.
Chapter Nine concludes the dissertation and illustrates the future research directions.
6
Chapter 2
Literature Review
This chapter reviews the origins of Kriging and its applications in simulation interpola-
tion and optimization. The review on the development process of Kriging will be presented
in the third chapter.
2.1 Origins of Kriging
The roots of Kriging go back to the exploration research of Wold [158] and Kolmogorov
[77, 78] and Wiener [157], although their research is directly related to regression instead of
Kriging modeling. In 1951, Krige [81], a mining engineer in South Africa, flrst developed
the approach therefore bearing his name, and used this approach to gold mining valuation
problems.
The term \Kriging", named by Matheron [94], was initially coined as \krigeage" by
Pierre Carlier [17]. Matheron [94] describes Kriging as a method which can predict the
grade of a panel by computing the weighted average of available samples. He emphasizes
that suitable weights should make variance smallest. Krige?s own understanding about the
term is that it is a multiple regression which is the best linear weighted moving average
of the ore grade of an ore block of any size by assigning an optimum set of weights to
all the available and relevant data inside and outside the ore block [82]. Ord [111] states
that Kriging is a method of interpolation for random spatial processes in the Encyclopedia
of Statistical Sciences. According to the opinion of Hemyari and Nofziger [52], Kriging
is a form of weighted average, where the weights depend upon the location and structure
7
of covariance or semivariogram of observed points. The choice of weights must make the
prediction error less than that of any other linear sum. A semivariogram is a function used
to indicate spatial correlation in observations measured at sample locations [17].
In the early 1960?s, Matheron [92, 93] developed the mathematical theory associated
with Kriging models. Originally, Kriging was a linear predictor. In later developments
in geostatistics, Kriging was extended to nonlinear spatial prediction. Matheron [98] also
shows that Kriging and splines are formally equivalent. Dubrule [34] instead investigates
the difierences between splines and Kriging.
An early comprehensive introduction to the origins of Kriging is given by Cressie [18].
Cressie investigates the origins of Kriging from the perspective of difierent disciplines and
states that Kriging is equal to spatial optimal linear prediction. An interesting historical
table of researchers? contributions to Kriging is provided by Cressie. For Table 2.1, Cressie
explains that an index of \1" for Component 1 means that all possible covariances are used
to deflne weights, \12" means only some covariances are used, and \0" means some other
weights are used; an index of \1" for Component 2 means that the weighted least-squares
estimator of ? is used, \12" means that another estimator is used and \0" means ? is assumed
known; an index of \1" for Component 3 means that prediction is performed in a spatial
setting, \12" means a temporal setting is used and \0" means that neither a spatial nor a
temporal setting is considered. Table 2.1 shows that Wold, Kolmogorov and Wiener did
some early exploratory work, Krige established Kriging models, and Matheron [18] made
comprehensive analysis on Kriging models.
8
Table 2.1: Historical Table of Researchers? Contributions to Kriging [18]
Research 1938 1941-1949 1951 1956 1952 1963
Wold (1,0,12)
Kolmogorov (1,0,12)
Wiener (1,0,12)
Krige (12,12,0) (1,12,0)
Thompson (1,0,1)
Goldberger (1,1,0)
Matheron (1,1,1)
Gandin (1,1,1)
Whittle (1,1,12)
Moritz (1,0,1)
Henderson (1,1,0)
2.2 Overview of Kriging Applications
The applications of Kriging cover some disciplines which range from the classical ap-
plication flelds of mining and geology to soil science, hydrology, meteorology, etc., and
recently to engineering design, cost estimation, wireless sensing and networks, simulation
interpolation, evolutionary optimization, etc..
The application of Kriging is mainly in geological settings [20, 21, 81, 65, 136]. Kriging
is extensively used to produce contour maps [22, 23, 43, 109, 145]. More relevant references
can be found in some review papers [33, 122]. Kriging has been used as a means to predict
the values of soil attributes at unsampled locations [49, 105, 120, 135, 152, 156]. In the fleld
of hydrology, Kriging has had wide applications [9, 13, 16, 26, 27, 112], and some related
review papers are [51, 144, 150]. Additionally, Kriging is applied to meteorology [25].
TheliteraturedemonstratesthatinrecentyearsKriginghasbeenappliedtoengineering
design [42, 89, 101, 132, 133], material sciences [35, 68, 91, 143], biomechanical engineering
9
[3, 28, 11], wireless wave propagation [86, 30, 31, 119, 147, 160, 87, 88], economic sensitivity
analysis and cost estimation [151, 12], simulation interpolation [104, 6, 75], and optimization
[63, 61, 60].
Next, the dissertation will in detail review the Kriging applications in simulation in-
terpolation and optimization.
2.3 Kriging Applications in Simulation Interpolation
The application of Kriging to simulation interpolation flrst occurred in the area of
deterministic simulation. The classic reference refers to Sacks et al. [124]. In this reference,
Sacks et al. consider the computer experiments which are computationally expensive to run
and whose outputs are deterministic. For such computer experiments, they use Kriging to
flt an inexpensive but e?cient predictor to reduce the computational cost.
In the reference [104], Mitchell and Morris investigate Kriging as an alternative to
conventional response surface methodology for use in simulation experiments. Mitchell and
Morris treat Kriging as a Bayesian method. They use Kriging to evaluate the importance of
input parameters, consider how to use Kriging to optimize a dependent variable, and discuss
the Kriging applications in inverse problems according to a simulation experiment on the
model of groundwater ow. Although much of their focus is on deterministic simulations,
they show how modiflcations can be made to handle the simulation interpolation with
random outputs.
Trochu et al. [146] apply Dual Kriging as an interpolation method to simulating the
macroscopic mechanic behavior of shape memory alloys. They use Dual Kriging to yield an
10
explicit equation of any partial cycle inside the main hysteretic domain, thus presenting a
general material law for shape memory alloys.
The early application of Kriging to random simulations was proposed by Barton [6].
In his introduction to Kriging, he regards Kriging as a spatial correlation metamodel. He
indicates that although the fltting capability of the spatial correlation method is exciting,
it is based on a small set of examples, and the more extensive computational comparison
of difierent methods would have to wait for more generally available computer codes. Ad-
ditionally, Koehler and Owen [76] provide some extra introduction and discussion of the
simulation interpolation based on Kriging.
R?egnire and Sharov [118] discuss the application of Kriging to the interpolation of
the spatial and temporal output data of the simulation model for male gypsy moth ight
phenology. Universal Kriging (UK) and multivariate linear regression are compared in
their simulation interpolation. According to experimental results, they think that these
two methods are nearly equally precise in interpolating the output data of a simulation
model; however, Kriging requires more computing time than does regression. But, they
indicate that the success of regression may be due to the relatively simple physical processes
simulated, and UK ofiers an alternative in cases where simple polynomial terms cannot
mimic more complex response surfaces. As van Beers and Kleijnen [148] later noticed,
the multivariate linear regression compared with UK by R?egnire and Sharov is a rather
complicated metamodel (involving terms of order six), which is perhaps one reason why its
resulting prediction accuracy is similar to that of Kriging.
The recent representative work of Kriging applications to simulation interpolation is
given by Kleijnen and van Beers [75, 74, 59, 148]. Their work mainly focuses on three areas:
11
1. Investigate the application of Kriging in random simulation when the variances of
simulation outputs are not constant. They show that Ordinary Kriging (OK) is a
robust interpolation method and seems not very sensitive to variance heterogeneity
[75].
2. Propose a novel experimental design method based on Kriging for deterministic sim-
ulation interpolation. The method proposed [74] is sequential and application-driven
or customized through cross-validation and jackknife. Kleijnen and van Beers [74]
indicate that the method applies to other types of metamodels and stochastic simu-
lation. Van Beers and Kleijnen [59] also establish a customized sequential design for
interpolation in random simulation, especially discrete event simulation. The tool for
this customization is bootstrapping which estimates the variances of Kriging predic-
tions. The candidate input with the largest bootstrap variance is selected as the next
actual input to be simulated. However, it is noticed that although what they discuss
is discrete-event simulation, the interpolated variables are still continuous.
3. Discuss the Kriging interpolation for random simulation and in detail illustrate De-
trended Kriging that they develop [148].
Additionally, van Beers and Kleijnen [149] review the Kriging application to simulation
interpolation. They note that the Kriging interpolation is attractive in deterministic simu-
lation, and the Kriging interpolation in discrete-event simulation has just started. Santner,
et al. [125] provide some details of the application of Kriging to simulation interpolation.
Meckesheimer et al. [62] develop the e?cient methods to assess the validity of Kriging and
other metamodels in simulation interpolation. They investigate computationally inexpen-
sive assessment methods for metamodel validation based on leave-k-out cross validation,
12
and develop guidelines about how to select k. Based on the results from two sets of test
problems, k = 0:1N or the square root of N is recommended for the Kriging metamodel,
where N is the number of sample points used to construct the metamodel. Hertog, et al.
[53] discuss the Kriging variance. They prove that the classic Kriging variance formula
widely used in geostatistics is wrong, and the formula underestimates the Kriging expected
variance. And they develop a parametric bootstrapping method to estimate the Kriging
variance.
The literature review shows that although some researchers applied Kriging to sim-
ulation interpolation, their work mainly focused on Simple Kriging (SK) and OK. The
drift functions of SK and OK are a zero constant and an unknown nonzero constant, re-
spectively. These drift functions are simple, and it is not possible for them to capture the
non-constant mean drift of data in some simulation problems. Note that some references
used UK, but the drift function of UK is a general polynomial, and its base function forms
are not identifled. There exist di?culties in choosing speciflc base functions for UK. How
to give a non-constant drift function for Kriging with specifled base function forms deserves
exploration.
Similar to computer simulation with costly computational expense, physical simulation
has the similar di?culties to obtain data with adequate sample size because of economic
and time constraints. Exploring Kriging interpolation for physical simulation has been very
few in the literature, and more work is needed in this area.
Although some references compared the interpolation capabilities of Kriging and re-
gression, they did not consider multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and speciflcation errors
in regression. Methodologically, the comparison is incomplete, and the results can not be
13
trusted without any suspicion. It is needed to redo the comparison of Kriging and regression
with these considerations.
Sensitivity analysis is another critical problem of simulation modeling. Kriging meta-
models are explicit and difierentiable, and it could be possible to use these analytic features
of Kriging to assist sensitivity analysis on simulation models, which has not been seen in
the literature. As a result, its exploration is justifled.
2.4 Kriging Applications in Optimization
Recently Kriging has been applied to optimization areas. The applications in opti-
mization can be divided into two types. One is that Kriging is used to assist evolutionary
optimization by acting as temporal fltness functions; the other is called Sequential Krig-
ing Optimization (SKO) where Kriging itself serves as an optimization tool to search for
optimization solutions.
When evolutionary algorithms are used to solve optimization problems, explicit fltness
functions may not exist. The application of Kriging in evolutionary algorithms is to build
an approximate fltness function so that evolutionary algorithms can use this approximate
function to guide further search. The literature indicates that the early research in this area
wasconductedbyRatle[115,116]. RatleproposedahybridalgorithmbyintegratingKriging
and a real-coded Genetic Algorithm (GA). The new algorithm has the good approximation
performance of Kriging with efiective and robust evolutionary searching capability of GA.
El-Beltagy et al. [36] investigate the same problem and suggest that the issue of balancing
the concerns of optimization with those of design of experiments should be addressed. Song
14
et al. [137] couple a real-coded GA with Kriging for flrtree structural optimization. Zhou et
al. [110, 161] present a hierarchical surrogate-assisted evolutionary optimization framework.
Another form of Kriging applications to optimization is SKO, also called the E?cient
Global Optimization (EGO) method. Its basic concept is to approximate the objective
function of an optimization problem with a Kriging model, and then use the Kriging model
to obtain the most promising point for sequential sampling. SKO focuses on solving ex-
pensive noisy black-box problems. Some related references are [61, 63, 127, 131]. If the
system of interest is very complicated, it is often necessary to draw data with less cost from
surrogate experimental systems used to mimic production systems, called \lower-fldelity
systems", or from computer simulations used to approximate physical experiments. The
system of interest is called the \highest fldelity" system. Leary et al. [85] use the low
fldelity data as prior knowledge to be incorporated in the training of neural network and
the generation of Kriging model. Huang et al. [70, 60] propose an extension of SKO that
utilizes multiple fldelity data to reduce total evaluation cost.
The literature review shows that Kriging applications in optimization concentrate on
using its interpolation capabilities to reduce the computational cost of optimizing a com-
plex system. The main feature of the application is that Kriging temporarily replaces an
objective function to assist optimization search. Note that the integration application of
Kriging and evolutionary algorithms to optimization is just starting. The clear structure
of the integration algorithm is not given and there are no extensive analysis and discussion
on the algorithm itself. In the literature, the evolutionary algorithm used to be integrated
with Kriging focuses on GA. However, evolutionary algorithms have been improved. The
15
improved algorithms with stronger optimization capabilities should be considered. In ad-
dition, Kriging may be improved, and its interpolation capabilities can be enhanced in the
integration algorithm. The integration algorithm is seldom applied to simulation optimiza-
tion which is a key problem of simulation modeling. Exploring its application to simulation
optimization with costly computational expenses is meaningful.
16
Chapter 3
Kriging Methodology
From the perspectiveof methodology, this chapterbrie y introduces the basic principles
of Kriging, and gives some advanced discussion. Subsequently, some key components of
Kriging are analyzed which are drift function, covariance function, neighbor structure, and
variance of interpolation errors. Finally, the properties of Kriging are discussed.
3.1 Kriging Methodology
3.1.1 Basic Principles
Consider a stochastic function with the form below:
Z(X) = ?(X)+"(X) (3.1)
where X is a position vector, ?(X) is a mean term or a drift function showing the average
behavior of Z(X), and "(X) is a random error term with E["(X)] = 0. In geology, Z(X)
may represent the gold deposit in a location X, ?(X) correspondingly the expected amount
of gold deposit, and "(X) the associated random error from the mean. Suppose N observed
values are Z(X1);Z(X2);???;Z(XN). Kriging uses a linear combination of the observed
values to estimate the function value at an unobserved point X.
^Z(X) =
NX
i=1
?iZ(Xi) (3.2)
17
where the coe?cients ?i are selected in such a manner that the above estimator satisfles
the following constraints:
1. ^Z(X) must be the unbiased estimator of Z(X);
2. The variance of estimation errors must be minimized, i.e., ^Z(X) must be the BLUE.
According to the unbiased requirement, the equation below can be obtained:
E[^Z(X)] =
NX
i=1
?iE[Z(Xi)] (3.3)
which can be transferred to the following form:
?(X) =
NX
i=1
?i?(Xi) (3.4)
Without loss of generality, suppose the drift function ?(X) consists of M basis functions
fl(X), l = 1;2;???;M, that is,
?(X) =
MX
l=1
alfl(X) (3.5)
where al (l = 1;2;???;M) are unknown constant coe?cients that are later determined in
Eq. (3.22) and fl(X) is named a base function in Kriging literature. Then the unbiased
requirement leads to:
fl(X) =
NX
i=1
?ifl(Xi) l = 1;???;M (3.6)
18
Thus, minimizing the variance of estimation error becomes a constrained optimization prob-
lem outlined below:
Minimize: Var[^Z(X)?Z(X)] =
NX
i=1
NX
j=1
?i?jCov[Z(Xi);Z(Xj)]
?2
NX
i=1
?iCov[Z(Xi);Z(X)]+Var[Z(X)]
Subject to: fl(X) =
NX
i=1
?ifl(Xi) l = 1;2;???;M (3.7)
Kriging models transform the problem into the following unconstrained optimization by
introducing Lagrange multipliers ul, l = 1;2;???;M.
Minimize: Var[^Z(X)?Z(X)] =
NX
i=1
NX
j=1
?i?jCov[Z(Xi);Z(Xj)]
?2
NX
i=1
?iCov[Z(Xi);Z(X)]+Var[Z(X)]
+2
MX
l=1
ul[
NX
i=1
?ifl(Xi)?fl(X)] (3.8)
Partially difierentiating the right side of Eq. (3.8) with respect to ?i (i = 1;???;N) and ul
(l = 1;???;M) generates the well-known \Universal Kriging system" as follows:
NX
i=1
?ifl(Xi) = fl(X) l = 1;???;M (3.9)
MX
l=1
ulfl(Xi)+
NX
j=1
?jCov[Z(Xi);Z(Xj)] = Cov[Z(Xi);Z(X)] i = 1;???;N (3.10)
19
which can be expressed in matrix form as:
2
66
4
0 FT
F S
3
77
5
2
66
4
U
?
3
77
5 =
2
66
4
f(X)
C(X)
3
77
5 (3.11)
where
? =
?
?1 ??? ?N
?T
(3.12)
U =
?
u1 ??? uM
?T
(3.13)
C(X) =
?
C1 ??? CN
?T
(3.14)
f(X) =
?
f1(X) ??? fM(X)
?T
(3.15)
S =
2
66
66
66
4
S11 ??? S1N
... ... ...
SN1 ??? SNN
3
77
77
77
5
(3.16)
20
F =
2
66
66
66
4
f1(X1) ??? fM(X1)
... ... ...
f1(XN) ??? fM(XN)
3
77
77
77
5
(3.17)
In the above matrices, Sij represents Cov[Z(Xi);Z(Xj)] which is the covariance between
the sample points Z(Xi) and Z(Xj), and Ci denotes Cov[Z(Xi);Z(X)]. The coe?cient
matrix with dimensions (N +M)?(N +M) in the left side of Eq. (3.11) is termed Kriging
matrix. If Kriging coe?cient matrix is nonsingular, coe?cients ?i (i = 1;???;N) can be
obtained and thus Eq. (3.2) can provide the estimate of Z(X).
3.1.2 Advanced Analysis
According to equations (3.2) and (3.11), some researchers such as Hertog et al. [53]
provide the following Kriging estimator whose proof is provided by Appendix A:
^Z(X) = ^?TZ = ^aTf(X)+CT(X)S?1(Z?F^a) (3.18)
where
^? = S?1[C(X)?F^U] (3.19)
^U = (FTS?1F)?1[FTS?1C(X)?f(X)] (3.20)
a =
?
a1 ??? aM
?T
(3.21)
^a = (FTS?1F)?1FTS?1Z (3.22)
21
Z =
?
Z(X1) ??? Z(XN)
?T
(3.23)
An extensive analysis on the Kriging estimator leads to the following results:
1. Eq. (3.18) shows that the key parts of the Kriging estimator are the chosen observa-
tion points X1;???;XN, the covariance matrix S whose core is actually a covariance
function of Kriging, and the drift function aTf(X). The prerequisite of performing
Kriging estimation is to have a set of observation points. This prerequisite means that
it is necessary to design a good experiment to obtain pertinent observation points.
Essentially, obtaining observation points is the selection problem of neighboring struc-
tures. Kriging adopts the method of Generalized Least Squares (GLS) to estimate
the coe?cients of the drift function. GLS is a robust method and also can consider
heteroscedasticity. The drift function coe?cients can be estimated accurately.
2. The Kriging estimator consists of two parts. One is the estimator of the drift function
^aTf(X) based on the GLS estimator (FTS?1F)?1FTS?1Z; the other is the weighted
correction part of prediction errors of the estimator of the drift function, where Z?F^a
is a prediction error vector. If CT(X)S?1 is treated as weighted coe?cients of the
prediction error vector, a larger correlation between a predicted point and an observed
point results in a larger weighted coe?cient.
3. If a predicted point is far away from an observed point, the correlation between the
predicted point and the observed point is very weak. That is to say, CT(X) will
become very small, which leads to CT(X)S?1(Z?F^a) close to zero. Clearly, Kriging
is actually using the regression of GLS, that is, ^aTf(X), to estimate the value of Z(X).
In this case, Kriging can only estimate the mean drift behavior of the predicted point.
22
Note that ^a is the GLS estimator of the vector [a1???aM]T in Eq. (3.5). Because of sim-
ilarities of Kriging and regression, next the chapter methodologically compares Kriging with
regression to better illustrate the features and properties of Kriging. Additionally, Artiflcial
Neural Network (ANN) is a classic artiflcial intelligence technique to perform interpolation.
Therefore, the comparison covers ANN to show the comparison comprehensiveness.
Regression uses observation values X1;???;XN and Z(X1);???;Z(XN) to establish a
regression model. The direct objective is to flnd an explicit relationship betweenX1;???;XN
and Z(X). Based on regression assumptions, the methods of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS)
or GLS are used to estimate the coe?cients of polynomials in a regression equation. OLS
or GLS can minimize the variances of coe?cient estimators of polynomials and make the
estimators unbiased. Similar to regression, ANN uses observation values X1;???;XN and
Z(X1);???;Z(XN) to flt a network. The objective of ANN is to directly construct a re-
lationship between X1;???;XN and Z(X) by minimizing Mean Square Errors (MSE) of
actual and predicted values. However, ANN can capture a nonlinear relationship between
independent and dependent variables but in an implicit way. As for Kriging, its direct
objective is to establish a functional relationship between Z(X1);???;Z(XN) and Z(X) by
minimizing the variance of prediction errors of Z(X) and by making the estimator of Z(X)
unbiased, which is difierent from regression and ANN. However, similar to regression, Krig-
ing assumes a functional form of E[Z(X)], and uses the GLS to estimate the coe?cients
of polynomials in the assumed function. The flnal Kriging estimator of Z(X) is actually a
relationship between X1;???;XN and Z(X).
23
3.2 Drift Functions
3.2.1 Literature Review
According to the difierences of drift functions, Kriging models are generally divided
into three types, which are Simple Kriging (SK), Ordinary Kriging (OK) and Universal
Kriging (UK). The drift part of SK is the zero constant. SK is the most basic form of
Kriging [109]. The Kriging model most often used is OK, which was developed by Matheron
[93] in the early sixties. The drift function of OK is an unknown nonzero constant. The
general form of Kriging models is UK, which was introduced by Matheron in 1969 [96].
UK is a non-stationary geostatistical method and its drift function is modeled as a general
linear function of coordinates. When a drift function is deflned externally through some
auxiliary variables, the corresponding Kriging model is named Kriging with External Drift
(KED)[14, 153]. Ahmed and de Marsily [2] suggest that the drift and residuals can be fltted
separately and then summed. Odeh et al. [107, 108] call this form of Kriging Regression
Kriging (RK), and Goovaets [50] names it \kriging after detrending".
Some other drift functions can refer to Disjunctive Kriging (DK)[97], Indicator Kriging
(IK)[17], andLognormalKriging(LK)[82]. DKisfornonlinearproblemsanditisanonlinear
generalization of Kriging [97]. IK is used for the estimation of discrete variables and it uses
indicator functions to estimate transition probabilities [64]. Multiple Indicator Kriging is
another version of Indicator Kriging. Multiple Indicator Kriging works with a family of
indicator functions instead of one indicator function. LK is assumed for highly skewed
distributions of "(X) and it can only interpolate positive data [17].
When Kriging interpolation is based on blocks instead of points in space, the corre-
sponding Kriging model is called Block Kriging (BK). BK provides a mean estimate for a
24
discrete area around an interpolation point. When Matheron [93] formulates Kriging, he
presents it in the form of BK. The possible reasons why he chooses this form are the need
of mathematical generality and his immediate concern about the estimation of average ore
content of mining blocks. The only difierence of BK from point Kriging is that the estimated
point is replaced by a block. BK is usually more appropriate to be applied to the problems
related to environment. In these two problems the block is deflned as the rectangular area
around a point.
Dual Kriging [145] is an alternative formulation to Kriging. The value estimated by
Dual Kriging is a linear combination of covariance functions. Dual Kriging is a powerful
mathematical interpolation method, and is particularly useful when estimations are needed
for a global area with a large number of locations or when the availability of an analytical
expression is advantageous. With an analytical expression, Dual Kriging is very useful for
sensitivity analysis. By concentrating on local neighbors, Aunon et al. [5], present an
alternative implementation of dual ordinary Kriging to provide an analytical expression
within each subsection instead of the global area. And they suggest a procedure to remove
the potential discontinuity across subsection boundaries.
Factorial Kriging Analysis (FKA) is one more form of Kriging, and it is developed by
Matheron [99]. The literature review shows that it has wide applications [49, 138]. The
main advantage of FKA is that it can be used to extract components from a variable which
may be mapped separately for analysis. Galli and Sandjivy [44] theoretically compare FKA
and spectral analysis and demonstrate their formal equivalence. However, they indicate
that spectral analysis is not directly applicable to irregularly spaced data, which makes
FKA advantageous.
25
3.2.2 Mathematical Development
In the stochastic process (3.1), if drift function ?(X) is the zero constant, there does
not exist the constraint (3.9). The matrix form of Kriging system (3.11) correspondingly
becomes:
2
66
66
66
4
S11 ??? S1N
... ... ...
SN1 ??? SNN
3
77
77
77
5
2
66
66
66
4
?1
...
?N
3
77
77
77
5
=
2
66
66
66
4
C1
...
CN
3
77
77
77
5
(3.24)
The Kriging model is called SK. If drift function ?(X) is an unknown non-zero constant,
the constraint (3.9) becomes a simple equation as follows:
?1 +???+?N = 1 (3.25)
The matrix form of Kriging system (3.11) is correspondingly formulated as:
2
66
66
66
66
66
4
0 1 ??? 1
1 S11 ??? SNN
... ... ... ...
1 SN1 ??? SNN
3
77
77
77
77
77
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
4
u1
?1
...
?N
3
77
77
77
77
77
5
=
2
66
66
66
66
66
4
1
C1
...
CN
3
77
77
77
77
77
5
(3.26)
This Kriging model is named OK. Equation (3.11) gives the general form of Kriging in
matrix form, and it is named UK.
Furthermore, assume the inverse of Kriging coe?cient matrix in Eq. (3.11) exists.
Then, the Kriging system in Eq. (3.11) can be solved and their solutions ?i can be expressed
26
as:
2
66
4
^U
^?
3
77
5 =
2
66
4
E G
Q H
3
77
5
2
66
4
f(X)
C(X)
3
77
5 (3.27)
where E, G, Q, and H are the partitioned matrices of the inverse of Kriging coe?cient
matrix. Then the estimation value of Z(X) can be carried out by using the following
formula:
^Z(X) =
?
Z(X1) ::: Z(XN)
?
Qf(X)+
?
Z(X1) ::: Z(XN)
?
HC(X) (3.28)
Noting that Z(X1);:::;Z(XN), Q and H are all known, in order to simplify the above
expression, the dissertation deflnes a new set of coe?cients below:
^fi =
?
^fi1 ??? ^fiN
?
=
?
Z(X1) ??? Z(XN)
?
Q (3.29)
^fl =
?
^fl1 ??? ^flN
?
=
?
Z(X1) ??? Z(XN)
?
H (3.30)
Thus the estimator of Z(X) is simplifled as:
^Z(X) = ^fif(X)+ ^flC(X) (3.31)
This Kriging model is called Dual Kriging.
27
3.3 Covariance Functions
3.3.1 Literature Review
In Kriging models, selecting a proper covariance function is a crucial problem. The
research on covariance functions mainly focuses on investigating the in uence of misspecifled
covariance function on estimates. Diamond and Armstrong [29], Sukhatme [142], Warnes
[155], Armstrong and Myers [4] investigate the in uence of small perturbations of covariance
function on a Kriging model. Yakowitz and Szidarovszky [159], Stein [140], and Stein and
Handock [141] study the behavior of Kriging models caused by an incorrect covariance
function as the number of observations in some flxed region increases. Stein [140] shows that
when the number of observed points increases, the impact caused by an incorrect covariance
function is asymptotically negligible if the adopted covariance function is \compatible" with
the actual covariance function in the region of interest. Journal and Huijbregts [65] indicate
that the spherical covariance function is inappropriate for most three-dimensional flelds.
3.3.2 Typical Covariance Functions
If the covariance function of a stochastic process only depends on the distance between
two points and is not in uenced by their particular flxed locations, the process is said to
be second-order stationary. When a stochastic process has the same covariance structure
in all directions, it is said to be homogeneous and isotropic. Homogeneity means that any
two points have the same flnite covariance if the distance between them is equal. Isotropy
means that the covariance has the property of being independent of direction. For simplicity,
Kriging models generally assume that covariance functions are homogeneous and isotropic.
Of course, the assumptions are not the prerequisites of Kriging models. Calculation of a
28
covariance function needs to have the knowledge of ?(X1) and ?(X2). In order to avoid this,
geologists develop another measurement of joint variation that can be calculated without
the means. This measurement is called variogram. Variogram is the variance of difierence
between Z(X1) and Z(X2). Mathematically, it is deflned as [14]:
2 (r) = Var(Z(X1)?Z(X2)) (3.32)
where (r) is named semi-variogram. The relationship between covariance and semi-
variogram is
Cov(Z(X1);Z(X2)) = Var(Z(X1))? (r) (3.33)
Some typical covariance functions and variogram frequently used under the homogeneous
and isotropic assumptions are listed below.
1. Pure nugget efiect covariance:
C(r) =
8>
><
>>:
C0 , if r = 0
0 , otherwise
(3.34)
2. Triangle model or tent (linear) covariance:
C(r) =
8
>><
>>:
C0(1? rd) , if r ? d
0 , otherwise
(3.35)
29
3. Cubic covariance (1):
C(r) =
8>
><
>>:
C0(1?3r2d2 +2r3d3) , if r ? d
0 , otherwise
(3.36)
4. \Cubic" covariance (2):
C(r) =
8
>><
>>:
C0(1?7r2d2 +8:75r3d3 ?3:5r5d5 +0:75r7d7) , if r ? d
0 , otherwise
(3.37)
where Chiles et al. [14] name the above polynomial as the \cubic" covariance function.
5. Spherical covariance:
C(r) =
8>
><
>>:
C0(1? 3r2d + r32d3) , if r ? d
0 , otherwise
(3.38)
6. Exponential covariance:
C(r) = C0e(?rd) (3.39)
7. Gaussian covariance:
C(r) = C0e?(rd)2 (3.40)
8. Power-function variogram:
(r) = prb, b 2 (0;2) (3.41)
30
9. Logarithmic or De Wijsian variogram [82]:
(r) = plog(r) (3.42)
where d is the in uence distance of a covariance function.
Generally, the triangle covariance function is used in a one-dimensional space. Cubic
and spherical covariance functions are used in the space one to three dimensions. Exponen-
tial and Gaussian covariance functions could be used in any space.
3.4 Neighbor Structures
The application of Kriging models involves how to select some proper data points to
perform interpolation. Theoretically, the more points included, the better, because any
smaller neighbors can be regarded as a constrained optimization with weights zero placed
on the discarded points. However, the problem is that when more data points are used, the
corresponding Kriging coe?cient matrix will become dimensionally larger, which will result
in the di?culties of calculating the inverse of the Kriging coe?cient matrix. In general,
Kriging models work well for up to 100 points. Davis and Grivet [24] further point out that
for some special purposes Kriging models can accommodate up to 400 points. However, it
is possible by using faster computers to accommodate more data points.
Two important guidelines about selecting neighbors are screening and relay efiects.
Mathematically, the screening efiect is to concentrate non-zero Kriging weights on a subset
of samples in the immediate vicinity of an estimated point, and block ofi the in uence
of all other data. The relay efiect shows the necessity to include more data points. The
relay efiect indicates that data points can in uence each other by virtue of relay even if
31
the distance between them is large. A simple example is that suppose there are a series of
random points Zi, Zi+1, ???, and they follow a normal distribution N(0; 2). If there is a
function relationship Zi+1 = !iZi between Zi and Zi+1. Then the covariance between Zi
and Zi+1 can be calculated as follows:
Cov(Zi;Zi+1) = Cov(Zi;!iZi) = !i 2 (3.43)
However, according to the relay efiect, it can be further noted that there is a covariance
between Zi and Zi+2 which is computed as follows:
Cov(Zi;Zi+2) = Cov(Zi;!i+1Zi+1) = Cov(Zi;!i+1!iZi) = !i+1!i 2 (3.44)
It is important to balance the need of screening and relay efiects to choose neighbors. The
need is embodied by choosing a proper in uence distance in a covariance function. When
a larger in uence distance is chosen, more points are included and the relay efiect can be
satisfled. However, including more points will increase the computational complexity of
Kriging. The screening efiect shows that it is feasible to limit the in uence distance of
covariance to decrease data points and to control the computational complexity of Kriging.
3.5 Variance and Accuracy
Kriging can provide the variance of interpolation errors ^ 2e. The variance can be used
to measure the accuracy of Kriging estimator. For the stochastic process (3.1), combining
32
equations (3.8, 3.9, 3.10) results in the variance of interpolation errors as follows:
^ 2e = Var[Z(X)]?
NX
i=1
^?iCov[Z(Xi);Z(X)]? NX
i=1
^?i MX
l=1
^ulfl(Xi) (3.45)
Thereferences[14,53]providesimilarversionsofEq. (3.45). Inreference[14], thecovariance
in Eq. (3.45) is a speciflc Gaussian covariance function. For SK, the base function is a zero
constant, and ^ 2e reduces to
^ 2e = Var[Z(X)]?
NX
i=1
^?iCov[Z(Xi);Z(X)] (3.46)
For OK, the base function is an unknown non-zero constant, and ^ 2e becomes
^ 2e = Var[Z(X)]?
NX
i=1
^?iCov[Z(Xi);Z(X)]? ^u1 (3.47)
where ^u1 is the only Lagrange multiplier estimator in the matrix system (3.26) of OK.
According to (3.8, 3.9, 3.10), ^ 2e is greater than zero.
3.6 Analysis on Properties
3.6.1 Algorithm Complexity
The algorithm complexity of Kriging is dominated by calculating the inverse of Kriging
coe?cient matrix. Therefore, the analysis on its algorithm complexity will focus on com-
puting this inverse matrix. The typical algorithm in linear algebra to compute the inverse of
a matrix is Gaussian elimination or Gauss-Jordan elimination, named after mathematician
Karl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Jordan.
33
The computational complexity of Gaussian elimination is O(N3), which means that
when the matrix size is N ?N, the computation required in Gaussian elimination is pro-
portional to N3. However, this algorithm is numerically unstable, at least on pathological
examples. For example, the oating-point errors committed throughout the computation
are accumulated, which makes the actual results far from correct solutions. For very large
matrix systems, Gauss-Jordan elimination is not a very good method because of its numeri-
cal instability and prohibitive computational cost, and iterative methods are more preferred.
For some special matrix systems, there exist some better computational methods. Some
classic references about how to compute an inverse matrix can be found in [66, 67].
When N increases, it will become more di?cult for Gaussian elimination to compute
an inverse matrix. However, it is unnecessary for Kriging to use a large number of observed
points to estimate the values of unknown points. According to covariance functions, the
covariances between an estimated point and the observed points far away from the esti-
mated point are close to zero, and thus these observed points can be removed. In addition,
for a cluster of observed points close to each other, the similarity among them is strong.
Thus, only several representative points are needed, because according to screening efiect it
is obviously redundant to use all of the observed points in this cluster. After these consid-
erations, the known points used to estimate the unknown points become very limited even
if the actual number of points is large. Thus the computational complexity of Kriging can
be well controlled. Additionally, a flnite covariance function often causes Kriging coe?cient
matrix to become sparse, which makes possible the use of sparse matrix solvers. A sparse
matrix is a matrix populated primarily with zeros.
34
3.6.2 Parameter Settings
One of the main issues of applying Kriging is to choose its parameters. A signiflcant
advantage of Kriging is that its parameter settings are limited. For SK and OK, only two
parameters which are covariance functions and in uence distances of covariance need be set.
In some practical problems, the selection of covariance functions and in uence distances of
covariance is very obvious or deflned by the problems. In this case, no parameters need be
set. Although parameter settings in Kriging are few, they are important and determine the
accuracy and e?ciency of Kriging interpolation.
3.7 Conclusions
This chapter introduced the basic principles of Kriging, and gave an advanced discus-
sion. The discussion analyzed some important structure properties of Kriging estimator,
and pointed out the similarities and difierences of Kriging, regression, and ANN. Subse-
quently, the chapter investigated some key structure components of Kriging. Finally, some
important properties of Kriging were discussed.
35
Chapter 4
Theoretical Developments Of Kriging For Simulation Interpolation
4.1 Introduction
The main goal of the chapter is to discuss three important theoretical developments of
Kriging which include a novel Kriging model based on Taylor expansion, the measurement
of in uence distance of covariance, and the sensitivity analysis method based on Kriging
and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). These developments can beneflt Kriging interpolation
and sensitivity analysis for simulation models.
For Simple Kriging (SK) and Ordinary Kriging (OK), the drift functions of models are
zero and an unknown nonzero constant, respectively, which limit the simulation interpola-
tion capabilities of these two Kriging models. Mathematically, Taylor expansion has strong
nonlinear function approximation abilities. If Taylor expansion can be integrated with Krig-
ing to describe the mean drift behavior of data, the simulation interpolation abilities of the
integrated Kriging may be stronger. With this idea in mind, this chapter develops a novel
Kriging model based on Taylor expansion.
The in uence distance in a covariance function impacts the simulation interpolation
performance of Kriging. Thus, it is essential to choose a proper value for it. However, this is
di?cult because difierent simulation problems have difierent data magnitudes. This chapter
suggests sample standard deviation to be the metric for in uence distance of covariance.
The objective is to simplify the setting of this parameter.
Sensitivity analysis can ofier insights into the variation in simulation outputs caused
by inputs. The outcome of sensitive analysis is to quantify the in uence of input factors
36
on outputs and to flnd critical input factors, which can help decision makers improve a
simulation model. Kriging models are explicit and difierentiable. Thus, it is feasible to apply
partial difierentiation to perform sensitivity analysis on independent variables of Kriging.
When Kriging is used to construct a metamodel for inputs and outputs of a complicated
simulation model, the sensitivity analysis on Kriging can assist model developers to analyze
the output sensitivity to inputs. The partial difierentiation equation of Kriging has not been
seen in references. This chapter devises its mathematical form. Together with ANOVA, it
is used to build a sensitivity analysis method for simulation models.
The organization of the chapter is as follows. First, a novel Kriging model based on
Taylor expansion is developed, and its key properties are discussed. Second, the use of
sample standard deviation to deflne in uence distance of covariance is described. Then, the
sensitivity analysis based on Kriging and ANOVA is presented. Finally, some conclusions
are given.
4.2 A Novel Kriging Model Based on Taylor Expansion
4.2.1 Model Development
Suppose ?(X) has continuous derivatives up to the (m+1)th order at point X0. Then
the Taylor expansion of ?(X) at the point X0 is:
?(X) = ?(X0)+?0(X0)(X?X0)+ ?
(2)(X0)
2! (X?X0)
2 +???
+?
(m)(X0)
m! (X?X0)
m + ?(m+1)(?)
(m+1)! (X?X0)
m+1 (4.1)
37
where ? is a vector in the Taylor expansion such that each of its components lies within the
corresponding components of X and X0. Obviously, the base functions in Eq. (4.1) are
fl(X) = (X?X0)l; l = 0;???;m+1 (4.2)
The Kriging matrix system therefore becomes:
2
66
4
0 FT
F S
3
77
5
2
66
4
U
?
3
77
5 =
0
BB
BB
BB
BB
BB
@
1
...
(X?X0)m+1
C(X)
1
CC
CC
CC
CC
CC
A
(4.3)
where
F =
2
66
66
66
4
1 ??? (X1 ?X0)m (X1 ?X0)m+1
... ... ... ...
1 ??? (XN ?X0)m (XN ?X0)m+1
3
77
77
77
5
(4.4)
Since this Kriging system is developed according to Taylor expansion, the Kriging model is
termed Taylor Kriging (TK).
4.2.2 Model Properties
Next the properties of TK are investigated. Compared with SK and OK, TK has one
more important parameter, m, to be determined. A Taylor expansion with high order (large
m) has better approximation capabilities. However, the computation complexity of TK will
quickly increase as m increases.
38
As discussed in Chapter 3, the computation complexity of Kriging is dominated by cal-
culating the inverse of Kriging coe?cient matrix K =
2
66
4
0 FT
F S
3
77
5. If Gaussian elimination
is used to invert K, the computational complexity of Kriging is O(N3), where N denotes
the matrix size. In TK, the size of K is determined by the number of known points used
to estimate an unknown point plus the order of Taylor expansion and the dimension of
independent variables. Suppose there are N known points, the order of Taylor expansion is
m, and the dimension of independent variables is D; then, the computational complexity of
TK is O((N+f(m;D))3). When the order in Taylor expansion is 1, the computational com-
plexity of the corresponding TK is O((N +(1+D))3). When the order in Taylor expansion
is 2 or 3, the computational complexity of TK becomes O((N +(1+D+D(D+1)=2))3) or
O((N+(1+D+D(D+1)=2+D2+D(D?1)(D?2)=(3?2?1))3), respectively. Clearly, as
the order of Taylor expansion m increases, the computation complexity of TK will increase
rapidly. For example, when N is equal to 5, the order of Taylor expansion is 2, and the
dimension of independent variables is 3, the size of K becomes 15 by 15, which is much
larger than those of SK (5 by 5) and OK (6 by 6).
However, like regression, a too high order could cause the overfltting problem. Consid-
ering computational complexity and overfltting, generally the value of m is a positive integer
less than 4. Another important parameter in the complexity formula is the dimension num-
ber D of variable X. If D substantially increases, Taylor expansion will be complicated and
the computational expenses of TK will increase rapidly.
39
4.3 The Measurement of In uence Distance of Covariance
The in uence distance of covariance represents the parameter d in Eq. (3.34, 3.35, 3.36,
3.37, 3.38, 3.39, 3.40). Once a covariance function is chosen, the parameter d need be set.
Note that a covariance function only has a parameter, that is d, which makes its selection
crucial. Since difierent simulation problems have difiering data magnitudes, the choosing
process becomes very di?cult. Here sample standard deviation denoted by S is adopted
and used as the measurement unit of in uence distance of covariance. S is calculated as
follows:
S =
vu
ut 1
N ?1
NX
i=1
[Z(Xi)?Z]2 (4.5)
where Z = 1N PNi=1 Z(Xi). The advantages of using sample standard deviation are as
follows:
1. Sample standard deviation is easily understood and calculated;
2. Using sample standard deviation as the measurement unit of in uence distance of
covariance can make difierent problems have a consistent measurement.
In addition, sample standard deviation is a relative measurement unit instead of an absolute
or flxed value. For example, if S = 0:2, two units of the sample standard deviation are equal
to 0.4; however, if S = 0:4, two units of the sample standard deviation become 0.8.
4.4 The Sensitivity Analysis Method Based on Kriging and ANOVA
Sensitivity analysis on a simulation model implies how simulation inputs in uence
outputs. If a slight change in the value of an input variable has a large impact on its
40
corresponding output, the simulation model is said to be very sensitive to the input vari-
able. This section uses the explicit and difierentiable properties of Kriging to develop its
partial difierentiation equation which is used to perform sensitivity analysis on independent
variables. Suppose that Kriging is utilized to flt a metamodel for inputs and outputs of
a complex simulation model. The sensitivity analysis on dependent variables of the fltted
Kriging metamodel can be used to analyze the output sensitivity of the simulation model
to inputs.
The partial derivative of Eq. (3.31) with respect to variable xj is calculated as follows:
@
@xj
^Z(X) = ^fi
2
66
66
66
4
@
@xjf1(X)
...
@
@xjfM(X)
3
77
77
77
5
+ ^fl
2
66
66
66
4
@
@xjC1
...
@
@xjCN
3
77
77
77
5
(4.6)
If the covariance function below is adopted to compute the covariance between two points
in a space,
Ci = C(ri) i = 1;???;N (4.7)
where
ri =
vu
ut NX
j=1
(xj ?xij)2 (4.8)
the partial derivative of Ci with respect to xj is given by:
@Ci
@xj =
@C(ri)
@ri
@ri
@xj =
@C(ri)
@ri
(xj ?xij)q
PN
j=1(xj ?xij)2
(4.9)
41
Once the speciflc covariance and base functions are chosen, @@xj ^Z(X) will become explicit.
For example, assume that the chosen covariance function is a cubic covariance (2) function.
Then the partial derivative of the covariance function with respect to xj becomes
@Ci
@xj =
(xj ?xij)q
PN
j=1(xj ?xij)2
C0(1?14rid2 +26:25r
2i
d3 ?17:5
r4i
d5 +5:25
r6i
d7) (4.10)
For SK and OK, the base functions are constants and thus their partial derivatives with re-
spect to xj become zero. For Taylor Kriging, although the base functions are not constants,
their partial derivatives with respect to xj can be calculated easily.
When a fltted Kriging metamodel is given, its partial derivative can be used to assist in
sensitivity analysis of a simulation model. However, it is necessary to flrst determine which
fltted Kriging metamodel should be chosen. Here analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used
to select a fltted Kriging metamodel. ANOVA developed by Sir R. A. Fisher is a powerful
tool to analyze experimental data. It is a statistical procedure to allocate the amount of
variation in a process and to determine if a factor?s impact on outputs is signiflcant or caused
by random noise [129]. Average Absolute Relative Error (AARE) between actual values
and Kriging outputs is a chosen evaluation standard. ANOVA tests signiflcant difierences
of AAREs and then determines which Kriging metamodel is more efiective and should
be used for the following simulation interpolation and sensitivity analysis. If ANOVA
indicates multiple signiflcant metamodels, theoretically any of them can be adopted. In
the dissertation the Kriging metamodel with a smallest AARE and/or a simplest function
form among these models will be chosen and used subsequently.
42
4.5 Conclusions
Chapter 4 used Taylor expansion to approximate a drift function, thus developing a
novel Kriging model. Taylor expansion has strong functional approximating capabilities
and can help Kriging better capture the mean drift behavior of data, thereby enhancing
the simulation interpolation potentials of Kriging. In uence distance of covariance is an
important parameter of a Kriging model. Sample standard deviation is suggested to be
its metric. One signiflcant advantage of using sample standard deviation is that difierent
simulation problems have a consistent measurement unit for in uence distance of covari-
ance. Sensitivity analysis can investigate the variation in simulation outputs caused by
inputs. The chapter developed a partial difierentiation equation of Kriging and used it to
analyze the sensitivity of a dependent variable to independent variables in a Kriging meta-
model, thus indirectly realizing the sensitivity analysis of simulation outputs on inputs in
its corresponding simulation model.
43
Chapter 5
Kriging Metamodeling For Deterministic And Stochastic Simulation
Interpolation
5.1 Introduction
Interpolation is a key problem of simulation modeling. The objective of interpolation
is to signiflcantly reduce the expense of running simulation models. Chapter 4 theoretically
establishes a Kriging model based on Taylor expansion named Taylor Kriging (TK) to
enhance the potentials of Kriging simulation interpolation. This chapter will conduct the
empirical research to show its superiority. Some simulated test cases under deterministic
and stochastic environments will be used to compare and analyze the interpolation accuracy
and e?ciency of Simple Kriging (SK) where the drift function is zero, Ordinary Kriging
(OK) where the drift function is an unknown nonzero constant, and TK. These test cases
are based on some multimodal benchmark functions.
The chapter is organized as follows. First, the generation of initial simulation inputs
based on Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) will be introduced. Second, the interpolation
accuracy and efiectiveness of SK, OK and TK under deterministic environments will be
compared and analyzed by using four simulated cases. Next, the stochastic simulation
interpolation of SK, OK and TK will be conducted, and some problems related to stochastic
simulation interpolation will be investigated. Finally, some conclusions will be provided.
44
5.2 Generation of Simulation Data
Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is chosen to generate initial simulation input values.
LHS is proposed by McKay, Beckman and Conover [90]. They point out that LHS has a
smaller variance than Simple Random Sampling (SRS). Stein [139] and Owen [113] give a
speciflc expression for the variance. Sacks, Welch, Mitchell and Wynn [124] indicate that
LHS is an extension of stratifled sampling which ensures that each of input variables has all
portions of its range represented. The main advantages of LHS are that it is computationally
less expensive to generate, and can deal with a large number of runs and input variables.
The procedure of LHS is as follows [39]:
1. Let ?j(1);???;?j(N) be a random permutation of the integers 1;???;N. Generate s
permutations (j = 1;???;s), thus obtaining a Latin Hypercube Design (LHD) ex-
pressed as LHD(N, s);
2. Next generate a matrix of N ? s uniform variates (also called random numbers in
Monte Carlo methods) Ujk ? U(0;1);k = 1;???;N;j = 1;???;s, which are mutually
independent. Let Xk = (xk1;???;xks), where,
xkj = ?j(k)?U
j
k
N k = 1;???;N;j = 1;???;s: (5.1)
where 0 ? xkj ? 1. Then DN = fX1;???;XNg is an LHS denoted by LHS(N;s).
Scatter flgures 5.1 and 5.2 are two sampling examples, each including 25 observations,
from SRS and LHS, respectively. For Figure 5.2, corresponding to the algorithm above,
N is equal to 25, s equal to 2 which means that each point has two dimensions, and the
algorithm generates an LHS(25, 2) design. In Figure 5.2, each row and each column only
45
have a randomly representative point. However, in Figure 5.1, it is possible that there
are no points or more than one point in a row or column. Clearly, LHS avoids redundant
sampling and ensures that there is su?cient observations.
5.3 Kriging Interpolation for Deterministic Simulation
5.3.1 Test Functions and Procedures
Four deterministic simulation cases based on multimodal benchmark functions are used
to compare the simulation interpolation capabilities of SK, OK and TK. These functions
are as follows.
1. The Himmelblau Function (Hmb). The search domain of function is ?6 < xi < 6;i =
1;2. The function has several local minima and one global minimum [71].
Hmb = (x21 +x2 ?11)2 +(x1 +x22 ?7)2 +0:1((x1 ?3)2 +(x2 ?2)2) (5.2)
2. The Six Hump Camelback Function (SHC). The search domain of function is ?3 <
x1 < 3 and ?2 < x2 < 2. The function has six local minima and two global minima
[8].
SHC = (4?2:1x21 + x
41
3 )x
2
1 +x1x2 +(?4+4x
2
2)x
2
2 (5.3)
3. The B2 Function. The search domain of function is ?100 < xi < 100;i = 1;2. The
function has several local minima and one global minimum [38].
B2 = x21 +2x22 ?0:3cos(3?x1)?0:4cos(3?x2)+0:7 (5.4)
46
Figure 5.1: Scatter Figure of 25 Samples from SRS
47
Figure 5.2: Scatter Figure of 25 Samples from LHD
48
4. The Rastrigin Function (Ras). The search domain of function is ?5:12 ? xi ?
5:12;i = 1;2;???;D. D is the dimension number. The function has several local
minima and one global minimum [38].
Ras = 10D +
DX
i=1
(x2i ?10cos(2?xi)) (5.5)
In the Ras function, D is arbitrarily set at 10.
The test process is divided into four steps. The flrst step is to use LHS to generate
150 simulation inputs in the feasible region of independent variables, and to obtain their
corresponding simulation outputs (function values). Using LHS to generate 150 simulation
inputs means that in the LHS algorithm N is set to 150, which is similar to the example
of N equal to 25 in Section 5.2. The second step is to use the 150 inputs and outputs to
flt Kriging models with difierent parameter settings. Next, 50 inputs generated uniformly
and randomly in the feasible region are used to test the fltted Kriging models. Finally,
the average absolute relative error (AARE) percentages of 50 predicted outputs are used as
the standard of performance measurement to evaluate the performance of Kriging models.
Here, Absolute Relative Error (ARE) is calculated as follows:
ARE = jyp ?yay
a
j?100% (5.6)
where ya and yp are the actual and predicted simulation outputs, respectively, and jyp?yaj
expresses the absolute error.
49
5.3.2 Result Comparison
Scatter flgures 5.3 and 5.4 graphically describe the simulation inputs of the flrst test
function. The simulation inputs in Figure 5.3 are generated by using LHS in the feasible
regions of the Hmb function. The simulation inputs in Figure 5.4 are uniformly and stochas-
tically generated. The AARE percentages of 50 interpolated outputs from difierent Kriging
models for the four test functions are shown in Tables 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4, respectively.
In these tables, SD represents standard deviation. The column of SD gives the values of
the in uence distance of covariance which could be 2SD, or 5SD, etc.. According to these
tables, the best fltted models for difierent types of Kriging are listed in Table 5.5.
The Kriging models with smallest AARE percentages from SK, OK and TK, respec-
tively, are compared in Table 5.6 which indicates the averages, minima and maxima of ARE
percentages of 50 tested simulation outputs. These values consistently indicate that for the
four functions, TK performs best. Since drift functions of SK, OK, and TK are zero, a
nonzero constant, and a polynomial whose order is usually less than 5, respectively, TK has
the strongest approximation potentials. As expected, TK has the best performance. For
example, the Taylor expansion with order 3 serving as a drift function is very close to the
Hmb function. The Kriging model with the Taylor expansion exhibits the best performance.
In Table 5.1, the AAREs of the OK models with cubic (2) covariance function and
the TK models of order 3 with Cubic (2) covariance function are close. It is di?cult to
tell whether the outputs from these two types of Kriging models are signiflcantly difierent.
Here the paired t-test is used to test the AARE difierences, and Table 5.7 gives the results.
In Table 5.7, Variables 1 and 2 represent the OK models with cubic (2) covariance function
50
Figure 5.3: Scatter Figure of 150 Samples of First Test Function (Hmb)
51
Figure 5.4: Scatter Figure of 50 Test Samples of First Test Function (Hmb)
52
Table 5.1: AARE of First Test Function (Hmb) (%)
Covariance SD SK OK Order of Taylor Kriging
Function 1 2 3 4
Nugget 0 100 205.3478 205.3478 205.0371 115.8544 106.6875
Linear 1 10.7457 10.7088 10.7088 10.6995 8.3727 8.4311
2 10.7269 10.7088 10.7088 10.6995 8.3727 8.4311
3 10.7208 10.7088 10.7088 10.6995 8.3727 8.4311
4 10.7177 10.7088 10.7088 10.6995 8.3727 8.4311
5 10.7159 10.7088 10.7088 10.6995 8.3727 8.4311
Cubic (2) 1 1.3279 1.3046 1.3046 1.3048 1.1597 1.1636
2 1.3161 1.3041 1.3041 1.3042 1.1597 1.1641
3 1.3115 1.3031 1.3031 1.3049 1.1602 1.1636
4 1.3086 1.3041 1.3041 1.3023 1.1583 1.1630
5 1.3052 1.3008 1.3008 1.3010 1.1595 1.1588
Spherical 1 10.7633 10.7071 10.7071 10.6978 8.3721 8.4306
2 10.7357 10.7084 10.7084 10.6991 8.3725 8.4310
3 10.7267 10.7086 10.7086 10.6993 8.3726 8.4311
4 10.7222 10.7087 10.7087 10.6994 8.3726 8.4311
5 10.7195 10.7087 10.7087 10.6994 8.3726 8.4311
Exponential 1 10.7446 10.7099 10.7099 10.7003 8.3729 8.4314
2 10.7267 10.7091 10.7091 10.6997 8.3727 8.4312
3 10.7207 10.7090 10.7090 10.6996 8.3727 8.4312
4 10.7177 10.7089 10.7089 10.6995 8.3727 8.4312
5 10.7159 10.7089 10.7089 10.6995 8.3727 8.4311
Minimum= 1.1583
53
Table 5.2: AARE of Second Test Function (SHC) (%)
Covariance SD SK OK Order of Taylor Kriging
Function 1 2 3 4
Nugget 0 100 78.9620 78.9620 80.4530 69.6518 764.9876
Linear 1 29.3027 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
2 29.3737 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
3 29.3946 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
4 29.4047 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
5 29.4105 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
Cubic (2) 1 3.7112 4.0921 4.0921 4.0936 4.0055 3.4727
2 3.6456 4.1018 4.1018 4.1022 4.0112 3.4778
3 3.6213 4.1035 4.1035 4.1038 4.0122 3.4786
4 3.6087 4.1040 4.1040 4.1045 4.0124 3.4791
5 3.6015 4.1045 4.1045 4.1042 4.0132 3.4790
Spherical 1 29.3269 51.0731 51.0731 51.2141 42.0161 35.0955
2 29.3637 51.1230 51.1230 51.2571 41.9311 35.1327
3 29.3838 51.1365 51.1365 51.2696 41.9155 35.1396
4 29.3951 51.1415 51.1415 51.2743 41.9101 35.1420
5 29.4022 51.1440 51.1440 51.2765 41.9076 35.1431
Exponential 1 29.3259 51.1874 51.1874 51.3364 41.8479 35.1699
2 29.3796 51.1526 51.1526 51.2935 41.8892 35.1513
3 29.3974 51.1482 51.1482 51.2863 41.8970 35.1478
4 29.4063 51.1470 51.1470 51.2837 41.8997 35.1467
5 29.4116 51.1468 51.1468 51.2826 41.9009 35.1461
Minimum= 3.4727
54
Table 5.3: AARE of Third Test Function (B2) (%)
Covariance SD SK OK Order of Taylor Kriging
Function 1 2 3 4
Nugget 0 100 139.1253 139.1253 140.0583 0.0049 0.0050
Linear 1 1.0818 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
2 1.0757 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
3 1.0737 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
4 1.0728 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
5 1.0722 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
Cubic (2) 1 0.0248 0.0236 0.0236 0.0236 0.0073 0.0073
2 0.0243 0.0236 0.0236 0.0238 0.0075 0.0079
3 0.0250 0.0251 0.0251 0.0241 0.0097 0.0112
4 0.0334 0.0357 0.0357 0.0347 0.0140 0.0135
5 0.0457 0.0425 0.0425 0.0406 0.0269 0.0244
Spherical 1 1.0876 1.0695 1.0695 1.0749 0.0051 0.0051
2 1.0786 1.0697 1.0697 1.0752 0.0051 0.0051
3 1.0757 1.0698 1.0698 1.0752 0.0051 0.0051
4 1.0742 1.0698 1.0698 1.0752 0.0051 0.0051
5 1.0733 1.0698 1.0698 1.0752 0.0051 0.0051
Exponential 1 1.0814 1.0699 1.0699 1.0754 0.0051 0.0051
2 1.0756 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
3 1.0737 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
4 1.0727 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
5 1.0721 1.0698 1.0698 1.0753 0.0051 0.0051
Minimum= 0.0049
55
Table 5.4: AARE of Fourth Test Function (Ras) (%)
Covariance SD SK OK Order of Taylor Kriging
Function 1 2 3 4
Nugget 0 100 15.77 15.77 16.113 14.334 1012.61
Linear 1 13.801 12.377 12.377 12.468 14.733 990.789
2 12.614 12.377 12.377 12.468 14.733 1182.203
3 12.468 12.377 12.377 12.468 14.733 489.747
4 12.429 12.377 12.377 12.468 14.733 3172.592
5 12.408 12.377 12.377 12.468 14.733 4221.687
Cubic (2) 1 16.288 15.257 15.257 14.987 16.287 1459.488
2 15.096 15.227 15.227 15.122 16.135 11049.384
3 15.139 15.195 15.195 15.132 16.091 1042.38
4 15.146 15.179 15.179 15.135 16.074 9381.389
5 15.147 15.169 15.169 15.136 16.066 65029.349
Spherical 1 15.156 12.423 12.423 12.518 14.744 859.771
2 12.834 12.39 12.39 12.479 14.736 2257.75
3 12.59 12.383 12.383 12.473 14.734 8957.383
4 12.491 12.381 12.381 12.471 14.734 818.743
5 12.449 12.379 12.379 12.47 14.734 6815.851
Exponential 1 12.705 12.328 12.328 12.45 14.728 775.231
2 12.489 12.354 12.354 12.463 14.732 14370.155
3 12.433 12.364 12.364 12.466 14.733 12770.434
4 12.41 12.368 12.368 12.467 14.733 8664.75
5 12.396 12.37 12.37 12.467 14.733 4070.494
Minimum= 12.328
56
Table 5.5: Parameter Settings of Chosen Kriging Models for Four Test Functions
Problem Kriging Covariance In uence Distance Order
Type Function (SD)
Hmb Simple Cubic (2) 5 ??????
Ordinary Cubic (2) 5 ??????
Taylor Cubic (2) 4 3
SHC Simple Cubic (2) 5 ??????
Ordinary Cubic (2) 1 ??????
Taylor Cubic (2) 1 4
B2 Simple Cubic (2) 2 ??????
Ordinary Cubic (2) 1 ??????
Taylor Nugget 0 3
Ras Simple Exponential 5 ??????
Ordinary Exponential 1 ??????
Taylor Exponential 1
Table 5.6: ARE Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Four Test Functions (%)
Test ARE Simple Ordinary Taylor
Tunction Kriging Kriging Kriging
Hmb Average 1.305 1.301 1.158
Minimum 0.003 0.001 0.000
Maximum 10.219 10.196 9.424
SHC Average 3.601 4.092 3.473
Minimum 0.014 0.014 0.024
Maximum 37.904 59.654 38.853
B2 Average 0.024 0.024 0.005
Minimum 0.000 0.000 0.000
Maximum 0.343 0.336 0.024
Ras Average 12.396 12.328 12.328
Minimum 0.11 0.158 0.158
Maximum 42.022 41.715 41.482
57
Table 5.7: Paired t-test for Chosen Kriging Models in Table 5.1
Variable 1 Variable 2
Mean 1.3034 1.1595
Degree of freedom 4
t0 180.9594
P(T ? t0) one-tail 0.0000
t0:05 Critical one-tail 2.1318
Table 5.8: Paired t-test for Chosen Kriging Models in Table 5.2
Variable 1 Variable 2
Mean 3.6377 3.4774
Degree of freedom 4
t0 7.6133
P(T ? t0) one-tail 0.0008
t0:05 Critical one-tail 2.1318
and the TK models of order 3 with cubic (2) covariance function, respectively. The test
results show that their AAREs are signiflcantly difierent, and the TK models are better.
Similarly, Table 5.8 gives the t-test result of the AAREs from the SK models with cubic
(2) covariance function and the TK models of order 4 with cubic (2) covariance function
in Table 5.2 where Variables 1 and 2 are the SK models with cubic (2) covariance function
and the TK models of order 4 with cubic (2) covariance function, respectively. The tested
AAREs show that the TK models are better. For Table 5.3, the TK models are obviously
best and there are no needs to conduct a statistical test.
58
5.4 Kriging Interpolation for Stochastic Simulation
5.4.1 Test Functions and Procedures
The following stochastic function is designed to analyze the stochastic simulation in-
terpolation capabilities of SK, OK and TK:
F(X) = J(X)+"(X) (5.7)
J(X) is a multimodal benchmark function which is simulated to generate trend data. The
chosen benchmark functions are Hmb and SHC, respectively, and "(X) is a normal random
variable.
The interpolation procedure is divided into four steps. The flrst step is similar to the
deterministic simulation interpolation, and LHS is used to generate 150 simulation inputs
in the feasible region of independent variables. Simulating J(X) can generate their corre-
sponding trend data. The function \randn" in Matlab is used to generate standard NIID
(normal independent and identical distribution) random values which are then transformed
to the values "(X) with N(0; 2). Thus, 150 simulation outputs of F(X) can be obtained
according to Eq. (5.7). In the second step, the 150 input and output values of F(X) are
used to flt Kriging models with difierent parameter settings. In the third step, 50 inputs
are stochastically sampled in the feasible region of independent variables. The stochastic
sampling follows a uniform distribution. Similarly, the function \randn" in Matlab is used
to generate random values of "(X). The 50 inputs and outputs of F(X) are then utilized to
test the fltted Kriging models. In the fourth step, a number of replications are conducted
since F(X) is stochastic. For the two constructed test problems, the number of replications
59
are 100. The norm L2 of the errors of 50 predicted outputs for each replication is calculated
according to the following formula:
kXek =
vu
ut 50X
i=1
x2ei (5.8)
The extreme values, means, standard deviations, and quantiles Q0:1 and Q0:9 of L2 of 100
replications are then used to evaluate the stochastic simulation interpolation performance
of difierent Kriging models.
5.4.2 Result Comparison
The L2 comparison results of the replications from difierent Kriging models for Hmb
and SHC functions are shown in Tables 5.9, 5.10, 5.11 5.12, (5.13, 5.14, 5.15 and 5.16).
In these tables, \TK-O3-Cubic(2)-3" represents a TK model of order 3 with cubic (2)
covariance function and in uence distance of covariance equal to 3 standard deviations
(SD). For other expressions, readers can refer to the explanation.
According to the mean columns of these tables, the best fltted Kriging models for
Hmb and SHC are a TK model of order 4 with cubic (2) covariance function and in uence
distance of covariance equal to 1, and a TK model of order 2 with cubic (2) covariance
function and in uence distance of covariance equal to 1, respectively. Figures 5.5 and 5.6
are drawn to show the interpolation efiectiveness of these two Kriging models. In the two
flgures, actual Y implies the average values of function outputs of 100 replications for each
of 50 test points, and predicted Y represents the average values of predicted outputs from
Kriging of 100 replications for each of 50 test points. The graphical trends show that the
60
means of actual and predicted outputs are very close, which indicates that the two Kriging
models have good prediction capabilities.
5.4.3 Analysis on Replication and Variance
In the Kriging interpolation for stochastic simulation, there are two crucial parame-
ters which need be investigated. They are the number of simulation replications and the
variance of random variable "(X). That is, how many simulation replications are needed
so that Kriging can provide valid mean outputs by interpolation? How does the variance
of "(X) in uence the interpolation performance of Kriging? For the simulation with costly
computational expense, the selection of replication numbers becomes more important. It
is necessary to limit the number of replications while obtaining valid Kriging interpolation
values. This part is to test difierent numbers of simulation replications and difierent vari-
ance values of random variable "(X) to investigate their in uence on Kriging interpolation
performance.
For each point of 50 test samples, actual and predicted output means of 100 replications
are calculated, and then the AREs of actual and predicted output means can be obtained.
The average of 50 AREs from 50 test samples, that is AARE, is used to evaluate the
interpolation performance of difierent Kriging models. The related results are shown in
Tables 5.17 and 5.18.
Figures 5.7 and 5.8 are drawn to show the change trend of the AAREs for difierent
replications and variance values. From the two flgures, it can be concluded that as variance
values increase, AAREs increase, and as replications increase, AAREs decrease. That is, a
larger variance value for random variable "(X) makes Kriging interpolation less accurate,
61
Table 5.9: L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Hmb Function - 1
Kriging Min Max Mean Stdev Percentile Percentile
Models 0.1 0.9
SK-Nugget-0 2697.059 2703.110 2700.274 1.162 2698.793 2701.664
SK-Linear-1 225.215 231.029 228.177 1.115 226.819 229.572
SK-Linear-2 224.786 230.599 227.747 1.115 226.390 229.143
SK-Linear-3 224.647 230.459 227.608 1.115 226.251 229.004
SK-Linear-4 224.578 230.390 227.539 1.115 226.183 228.935
SK-Linear-5 224.537 230.349 227.497 1.115 226.142 228.894
SK-Cubic(1)-1 44.953 53.165 48.923 1.602 46.899 50.687
SK-Cubic(1)-2 44.556 52.774 48.530 1.603 46.504 50.294
SK-Cubic(1)-3 44.420 52.627 48.400 1.602 46.374 50.177
SK-Cubic(1)-4 44.364 52.587 48.337 1.604 46.314 50.069
SK-Cubic(1)-5 44.257 52.489 48.299 1.604 46.282 50.081
SK-Cubic(2)-1 45.122 53.331 49.094 1.601 47.072 50.857
SK-Cubic(2)-2 44.646 52.861 48.621 1.603 46.594 50.384
SK-Cubic(2)-3 44.487 52.703 48.462 1.603 46.435 50.226
SK-Cubic(2)-4 44.402 52.628 48.383 1.604 46.353 50.145
SK-Cubic(2)-5 44.337 52.571 48.336 1.603 46.313 50.094
SK-Spherical-1 225.627 231.442 228.590 1.114 227.230 229.984
SK-Spherical-2 224.990 230.804 227.952 1.115 226.594 229.348
SK-Spherical-3 224.782 230.595 227.744 1.115 226.387 229.140
SK-Spherical-4 224.679 230.492 227.641 1.115 226.284 229.037
SK-Spherical-5 224.618 230.430 227.579 1.115 226.223 228.975
OK-Nugget-0 1826.512 1831.189 1828.974 0.987 1827.633 1830.200
OK-Linear-1 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
OK-Linear-2 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
OK-Linear-3 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
OK-Linear-4 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
OK-Linear-5 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
OK-Cubic(1)-1 44.179 52.397 48.159 1.603 46.129 49.919
OK-Cubic(1)-2 44.176 52.400 48.153 1.604 46.121 49.916
OK-Cubic(1)-3 44.183 52.384 48.151 1.603 46.121 49.922
OK-Cubic(1)-4 44.178 52.390 48.151 1.606 46.116 49.887
OK-Cubic(1)-5 44.148 52.284 48.155 1.601 46.141 49.873
OK-Cubic(2)-1 44.210 52.427 48.194 1.602 46.164 49.952
OK-Cubic(2)-2 44.183 52.402 48.164 1.603 46.133 49.925
OK-Cubic(2)-3 44.179 52.394 48.156 1.604 46.124 49.920
OK-Cubic(2)-4 44.167 52.395 48.153 1.605 46.119 49.915
OK-Cubic(2)-5 44.159 52.384 48.152 1.602 46.129 49.907
62
Table 5.10: L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Hmb Function - 2
Kriging Min Max Mean Stdev Percentile Percentile
Models 0.1 0.9
OK-Spherical-1 224.344 230.155 227.304 1.116 225.949 228.701
OK-Spherical-2 224.366 230.178 227.327 1.116 225.971 228.724
OK-Spherical-3 224.370 230.182 227.331 1.116 225.976 228.728
OK-Spherical-4 224.372 230.183 227.332 1.116 225.977 228.730
OK-Spherical-5 224.373 230.184 227.333 1.116 225.978 228.730
TK-O1-Nugget-0 1826.512 1831.189 1828.974 0.987 1827.633 1830.200
TK-O1-Linear-1 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
TK-O1-Linear-2 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
TK-O1-Linear-3 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
TK-O1-Linear-4 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
TK-O1-Linear-5 224.374 230.185 227.334 1.116 225.979 228.731
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-1 44.179 52.397 48.159 1.603 46.129 49.919
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-2 44.176 52.400 48.153 1.604 46.121 49.916
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-3 44.183 52.384 48.151 1.603 46.121 49.922
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-4 44.178 52.390 48.151 1.606 46.116 49.887
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-5 44.148 52.284 48.155 1.601 46.141 49.873
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-1 44.210 52.427 48.194 1.602 46.164 49.952
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-2 44.183 52.402 48.164 1.603 46.133 49.925
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-3 44.179 52.394 48.156 1.604 46.124 49.920
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-4 44.167 52.395 48.153 1.605 46.119 49.915
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-5 44.159 52.384 48.152 1.602 46.129 49.907
TK-O1-Spherical-1 224.344 230.155 227.304 1.116 225.949 228.701
TK-O1-Spherical-2 224.366 230.178 227.327 1.116 225.971 228.724
TK-O1-Spherical-3 224.370 230.182 227.331 1.116 225.976 228.728
TK-O1-Spherical-4 224.372 230.183 227.332 1.116 225.977 228.730
TK-O1-Spherical-5 224.373 230.184 227.333 1.116 225.978 228.730
TK-O2-Nugget-0 1787.354 1792.224 1790.028 1.026 1788.667 1791.174
TK-O2-Linear-1 221.807 227.581 224.740 1.117 223.398 226.147
TK-O2-Linear-2 221.807 227.581 224.740 1.117 223.398 226.147
TK-O2-Linear-3 221.807 227.581 224.740 1.117 223.398 226.147
TK-O2-Linear-4 221.807 227.581 224.740 1.117 223.398 226.147
TK-O2-Linear-5 221.807 227.581 224.740 1.117 223.398 226.147
63
Table 5.11: L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Hmb Function - 3
Kriging Min Max Mean Stdev Percentile Percentile
Models 0.1 0.9
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-1 44.170 52.389 48.146 1.604 46.116 49.908
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-2 44.168 52.390 48.146 1.604 46.114 49.910
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-3 44.190 52.372 48.146 1.603 46.123 49.894
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-4 44.162 52.389 48.144 1.601 46.129 49.889
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-5 44.114 52.414 48.152 1.605 46.132 49.880
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-1 44.192 52.412 48.169 1.604 46.138 49.931
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-2 44.173 52.395 48.152 1.604 46.122 49.914
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-3 44.173 52.391 48.149 1.604 46.120 49.918
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-4 44.175 52.394 48.148 1.604 46.118 49.903
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-5 44.168 52.390 48.147 1.603 46.122 49.902
TK-O2-Spherical-1 221.771 227.545 224.704 1.117 223.362 226.111
TK-O2-Spherical-2 221.798 227.572 224.731 1.117 223.389 226.138
TK-O2-Spherical-3 221.803 227.577 224.736 1.117 223.394 226.143
TK-O2-Spherical-4 221.805 227.578 224.738 1.117 223.396 226.145
TK-O2-Spherical-5 221.806 227.579 224.739 1.117 223.397 226.146
TK-O3-Nugget-0 972.240 975.865 974.217 0.875 973.060 975.299
TK-O3-Linear-1 165.315 171.507 168.544 1.210 167.073 170.082
TK-O3-Linear-2 165.315 171.507 168.544 1.210 167.073 170.082
TK-O3-Linear-3 165.315 171.507 168.544 1.210 167.073 170.082
TK-O3-Linear-4 165.315 171.507 168.544 1.210 167.073 170.082
TK-O3-Linear-5 165.315 171.507 168.544 1.210 167.073 170.082
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-1 38.465 46.799 42.486 1.622 40.398 44.188
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-2 38.458 46.807 42.486 1.623 40.396 44.184
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-3 38.474 46.795 42.486 1.624 40.387 44.184
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-4 38.518 46.790 42.485 1.621 40.391 44.170
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-5 38.487 46.831 42.491 1.623 40.337 44.228
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-1 38.448 46.783 42.471 1.622 40.382 44.172
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-2 38.461 46.793 42.482 1.622 40.393 44.183
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-3 38.464 46.794 42.484 1.622 40.395 44.182
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-4 38.461 46.802 42.486 1.623 40.397 44.181
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-5 38.484 46.800 42.486 1.623 40.397 44.191
64
Table 5.12: L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for Hmb Function - 4
Kriging Min Max Mean Stdev Percentile Percentile
Models 0.1 0.9
TK-O3-Spherical-1 165.308 171.500 168.537 1.210 167.066 170.074
TK-O3-Spherical-2 165.313 171.505 168.543 1.210 167.071 170.080
TK-O3-Spherical-3 165.314 171.506 168.544 1.210 167.072 170.081
TK-O3-Spherical-4 165.315 171.507 168.544 1.210 167.073 170.081
TK-O3-Spherical-5 165.315 171.507 168.544 1.210 167.073 170.081
TK-O4-Nugget-0 812.664 816.649 814.652 0.875 813.591 815.811
TK-O4-Linear-1 163.578 169.955 167.048 1.283 165.486 168.720
TK-O4-Linear-2 163.578 169.955 167.048 1.283 165.486 168.720
TK-O4-Linear-3 163.578 169.955 167.048 1.283 165.486 168.720
TK-O4-Linear-4 163.578 169.955 167.048 1.283 165.486 168.720
TK-O4-Linear-5 163.578 169.955 167.048 1.283 165.486 168.720
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-1 35.518 44.362 39.800 1.557 37.716 41.569
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-2 35.533 44.366 39.800 1.556 37.716 41.570
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-3 35.531 44.380 39.800 1.557 37.711 41.564
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-4 35.445 44.342 39.806 1.555 37.745 41.589
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-5 35.456 44.362 39.799 1.548 37.787 41.576
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-1 35.510 44.353 39.790 1.557 37.707 41.560
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-2 35.518 44.359 39.797 1.556 37.715 41.567
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-3 35.521 44.361 39.799 1.556 37.716 41.567
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-4 35.524 44.345 39.799 1.556 37.713 41.567
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-5 35.497 44.360 39.800 1.556 37.740 41.562
TK-O4-Spherical-1 163.571 169.948 167.041 1.283 165.479 168.713
TK-O4-Spherical-2 163.577 169.953 167.046 1.283 165.484 168.718
TK-O4-Spherical-3 163.578 169.954 167.047 1.283 165.485 168.719
TK-O4-Spherical-4 163.578 169.954 167.047 1.283 165.486 168.719
TK-O4-Spherical-5 163.578 169.954 167.047 1.283 165.486 168.719
Minimum= 35.445 44.342 39.790 0.875 37.707 41.560
65
Table 5.13: L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for SHC Function - 1
Kriging Min Max Mean Stdev Percentile Percentile
Models 0.1 0.9
SK-Nugget-0 170.537 175.568 172.799 1.030 171.755 174.322
SK-Linear-1 16.120 21.293 19.191 1.143 17.833 20.599
SK-Linear-2 15.940 21.122 19.023 1.142 17.658 20.430
SK-Linear-3 15.888 21.073 18.974 1.142 17.609 20.380
SK-Linear-4 15.862 21.050 18.951 1.142 17.586 20.357
SK-Linear-5 15.848 21.036 18.937 1.142 17.572 20.343
SK-Cubic(1)-1 8.649 19.362 13.436 2.126 10.811 16.181
SK-Cubic(1)-2 8.659 19.323 13.414 2.130 10.770 16.179
SK-Cubic(1)-3 8.664 19.307 13.409 2.132 10.764 16.182
SK-Cubic(1)-4 8.667 19.299 13.407 2.133 10.762 16.183
SK-Cubic(1)-5 8.668 19.294 13.406 2.134 10.761 16.185
SK-Cubic(2)-1 8.647 19.400 13.426 2.123 10.810 16.171
SK-Cubic(2)-2 8.658 19.337 13.414 2.129 10.774 16.179
SK-Cubic(2)-3 8.663 19.316 13.410 2.131 10.764 16.182
SK-Cubic(2)-4 8.665 19.305 13.408 2.132 10.762 16.183
SK-Cubic(2)-5 8.667 19.299 13.407 2.133 10.761 16.184
SK-Spherical-1 16.244 21.415 19.303 1.144 17.954 20.713
SK-Spherical-2 16.007 21.183 19.085 1.142 17.721 20.492
SK-Spherical-3 15.932 21.115 19.016 1.142 17.650 20.422
SK-Spherical-4 15.896 21.081 18.982 1.142 17.617 20.388
SK-Spherical-5 15.875 21.061 18.962 1.142 17.597 20.368
OK-Nugget-0 139.172 143.610 141.195 0.961 139.741 142.287
OK-Linear-1 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
OK-Linear-2 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
OK-Linear-3 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
OK-Linear-4 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
OK-Linear-5 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
OK-Cubic(1)-1 8.676 19.269 13.404 2.138 10.759 16.200
OK-Cubic(1)-2 8.675 19.272 13.403 2.137 10.758 16.194
OK-Cubic(1)-3 8.675 19.272 13.403 2.137 10.758 16.192
OK-Cubic(1)-4 8.675 19.272 13.403 2.137 10.758 16.192
OK-Cubic(1)-5 8.675 19.273 13.403 2.137 10.758 16.191
OK-Cubic(2)-1 8.672 19.324 13.386 2.132 10.746 16.187
OK-Cubic(2)-2 8.675 19.284 13.399 2.136 10.755 16.193
OK-Cubic(2)-3 8.675 19.278 13.401 2.136 10.757 16.193
OK-Cubic(2)-4 8.675 19.275 13.402 2.137 10.757 16.192
OK-Cubic(2)-5 8.675 19.274 13.402 2.137 10.757 16.192
66
Table 5.14: L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for SHC Function - 2
Kriging Min Max Mean Stdev Percentile Percentile
Models 0.1 0.9
OK-Spherical-1 15.731 20.927 18.826 1.141 17.460 20.233
OK-Spherical-2 15.776 20.969 18.870 1.141 17.505 20.275
OK-Spherical-3 15.784 20.977 18.878 1.141 17.513 20.283
OK-Spherical-4 15.787 20.980 18.881 1.141 17.516 20.286
OK-Spherical-5 15.789 20.982 18.882 1.141 17.517 20.288
TK-O1-Nugget-0 139.172 143.610 141.195 0.961 139.741 142.287
TK-O1-Linear-1 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
TK-O1-Linear-2 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
TK-O1-Linear-3 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
TK-O1-Linear-4 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
TK-O1-Linear-5 15.791 20.984 18.884 1.141 17.520 20.290
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-1 8.676 19.269 13.404 2.138 10.759 16.200
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-2 8.675 19.272 13.403 2.137 10.758 16.194
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-3 8.675 19.272 13.403 2.137 10.758 16.192
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-4 8.675 19.272 13.403 2.137 10.758 16.192
TK-O1-Cubic(1)-5 8.675 19.273 13.403 2.137 10.758 16.191
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-1 8.672 19.324 13.386 2.132 10.746 16.187
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-2 8.675 19.284 13.399 2.136 10.755 16.193
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-3 8.675 19.278 13.401 2.136 10.757 16.193
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-4 8.675 19.275 13.402 2.137 10.757 16.192
TK-O1-Cubic(2)-5 8.675 19.274 13.402 2.137 10.757 16.192
TK-O1-Spherical-1 15.731 20.927 18.826 1.141 17.460 20.233
TK-O1-Spherical-2 15.776 20.969 18.870 1.141 17.505 20.275
TK-O1-Spherical-3 15.784 20.977 18.878 1.141 17.513 20.283
TK-O1-Spherical-4 15.787 20.980 18.881 1.141 17.516 20.286
TK-O1-Spherical-5 15.789 20.982 18.882 1.141 17.517 20.288
TK-O2-Nugget-0 140.294 145.073 142.598 0.962 141.147 143.698
TK-O2-Linear-1 15.752 20.964 18.860 1.142 17.490 20.267
TK-O2-Linear-2 15.752 20.964 18.860 1.142 17.490 20.267
TK-O2-Linear-3 15.752 20.964 18.860 1.142 17.490 20.267
TK-O2-Linear-4 15.752 20.964 18.860 1.142 17.490 20.267
TK-O2-Linear-5 15.752 20.964 18.860 1.142 17.490 20.267
67
Table 5.15: L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for SHC Function - 3
Kriging Min Max Mean Stdev Percentile Percentile
Models 0.1 0.9
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-1 8.675 19.273 13.402 2.136 10.757 16.190
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-2 8.675 19.273 13.402 2.136 10.757 16.190
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-3 8.675 19.273 13.402 2.136 10.757 16.190
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-4 8.675 19.273 13.402 2.136 10.757 16.190
TK-O2-Cubic(1)-5 8.675 19.273 13.402 2.136 10.757 16.190
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-1 8.668 19.332 13.383 2.129 10.743 16.168
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-2 8.673 19.288 13.398 2.135 10.754 16.184
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-3 8.674 19.280 13.400 2.136 10.756 16.187
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-4 8.674 19.277 13.401 2.136 10.756 16.188
TK-O2-Cubic(2)-5 8.674 19.275 13.402 2.136 10.757 16.189
TK-O2-Spherical-1 15.690 20.906 18.801 1.142 17.429 20.207
TK-O2-Spherical-2 15.736 20.949 18.845 1.142 17.475 20.252
TK-O2-Spherical-3 15.745 20.958 18.854 1.142 17.483 20.260
TK-O2-Spherical-4 15.748 20.960 18.857 1.142 17.486 20.263
TK-O2-Spherical-5 15.749 20.962 18.858 1.142 17.488 20.264
TK-O3-Nugget-0 79.911 85.980 82.950 1.038 81.727 84.230
TK-O3-Linear-1 12.421 17.847 15.666 1.137 14.118 17.119
TK-O3-Linear-2 12.421 17.847 15.666 1.137 14.118 17.119
TK-O3-Linear-3 12.421 17.847 15.666 1.137 14.118 17.119
TK-O3-Linear-4 12.421 17.847 15.666 1.137 14.118 17.119
TK-O3-Linear-5 12.421 17.847 15.666 1.137 14.118 17.119
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-1 8.741 19.004 13.496 2.193 10.812 16.340
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-2 8.741 19.004 13.496 2.193 10.812 16.340
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-3 8.741 19.004 13.496 2.193 10.812 16.340
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-4 8.741 19.004 13.496 2.193 10.812 16.340
TK-O3-Cubic(1)-5 8.741 19.004 13.496 2.193 10.812 16.340
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-1 8.742 19.012 13.497 2.195 10.812 16.347
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-2 8.741 19.006 13.497 2.193 10.812 16.342
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-3 8.741 19.005 13.496 2.193 10.812 16.341
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-4 8.741 19.005 13.496 2.193 10.812 16.341
TK-O3-Cubic(2)-5 8.741 19.004 13.496 2.193 10.812 16.340
68
Table 5.16: L2 Comparison of Difierent Kriging Models for SHC Function - 4
Kriging Min Max Mean Stdev Percentile Percentile
Models 0.1 0.9
TK-O3-Spherical-1 12.413 17.840 15.659 1.137 14.111 17.112
TK-O3-Spherical-2 12.419 17.845 15.664 1.137 14.116 17.118
TK-O3-Spherical-3 12.420 17.846 15.665 1.137 14.117 17.119
TK-O3-Spherical-4 12.420 17.846 15.666 1.137 14.118 17.119
TK-O3-Spherical-5 12.421 17.846 15.666 1.137 14.118 17.119
TK-O4-Nugget-0 80.460 86.396 83.350 1.013 82.126 84.631
TK-O4-Linear-1 12.172 17.751 15.517 1.154 14.028 17.070
TK-O4-Linear-2 12.172 17.751 15.517 1.154 14.028 17.070
TK-O4-Linear-3 12.172 17.751 15.517 1.154 14.028 17.070
TK-O4-Linear-4 12.172 17.751 15.517 1.154 14.028 17.070
TK-O4-Linear-5 12.172 17.751 15.517 1.154 14.028 17.070
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-1 8.788 19.083 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.465
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-2 8.788 19.083 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.465
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-3 8.788 19.083 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.465
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-4 8.788 19.083 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.465
TK-O4-Cubic(1)-5 8.788 19.083 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.465
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-1 8.789 19.089 13.502 2.211 10.810 16.472
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-2 8.788 19.085 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.467
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-3 8.788 19.084 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.466
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-4 8.788 19.084 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.465
TK-O4-Cubic(2)-5 8.788 19.084 13.501 2.209 10.810 16.465
TK-O4-Spherical-1 12.166 17.745 15.510 1.154 14.023 17.063
TK-O4-Spherical-2 12.171 17.749 15.515 1.154 14.027 17.068
TK-O4-Spherical-3 12.172 17.750 15.516 1.154 14.028 17.069
TK-O4-Spherical-4 12.172 17.751 15.517 1.154 14.028 17.069
TK-O4-Spherical-5 12.172 17.751 15.517 1.154 14.028 17.069
Minimum= 8.647 17.745 13.383 0.961 10.743 16.168
69
Figure 5.5: Actual and Predicted Output Means of 100 Replications of 50 Test Samples
(Hmb)
70
Figure 5.6: Actual and Predicted Output Means of 100 Replications of 50 Test Samples
(SHC)
71
Table 5.17: AARE Comparison of Difierent Replications and Variances for Hmb
Replications AARE (%)
Number N(0;12) N(0;52) N(0;102) N(0;502)
10 1.55 3.11 4.97 17.59
20 1.37 2.39 3.65 13.26
30 1.31 2.27 3.59 14.00
40 1.26 1.97 3.12 12.84
50 1.25 1.68 2.42 9.04
60 1.22 1.60 2.40 9.48
70 1.22 1.57 2.29 9.01
80 1.21 1.64 2.42 10.05
90 1.21 1.59 2.31 9.90
100 1.19 1.49 2.11 8.82
Table 5.18: AARE Comparison of Difierent Replications and Variances for SHC
Replications AARE (%)
Number N(0;0:22) N(0;12) N(0;52) N(0;102)
10 7.74 75.57 394.41 120.92
20 7.37 908.90 67.46 131.10
30 5.34 35.51 280.64 106.84
40 4.75 54.85 47.96 100.37
50 5.01 87.33 84.20 219.21
60 4.95 31.06 93.50 228.74
70 5.08 22.24 116.89 177.93
80 4.24 14.18 38.66 100.37
90 3.96 12.00 53.06 299.97
100 3.90 11.11 57.19 108.86
72
andmorereplicationsresultinmoreaccurateinterpolation, asexpected. Whetheravariance
value is too large depends on J(X). For example, in Figure 5.5 the output means from Hmb
are around 200, and a variance value equal to 102 in Figure 5.7 does not result in a severe
volatile AAREs; however, in Figure 5.6, the output means from SHC are around 10, and
Figure 5.8 shows a variance value equal to 10 makes AAREs very unstable, which indicates
that a variance equaling 102 is unacceptable for SHC. In Figure 5.7, it seems that a variance
value equal to 502 is too large for Hmb. Regarding replications, these two flgures show that
whenthenumberofreplicationsisgreaterthan50, thecorrespondingAAREsbecomestable,
which implies that 50 may be a good threshold for the selection of replication numbers.
5.5 Conclusions
The chapter empirically investigated the deterministic and stochastic simulation inter-
polation capabilities of SK, OK and TK. The results are that TK has the best interpolation
performance for both deterministic and stochastic simulations. For stochastic simulations, it
is noted that 50 may be a good threshold for the selection of simulation replication numbers,
and running a number of replications greater than 50 can improve the Kriging interpolation
accuracy for simulation output means. The selection of replication numbers is important
for stochastic simulation with costly computational expense because it is necessary to limit
the number of replications to reduce computational expenses. In addition, the variance of
random variable "(X) in a stochastic simulation can in uence the interpolation performance
for output means. The empirical result shows that a large variance makes interpolation less
accurate, as expected.
73
Figure 5.7: Actual and Predicted Output Means of Difierent Replications of 50 Test Samples
under Difierent Variance Levels of Random Variable "(X) (Hmb)
74
Figure 5.8: Actual and Predicted Output Means of Difierent Replications of 50 Test Samples
under Difierent Variance Levels of Random Variable "(X) (SHC)
75
Chapter 6
Kriging Metamodeling For Sensitivity Analysis On Simulation Models
6.1 Introduction
Sensitivity analysis is a key problem of simulation modeling. Sensitivity analysis is
to quantify the in uence of input factors on outputs, and to flnd the input factors in a
simulation model which have critical in uence on outputs. The results of sensitivity analysis
can help decision makers to select optimal settings for a simulation model. One method
of conducting sensitivity analysis is an analytical approach, that is, using the analytical
feature of a model to perform sensitivity analysis. However, a simulation model is usually
not explicit or invisible and thus not difierentiable. Using the analytical approach to directly
perform sensitivity analysis on a simulation model is di?cult. An alternative is to use the
analytical feature of its corresponding fltted metamodel to assist in sensitivity analysis
of a simulation model. The fltted metamodel must be an efiective replacement of the
corresponding simulation model.
Kriging is a precise interpolator and it is explicit and difierentiable. Using a Kriging
metamodel to assist in sensitivity analysis on a simulation model is methodogically feasible,
which, however, has not been seen in the literature. This chapter will empirically investigate
this problem. Besides Kriging, Regression Analysis (RA) is a simple and efiective interpo-
lation tool. RA is straightforward and difierentiable, and thus a regression metamodel can
be used to assist in sensitivity analysis on its corresponding simulation model. The chapter
will efiectively compare the potentials of Kriging with those of RA in this aspect.
76
A physical simulation case based on cost estimation is chosen for the empirical inves-
tigation. Physical simulation means that its simulator is a scaled replica of a real system,
and a simulation is the actual operation of the system [37]. The main goal of physical
simulation is to evaluate inputs and flnd critical input factors. Physical simulation has
wide applications. For example, it was used to simulate a wastewater treatment system
to evaluate its features and economic feasibilities [103], and in industrial production it can
be used to simulate manufacturing systems to determine their product qualities and costs
[19, 40]. However, similar to computer simulation with costly computational expense, phys-
ical simulation has the same di?culties in obtaining data of adequate sample size due to
economic and time constraints. It has the realistic meaning to use a metamodel to perform
sensitivity analysis of a physical simulation model to flnd critical input factors.
In order to conduct sensitivity analysis, the flrst step is to flt an efiective metamodel.
Based on this procedure, the chapter is organized as follows. First, a fltted Taylor Kriging
(TK) is chosen for the above physical simulation. Next, the interpolation accuracy and
efiectiveness of Kriging, RA and artiflcial neural networks (ANN) are compared. While
establishing regression metamodels, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and speciflcation
errors are the focus other than the regression metamodels themselves. The goal is to illu-
minate how to develop an efiective regression metamodel so that the comparison between
Kriging and RA will be efiective. The results of ANN are cited from a reference. Sec-
ond, after the fltted Kriging and regression metamodels are chosen, the sensitivity analysis
assisted by them on the physical simulation model is formulated, and the results are ana-
lyzed. Third, according to the empirical results, several important theoretical properties of
77
Kriging, RA and ANN for simulation problems are discussed. These properties include the
applicability of model, accuracy of interpolation, and feasibility of sensitivity analysis.
6.2 The Chosen Simulation Problem
The chosen simulation problem is a physical simulation case related to cost estimation
(interpolation). Cost estimation is used to establish an initial budget that assures an ex-
pected proflt. For a product, estimating its cost requires the production of some alternatives
in order to collect cost data. However, because of budget constraint, it is di?cult to obtain
cost-driven data of adequate sample sizes for evaluation and comparison. Thus, using some
mathematical methods to estimate the costs of some alternatives is necessary. Especially, in
order to manage and control cost, recognizing key cost factors is important, which requires
that the chosen method should have the capability to perform sensitivity analysis. Kriging
has the potentials in this aspect.
The case is the pressure vessel cost as a function of the height, diameter and wall
thickness obtained from a manufacturer. The sample data are listed in Table 6.1. Scatter
diagrams of the height, diameter and thickness of products are created to show the distribu-
tion features of the sample data. In the scatter plots, the height and actual cost of sample
1, the diameters of samples 6 and 19, and the height, thickness and actual cost of sample 20
are the extreme values. These extreme values imply that the estimation methods have to
extrapolate the data rather than interpolate them. However, extrapolation tends to yield
a less precise and more erratic estimate and should be avoided.
78
Table 6.1: Table of Original Cost Data
Sample Height Diameter Thickness Actual Cost
1 1200 1066 10 $10,754
2 4500 1526 15 $18,172
3 6500 1500 16 $23,605
4 12250 1200 12 $23,956
5 21800 1050 12 $28,400
6 23300 900 14 $31,400
7 26700 1500 15 $42,200
8 12100 3000 11 $47,970
9 17500 2400 12 $48,000
10 26500 1348 14 $51,000
11 28300 1800 14 $53,900
12 14700 2400 10 $54,600
13 26600 1500 15 $58,040
14 24800 2500 13 $61,790
15 25000 2100 14 $61,800
16 24700 2000 16 $67,460
17 29500 2250 13 $80,400
18 21900 3150 12 $85,750
19 32300 5100 17 $207,800
20 53500 3000 29 $240,000
79
Figure 6.1: Scatter Figure of Sample Height
Figure 6.2: Scatter Figure of Sample Diameter
80
Figure 6.3: Scatter Figure of Sample Thickness
Since the data of height, diameter and thickness have difierent magnitudes, they are
normalized to the interval [0, 1]. The normalization formula is as follows:
x0i = xi ?min(xi)max(x
i)?min(xi)
(6.1)
where max(xi) and min(xi) mean the maximum and minimum values that xi can be,
respectively. Thus, x0i lies within the interval [0, 1]. The inverse process of (6.1) is used to
get actual costs. Certainly, the output of metamodels may occur outside the interval [0, 1].
If it happens, the actual value is set to 0 if the output is less than 0, and adjusted to 1 if
greater than 1. The normalized data are shown in Table 6.2.
The cross validation method using jackknife is adopted to avoid data re-substitution
while metamodels are fltted. Twenty samples from [10] are used to establish twenty groups,
81
Table 6.2: Table of Normalized Cost Data
Sample Height Diameter Thickness Normalized Cost
1 0.0000 0.0395 0.0000 0.0000
2 0.0631 0.1490 0.2632 0.0324
3 0.1013 0.1429 0.3158 0.0561
4 0.2113 0.0714 0.1053 0.0576
5 0.3939 0.0357 0.1053 0.0770
6 0.4226 0.0000 0.2105 0.0901
7 0.4876 0.1429 0.2632 0.1372
8 0.2084 0.5000 0.0526 0.1623
9 0.3117 0.3571 0.1053 0.1625
10 0.4837 0.1067 0.2105 0.1756
11 0.5182 0.2143 0.2105 0.1882
12 0.2581 0.3571 0.0000 0.1913
13 0.4857 0.1429 0.2632 0.2063
14 0.4512 0.3810 0.1579 0.2226
15 0.4551 0.2857 0.2105 0.2227
16 0.4493 0.2619 0.3158 0.2474
17 0.5411 0.3214 0.1579 0.3038
18 0.3958 0.5357 0.1053 0.3271
19 0.5946 1.0000 0.3684 0.8595
20 1.0000 0.5000 1.0000 1.0000
82
and each group only has a sample. Any nineteen groups are adopted to estimate the cost
of the remaining one-sample group.
6.3 Development of Metamodels
6.3.1 Kriging Metamodeling
Each product design (Ht, Dr, Ts) is regarded as a point in a three-dimensional space,
where Ht, Dr and Ts imply the height, diameter and thickness of product, respectively.
The covariance function of Kriging is supposed to only depend on the distance of two
points relative to each other, and is not in uenced by their speciflc locations, i.e., the
covariance structure is homogeneous and isotropic. Simple Kriging (SK), Ordinary Kriging
(OK) and TK are used to estimate the costs, respectively. For these Kriging models, the
covariance functions (3.34, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38), respectively, are adopted to construct
Kriging coe?cient matrices. In these covariance functions, flve difierent levels of covariance
in uence distance are tested. The average absolute relative error (AARE) of the twenty
estimated values is used to evaluate the performance of difierent metamodels.
The results of the Kriging models with difierent parameter settings are shown in Table
6.3. Table 6.3 shows that a TK model of order 3 with the nugget covariance function has
the smallest AARE percentage, which indicates that this Kriging model better describes
the relationship between the cost and the height, diameter and thickness and is chosen to
estimate product cost. The estimation results are shown in Table 6.4 where the minimal
and maximal AREs are 0.00% and 30.99%, respectively.
Figure 6.4 is drawn to describe the graphical trend change of actual and estimated
costs of twenty samples in Table 6.4. Figure 6.4 indicates that the estimation accuracy
83
Table 6.3: AAREs of Cost Estimation from Difierent Kriging Models (%)
Covariance SD SK OK Order of Taylor Kriging
Function 1 2 3
Nugget 0 72.12 91.65 91.65 26.39 13.31
Linear 1 33.20 75.44 75.44 19.51 16.69
2 27.81 55.60 55.60 14.95 14.71
3 25.74 44.16 44.16 15.65 15.90
4 29.46 35.85 35.85 15.56 16.00
5 23.36 29.89 29.89 15.21 15.93
Cubic(1) 1 98.91 120.91 120.91 111.00 241.11
2 236.59 227.83 227.83 125.70 200.68
3 117.46 121.31 121.31 120.31 158.10
4 113.05 116.13 116.13 123.78 159.59
5 115.59 117.82 117.82 121.96 160.98
Cubic(2) 1 50.74 91.47 91.47 45.85 95.99
2 88.09 98.67 98.67 83.07 241.20
3 110.70 112.42 112.42 103.91 180.84
4 110.05 112.15 112.15 110.99 168.44
5 113.87 116.54 116.54 115.65 165.84
Spherical 1 36.66 81.74 81.74 20.13 16.53
2 28.66 61.59 61.59 15.28 16.32
3 24.36 51.21 51.21 15.59 16.06
4 26.09 43.65 43.65 15.54 16.03
5 24.10 37.35 37.35 15.50 16.03
84
Table 6.4: AREs from TK of Order 3 with Nugget Covariance Function
Sample Actual Cost Estimated
Cost
ARE
1 10754 10754 0.00%
2 18172 17267 4.98%
3 23605 26047 10.35%
4 23956 24293 1.41%
5 28400 35749 25.88%
6 31400 37056 18.01%
7 42200 53200 26.07%
8 47970 56316 17.40%
9 48000 51949 8.23%
10 51000 42845 15.99%
11 53900 59936 11.20%
12 54600 43069 21.12%
13 58040 48614 16.24%
14 61790 74810 21.07%
15 61800 60472 2.15%
16 67460 55505 17.72%
17 80400 68385 14.94%
18 85750 87777 2.36%
19 207800 143405 30.99%
20 240000 240000 0.00%
AARE= 13.31%
85
Table 6.5: ANOVA of Actual and Kriging-estimated Costs
Source DF SeqSS AdjSS AdjMS F P
Treatment
(Cost)
1 88645058 88645058 88645058 0.67 0.424
Block 19 1.11E+11 1.11E+11 5.83E+09 43.81 0
Error 19 2.53E+09 2.53E+09 1.33E+08
Total 39 1.13E+11
R-Sq=97.77% R-Sq(adj)= 95.42%
of the chosen Taylor Kriging is adequate. Besides the graphic trend comparison, analysis
of variance (ANOVA) is used to test whether there is a signiflcant difierence between the
actual and estimated costs in Table 6.4. The ANOVA results are in Table 6.5. The P-value
in this table shows that statistically there is no signiflcant difierence between the actual
and estimated costs, which conflrms the conclusion from Figure 6.4. The R-square and
adjusted R-square in Table 6.5 are more than 90%, indicating that the results from the
chosen TK model are quite satisfactory. In this table, DF, AdjSS and AdjMS indicate
degree of freedom, adjusted sum of square and adjusted mean square, respectively.
6.3.2 Regression Metamodeling
Gerrard et al. [10, 45] and Smith et al.[134] use Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR)
to estimate the product cost by interpolation. However, their analysis does not consider
multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and speciflcation errors, and does not discuss the pos-
sibility of adopting other regression models. Although this part uses MLR to estimate the
product cost, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and speciflcation errors, instead of MLR,
86
Figure 6.4: Comparison of Actual and Kriging-estimated Costs
87
are mainly considered. And how to choose an efiective linear or nonlinear regression model
is emphasized.
Multicollinearity
The Gauss-Markov theorem states that among all of the linear unbiased estimators, the
least squares estimator has the smallest variance. However, it does not assure that the least
squares estimator has a small variance in any absolute sense. If two regressors are perfectly
correlated, the variance of the least squares estimator is inflnite. The case of an exact or
highly linear relationship among regressors is a serious failure of the model assumptions,
not of the data. The problems caused by highly correlated regressors include the following
symptoms:
1. Small changes in the data produce wide swings in parameter estimates.
2. Coe?cients may have very high standard errors and low signiflcance levels even though
they are jointly signiflcant, and the R2 for the regression is quite high.
3. Coe?cients may have implausible magnitudes.
The Fisher transformation is used to test the existence of multicollinearity in the three
regressors which are the Height, Diameter and Thickness of product. The constructed
hypothesis is: H0 : ?ij = 0; H1 : At least a ?ij is not 0, where ?ij means the correlation
coe?cient between two explanatory variables xi and xj. The statistic adopted is
t = rij
pN ?2
q
1?r2ij
? t(N ?2) (6.2)
88
Table 6.6: Multicollinearity Results
Explanatory Variables Fisher Transformation
Ht and Dr Ht and Ts Ht and Dr Ht and Ts
Dr and Ts Dr and Ts
Correlation Coe?cients t0
0.3965 0.7217 1.8324 4.4235
0.2714 1.1961
t0:05;18 = 1:7341
where rij is the estimator of ?ij. The speciflc test results are given in Table 6.6. Table
6.6 shows that any two explanatory variables except for the Diameter and Thickness are
statistically signiflcantly correlated under the signiflcant level of 5% for the two-tailed t test.
For the Diameter and Thickness, there is not su?cient evidence to support their signiflcant
correlation.
Heteroscedasticity
The presence of heteroscedascity often means that a misspeciflcation in RA has taken
place, which may be in terms of a missing interaction efiect. In this part, the White?s general
test is formulated to test the heteroscedasticity of the cost data. First, the regression of
Actual Cost (AC) on Ht, Dr and Ts is performed to obtain the estimation errors from
the regression equation. Then, the regression of the square of estimation errors on Ht, Dr,
Ts, Height Square of the Product (HS), Diameter Square of the Product (DS), Thickness
Square of the Product (TS), Height ? Diameter of the Product (HD), Height ? Thickness
of the Product (HT) and Diameter ? Thickness of the Product (DT) is conducted, and
the corresponding R2 is 0.8388. A hypothesis is constructed: H0 : 2i = 2 for all i; H1 :
89
Not all 2i equal to 2. The statistic below is adopted to test the signiflcance of hypothesis.
NR2 ? ?2(K ?1) (6.3)
where K is the number of explanatory variables (including the constant term) in the second
regression equation. The test result is ?20:95(9) = 16:92 > NR2 = 16:7755. According to
the White?s general test, the null hypothesis can not be rejected under the signiflcant level
of 5% and statistically there is insu?cient evidence to support the signiflcant existence of
heteroscedasticity.
Speciflcation Errors
Speciflcation errors are caused by omitted variables, an incorrect functional form, or
errors in measurement. Here the Ramsey regression equation speciflcation error test (RE-
SET) is used to examine whether the fltted MLR model has misspeciflcation errors. For a
detailed introduction to RESET, readers can refer to [57, 58, 114]. The RESET is performed
as follows.
According to the regression of AC on Ht, Dr and Ts, the variables ^AC2, ^AC3 and ^AC4
are flrst created, where ^AC is the estimator of AC. Then, the regression of AC on Ht, Dr,
Ts and ^AC2 is conducted. The hypothesis is:
H0 : The coe?cient of ^AC2 is equal to zero;
H1 : The coe?cient of ^AC2 is not equal to zero.
The F statistic is used to test the hypothesis:
F = (ESS1 ?ESS2)=1ESS
2=(N ?K ?1)
? F(1;N ?K ?1) (6.4)
90
where ESS1 and ESS2 are the Error Sum of Squares (ESS) from the flrst and second
regression equations, respectively. The test result is its P ? value equal to 7:45E ? 07.
Similarly, the regression of AC on Ht, Dr, Ts, ^AC2 and ^AC3, and the regression of AC on
Ht, Dr, Ts, ^AC2, ^AC3 and ^AC4 are performed. And their P ?values of corresponding F
statistic are 7:18E ?06 and 6:44E ?05, respectively. All of these values show that there
are statistically signiflcant speciflcation errors in the fltted MLR model.
An Alternative Regression Model
The statistically signiflcant existences of multicollinearity and speciflcation errors show
that it is necessary to establish a better alternative for the MLR. The alternative meta-
model developed is named Logarithmic Linear Regression (LLR) and mathematically it is
expressed as (6.5).
Ln(AC) = ?0 +?1Ln(Ht)+?2Ln(Dr)+?3Ts (6.5)
The J test is used to determine which of two regression metamodels, the MLR and LLR, is
more valid. The test procedure consists of flrst regressing AC on Ht, Dr and Ts, and then
Ln(AC) being regressed on Ln(Ht), Ln(Dr), Ts and Predicted Cost by MLR (PC). Suppose
the regression coe?cient of PC is `. The hypothesis is: H0 : ` = 0; H1 : ` 6= 0, and the
corresponding statistic is:
t =
^`
se(^`) ? t(N ?K) (6.6)
91
where se(^`) is the standard error of the estimator ^`. The test result is t0 = 3:23 and the
degree of freedom of t distribution is 15. Note P-value = P(jtj > 3:23) = 0:0056, which
indicates that the J test is signiflcant and statistically the flrst model is rejected.
6.3.3 Analysis on Difierent Metamodels
This section analyzes the results of the difierent metamodels and discusses their esti-
mation capabilities. The results of the ANN are from [134]. The estimated values from the
metamodels are in Table 6.7 where the estimated value of the flrst sample from the MLR
is truncated to 0 from -30603 because the cost can not be a negative number.
Figure 6.5 shows the change in trends of the costs estimated by TK, LLR, MLR and
ANN. It is clear that TK, LLR and ANN give the better results. Table 6.8 provides the ARE
comparison to show the performance of difierent metamodels, and the means of AREs of
20 and 16 samples for each metamodel are given. The sample size 16 implies that samples
1, 6, 19 and 20 are excluded. These means investigate the average estimation efiects of
models and the possible invalidity of extrapolation. The AREs of 16 and 20 samples show
TK is better than LLR and MLR, but worse than ANN. However, the means of TK, LLR
and ANN are close, which, to some extent, demonstrates that these three metamodels have
similar estimation capabilities. Figure 6.6 give the graphic trend changes of AREs from
these models.
Furthermore, ANOVA is used to test whether there exist signiflcant difierences among
AREs of TK, LLR, MLR(Truncated) and ANN. The results are listed in Table 6.9 where
the P-value shows that statistically the ARE difierences of difierent metamodels are highly
signiflcant. Then the AREs from MLR (Truncated) are removed and ANOVA is conducted
92
Table 6.7: Comparison of Estimated Costs from TK, LLR, MLR and ANN
Sample Actual TK LLR MLR MLR ANN
Cost (Truncated)
1 10754 10754 5003 -30603 0 10904
2 18172 17267 25566 33014 33014 22691
3 23605 26047 29554 42548 42548 23725
4 23956 24293 26210 9059 9059 22941
5 28400 35749 29873 17674 17674 29665
6 31400 37056 27894 27916 27916 33913
7 42200 53200 51216 60241 60241 52673
8 47970 56316 58555 65921 65921 53942
9 48000 51949 57371 57478 57478 49440
10 51000 42845 42781 46901 46901 47959
11 53900 59936 58677 65798 65798 60063
12 54600 43069 47150 38868 38868 40081
13 58040 48614 49430 58396 58396 53263
14 61790 74810 71941 77578 77578 72069
15 61800 60472 63528 70023 70023 64632
16 67460 55505 65403 78381 78381 63756
17 80400 68385 68523 73872 73872 69240
18 85750 87777 78130 87376 87376 81911
19 207800 143405 164557 177543 177543 208266
20 240000 240000 176939 185351 185351 217750
93
Figure 6.5: Comparison of Estimated Costs from Difierent Models
94
Table 6.8: Comparison of AREs from TK, MLR, LLR and ANN (%)
Sample TK LLR MLR MLR ANN
(Truncated)
1 0.00 53.48 384.57 100.00 1.39
2 4.98 40.69 81.64 81.64 24.87
3 10.35 25.20 80.23 80.23 0.51
4 1.41 9.41 62.18 62.18 4.24
5 25.88 5.19 37.78 37.78 4.45
6 18.01 11.17 11.11 11.11 8.00
7 26.07 21.36 42.75 42.75 24.82
8 17.40 22.07 37.42 37.42 12.45
9 8.23 19.52 19.74 19.74 3.00
10 15.99 16.12 8.04 8.04 5.96
11 11.20 8.86 22.07 22.07 11.43
12 21.12 13.64 28.82 28.82 26.59
13 16.24 14.83 0.61 0.61 8.23
14 21.07 16.43 25.55 25.55 16.64
15 2.15 2.80 13.30 13.30 4.58
16 17.72 3.05 16.19 16.19 5.49
17 14.94 14.77 8.12 8.12 13.88
18 2.36 8.89 1.90 1.90 4.48
19 30.99 20.81 14.56 14.56 0.22
20 0.00 26.28 22.77 22.77 9.27
Mean 13.31 17.73 45.97 31.74 9.53
(20 Samples)
Mean 13.57 15.18 30.40 30.40 10.73
(16 Samples)
95
Figure 6.6: Comparison of AREs from Difierent Models
96
Table 6.9: ANOVA of AREs from TK, LLR, MLR and ANN
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P
Models 3 5654.7 5654.7 1884.9 6.79 0.000
Error 76 21087.4 21087.4 277.5
Total 79 26742.1
Table 6.10: ANOVA of AREs from TK, LLR and ANN
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P
Models 2 674.3 674.3 337.2 3.3 0.044
Error 57 5817.8 5817.8 102.1
Total 59 6492.1
again. The related results are in Table 6.10 where the P-value indicates that the signiflcance
of ARE difierences from the rest of three metamodels are reduced, which conflrms our
conclusions from the graphical trend change that the estimation results from TK, LLR and
ANN are close.
6.4 Sensitivity Analysis
After the fltted Kriging and regression metamodels were chosen, this section will use
them to conduct sensitivity analysis on cost factors. The sensitivity analysis is based on
the analytical (difierentiable) method developed in the fourth chapter. Since the function
relationship in the ANN is completely hidden, the sensitivity analysis based on the ANN
becomes di?cult and impractical, and therefore is not investigated.
97
6.4.1 Kriging Metamodel
For the investigated case, the best fltted Kriging model is TK of order 3 with the nugget
covariance function. For a Kriging model with a nugget covariance function, Ci is equal to
0. The derivative of Z(X) with respect to xj becomes
@
@xj
^Z(X) =
2
66
66
66
4
@
@xjf1(X)
...
@
@xjfM(X)
3
77
77
77
5
(6.7)
Table 6.11 is designed to calculate the derivative of TK with respect to xj. In this table,
MC represents model coe?cient. In Table 6.11,
DBF(xi)?: represents the derivative of base functions with respect to xi;
MCi: represents the model coe?cient of the ith base function in the Kriging model;
X0=(x01;x02;x03): represents the center point of Taylor expansion.
Since the case has 20 samples, there are 20 Taylor Kriging models, that is, a Taylor
Kriging model per sample. For each model, the partial derivatives with respect to three
independent variables (Ht, Dr and Ts) are calculated, respectively. The average of the
partial derivatives of 20 Taylor Kriging models with respect to an independent variable is
usedtodescribethesensitivityofcostfunctiontothevariable. Sincethedataarenormalized
by use of Eq. (6.1), the sensitivity of the actual cost (AC) to an independent variable (xi)
has to be computed by using the following formula:
@AC
@xi =
@AC
@AC0 ?
@AC0
@x0i ?
@x0i
@xi =
max(AC)?min(AC)
max(xi)?min(xi) ?
@AC0
@x0i (6.8)
98
Table 6.11: Sensitivity Analysis of TK with Nugget Covariance Function and Order 3
MC Base DBF( x1) DBF (x2) DBF (x3)
Function
MC1 C1 0 0 0
MC2 C2 0 0 0
MC3 C3 0 0 0
MC4 C4 0 0 0
MC5 C5 0 0 0
MC6 C6 0 0 0
MC7 C7 0 0 0
MC8 C8 0 0 0
MC9 C9 0 0 0
MC10 C10 0 0 0
MC11 C11 0 0 0
MC12 C12 0 0 0
MC13 C13 0 0 0
MC14 C14 0 0 0
MC15 C15 0 0 0
MC16 C16 0 0 0
MC17 C17 0 0 0
MC18 C18 0 0 0
MC19 C19 0 0 0
MC20 1 0 0 0
MC21 x3 ?x03 0 0 MC21
MC22 x2 ?x02 0 MC22 0
MC23 x1 ?x01 MC23 0 0
MC24 (x3 ?x03)2 0 0 2MC24(x3 ?x03)
MC25 (x2 ?x02)(x3 ?x03) 0 MC25(x3 ?x03) MC25(x2 ?x02)
MC26 (x2 ?x02)2 0 2MC26(x2 ?x02) 0
MC27 (x1 ?x01)(x3 ?x03) MC27(x3 ?x03) 0 MC27(x1 ?x01)
MC28 (x1 ?x01)(x2 ?x02) MC28(x2 ?x02) MC28(x1 ?x01) 0
MC29 (x1 ?x01)2 2MC29(x1 ?x01) 0 0
Sum
99
The results based on Eq. (6.8) and Table 6.11 are shown in Table 6.12 where it is noted
that the cost function is extremely sensitive to the vessel thickness but insensitive to vessel
height.
6.4.2 Regression Metamodel
Similarly, for the MLR and LLR, the method of partial derivative is used to analyze
the sensitivity of the product cost to the difierent cost factors. Suppose a MLR is:
F(x1;???;xD) = fl0 +fl1x1 +???+flDxD +"i (6.9)
Eq. (6.10) gives its one-order partial derivative with respect to variable xi.
@
@xiF(x1;???;xD) = fli (6.10)
It can be seen that the coe?cient fli can be used to describe the sensitivity of F(x1;???;xD)
to xi. Note that the investigated case has 20 MLR models. For each cost factor, the average
of the corresponding cost factor coe?cients in the 20 MLR models is used to express the
sensitivity of the product cost to this factor. The obtained results are in Table 6.13 which
shows that in the MLR model the product cost is most sensitive to the vessel thickness and
insensitive to vessel height.
For the LLR model, the partial derivatives of the product cost with respect to the
Height, Diameter and Thickness are calculated according to Eq. (6.11, 6.12, 6.13), respec-
tively. The numerical results are in Table 6.13. These results are similar to those of TK
and MLR. However, if the means in three tables are scrutinized, it can be found that the
100
Table 6.12: Sensitivity Analysis for TK of Order 3 with Nugget Covariance Function
Number DBF(x1) DBF(x2) DBF(x3)
1 0.3092 -0.1245 -0.0054
2 0.4271 -0.2009 0.2100
3 0.3810 -0.2033 0.3286
4 0.2515 0.0962 0.0988
5 0.2464 0.2745 -0.0881
6 0.0657 0.1826 0.3808
7 0.2882 0.3641 0.3117
8 0.6312 0.4995 -0.2220
9 0.6044 0.4083 -0.1075
10 0.1480 0.4525 0.2280
11 0.4179 0.5257 0.0934
12 0.5515 0.4152 -0.0719
13 0.2555 0.4305 0.1704
14 0.6413 0.5944 -0.0986
15 0.4823 0.4823 0.0516
16 0.5215 0.3163 0.1278
17 0.2630 0.6594 0.1377
18 0.8838 0.6622 -0.3355
19 1.6363 0.3873 -0.8832
20 0.6508 0.6657 3.0254
Mean 0.4828 0.3444 0.1676
(Normalization)
Mean 2.1164 18.7984 2022.2842
(Actual)
101
Table 6.13: Sensitivity Analysis for the MLR Metamodel
Regression Intercept Height Diameter Thickness
Model Coe?cient Coe?cient Coe?cient
1 -124528.99 1.79 33.00 5659.62
2 -118154.40 1.18 32.30 6436.68
3 -119383.71 1.12 32.21 6645.07
4 -118932.45 1.46 32.74 5903.32
5 -119364.47 1.35 32.93 6085.58
6 -117036.19 1.40 32.49 5932.13
7 -114592.89 1.50 31.37 5852.63
8 -115166.67 1.32 33.66 5827.14
9 -115323.73 1.41 32.51 5842.40
10 -117111.85 1.39 32.46 5956.96
11 -114615.13 1.50 31.84 5760.76
12 -119687.64 1.41 31.66 6177.10
13 -116367.14 1.42 32.21 5914.37
14 -114589.90 1.48 32.54 5702.88
15 -115651.46 1.44 32.18 5856.95
16 -116674.42 1.41 32.11 5993.31
17 -117596.26 1.36 32.27 6057.62
18 -116256.68 1.42 32.33 5891.16
19 -107666.81 1.48 27.04 5845.56
20 -82059.01 1.36 32.55 3342.52
Average -115037.99 1.41 32.12 5834.19
102
Table 6.14: Sensitivity Analysis for the LLR Metamodel
Sample @AC@Ht @AC@Dr @AC@Ts
1 5.3188 9.1275 391.6208
2 1.5709 10.7099 835.2653
3 1.4941 14.0267 1051.4364
4 0.8507 17.6891 970.5041
5 0.5707 23.9846 1149.9118
6 0.5733 32.3473 1284.9085
7 0.7021 24.6664 1734.1056
8 1.6905 14.9382 1843.7481
9 1.1930 18.2511 1876.3872
10 0.8140 34.8059 2111.3825
11 0.8359 26.7422 2184.9641
12 1.6124 20.0371 2371.7608
13 0.9298 35.3284 2366.1904
14 1.0931 22.4540 2443.8109
15 1.0758 26.3991 2521.6337
16 1.1846 30.2508 2751.0212
17 1.1605 31.8493 3417.1017
18 1.6967 23.9886 3613.6524
19 2.8197 33.8747 8379.5383
20 1.9866 71.1230 6111.5578
Mean 1.4587 26.1297 2470.5251
means from TK and LLR are closer, which probably implies that TK and LLR are better
in this case.
@AC
@Ht =
@AC
@Ln(AC)
@Ln(AC)
@Ln(Ht)
@Ln(Ht)
@Ht = ?1
AC
Ht (6.11)
@AC
@Dr =
@AC
@Ln(AC)
@Ln(AC)
@Ln(Dr)
@Ln(Dr)
@Dr = ?2
AC
Dr (6.12)
@AC
@Ts =
@AC
@Ln(AC)
@Ln(AC)
@Ts = ?3AC (6.13)
103
6.5 Property Analysis
6.5.1 Applicability of Models
Kriging, RA and ANN all depend on reliable driver data from simulation models. Any
of them does not mitigate the di?culties associated with collecting simulation data. Kriging
requires that a Kriging coe?cient matrix be nonsingular. The singularity requirement
makes Kriging applications limited. RA faces the problems related to multicollinearity and
heteroscedasticity. ANN can readily accommodate multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity.
Three methods can encounter potential speciflcation errors. However, the speciflcation
errors from ANN are most di?cult to be recognized.
It is expected that Kriging will be considered a viable alternative to regression if the
underlying data relationship from a simulation model has signiflcant spatial correlation and
nonlinearities. If the data behavior is functional discontinuities and signiflcant nonlinearities
and has large independent variable dimensionality, ANN will have better potential. How-
ever, the applicability concerns of ANN, such as its network architecture, training methods
and stopping criteria, should not be ignored. These concerns represent formidable hurdles
to widespread use and acceptance of ANN. Moreover, the selection of ANN structure and
parametric settings more depends on the experience with the less supportive theories [134].
However, the parametric settings of RA and Kriging are easier.
6.5.2 Accuracy of Interpolation
What is interesting in Table 6.8 is that the average value of twenty AREs of the chosen
TK metamodel is much less than that of the MLR metamodel, less than that of the LLR
metamodel, greater than that of the ANN metamodel, but close to those of the LLR and
104
ANN metamodel. These results may re ect the simulation interpolation or estimation ca-
pabilities of Kriging. When the function relationship between dependent and independent
variables in a simulation model is unknown, ANN can be a good method to capture the func-
tion relationship, and its simulation interpolation accuracy is better. If a suitable regression
metamodel can be established, the simulation interpolation accuracy from regression can
be acceptable. For example, for the investigated case, the LLR metamodel is acceptable.
However, the diversities of regression metamodeling make it di?cult to select a good re-
gression metamodel. The drift function of Kriging has the features of regression. However,
Kriging further has the capabilities to capture the spatial correlation of observation values,
which makes it have stronger interpolation potentials.
6.5.3 Feasibility of Sensitivity Analysis
Although RA, especially MLR, has more di?culties in capturing a function relationship
among simulation data because of the limitation of model structures, regression metamod-
eling can give a speciflc and simple function form, which can beneflt sensitivity analysis of a
simulation model. For ANN, the fltted function form for a simulation model is completely
hidden and invisible and resembles a \black box". Essentially, it will be a complicated
nonlinear function. Because of the function invisibility, sensitivity analysis on simulation
input variables is di?cult. In comparing with RA and ANN, Kriging can provide an ex-
plicit function as speciflc as that given by regression metamodeling, and sensitivity analysis
based on a Kriging metamodel is feasible. However, because Kriging must consider the spa-
tial correlation of observation values, its metamodel form and thus its sensitivity analysis
process are usually more complicated.
105
6.6 Conclusions
The chapter empirically investigated Kriging metamodeling for sensitivity analysis by
using a physical simulation case. In order to obtain an efiective metamodel, the interpola-
tion accuracy of difierent Kriging metamodels, regression metamodels and ANN was flrst
compared. Among difierent Kriging metamodels, a TK metamodel provides the best in-
terpolation results which are consistent with the empirical results from deterministic and
random simulations in the previous chapter. While compared with regression metamodels
(MLR and LLR) and ANN, the chosen Kriging metamodel works better than regression
metamodels but worse than ANN. Regression metamodeling are efiectively validated by
considering multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and speciflcation errors. Therefore, the
comparison is credible.
106
Chapter 7
Simulation Optimization Based On Kriging And Evolutionary Algorithms
7.1 Introduction
Simulation can be used to model real complex systems. These simulation models can
be used to calculate approximate outputs of real systems, perform sensitivity analysis on
inputs, and search for optimal inputs. Due to the complexity of systems, simulation models
are often computer expensive, which makes the above three operations di?cult. In the pre-
vious chapters, Kriging was used to build metamodels for inputs and outputs of simulation
models. These metamodels were utilized to perform the interpolation operation to reduce
the computational expense of running simulation models. Furthermore, Kriging metamod-
els were used to assist sensitivity analysis on simulation models. The objective of this
chapter is to discuss how to optimize a simulation model. A novel simulation optimization
algorithm based on Kriging and Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) will be developed.
The chapter is organized as follows. First, EAs are brie y introduced, and then a novel
simulationoptimizationalgorithmiscreatedwhichintegratesKrigingwithEAs. Second, the
properties and parameter settings of the algorithm are analyzed, and some computational
cases are presented to investigate the efiectiveness of the algorithm. Finally, summary and
conclusions are given.
107
7.2 A Novel Simulation Optimization Algorithm
7.2.1 Evolutionary Algorithms
The typical evolutionary algorithms (EAs) include Evolutionary Programming [41],
Genetic Algorithms (GA) [55], Evolutionary Strategy (ES)[117, 130], Genetic Evolution of
Data Structures [102], Genetic Evolution of Programs [80], Tabu Search [46, 47], Artiflcial
Immune Systems [54], Cultural Algorithms [121], DNA Computing [1], Ant Colony Opti-
mization [32], Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)[69], Memetic Algorithms [48], Estima-
tion of Distribution Algorithms [84], etc.. For the speciflc introductions to these algorithms,
a reader can refer to the related references. Figure 7.1 gives the basic optimization pro-
cess of these algorithms. EAs use fltness functions to calculate fltness values of candidate
solutions, and use these values as a standard to evaluate the qualities of solutions. Accord-
ing to fltness values, EAs perform evolutionary operations such as crossover and mutation
to generate some new evolved solutions. The evolved solutions have to be evaluated by
fltness functions. Then, part of the evolved solutions and current solutions are chosen to
become the next generation solutions. The algorithms continue this optimization loop until
a stopping criterion is satisfled.
7.2.2 Development of Simulation Optimization Algorithm (SOAKEA)
EAs are an efiective simulation optimization tool and have been used to optimize sim-
ulation models. However, EAs frequently need to evaluate fltness functions. A simulation
evaluation means to run a simulation model only once. When running a simulation model is
computer expensive, EAs for simulation optimization will encounter essential di?culties be-
cause of computer limitations such as memory capacity and processor speed. The dash lines
108
in Figure 7.1 show that evolutionary operations in EAs will be stopped due to insu?cient
fltness values.
One way to solve this problem is to adopt known observation values of a simulation
model to flt a surrogate fltness function which is computationally inexpensive, and to use
it to evaluate inputs. Thus, simulation evaluations can be reduced. Kriging is an efiective
interpolation tool for a simulation model, which makes it feasible to use a fltted Kriging
metamodel to replace its corresponding simulation model to evaluate inputs. With the
assistance of Kriging metamodels, EAs can continuously perform evolution optimization to
search for optimal solutions of simulation inputs.
With this idea in mind, the chapter integrates Kriging with EAs to develop a novel
simulation optimization algorithm based on Kriging and EAs where Kriging serves as a
surrogate fltness function. The new algorithm is named Simulation Optimization Algorithm
based on Kriging and EA (SOAKEA). Figure 7.2 is its ow diagram. The speciflc details
of SOAKEA are in Table 7.1.
7.2.3 Analysis on SOAKEA
Fitting an initial Kriging model: In the initialization process, fltting a Kriging model is
important. A method of computer experimental design such as Latin Hypercube Sampling
(LHS) can be used to generate 3E0=4 simulation inputs (individuals). Running a simulation
model can provide their corresponding outputs. For EAs, these outputs are actual fltness
values. The inputs and outputs are used to flt difierent Kriging metamodels. To select a
best fltted metamodel among them, a validation process is needed. E0=4 simulation inputs
are randomly sampled from a uniform distribution of the feasible domain, and used to
109
Figure 7.1: Operations of Evolutionary Algorithms
110
Figure 7.2: The Flow Diagram of SOAKEA
111
Table 7.1: Simulation Optimization Algorithm Based on Kriging and EA
BEGIN
Initialize:
(1) UseamethodofcomputerexperimentaldesigntogenerateE0 simulation
inputs (individuals) in the feasible region of independent variables, and
run a corresponding simulation model to obtain their outputs called
fltness values for an EA;
(2) Name the E0 inputs and outputs an observation set;
(3) Use the E0 inputs and outputs to flt difierent Kriging metamodels ac-
cording to a cross-validation method and set the best one to be a current
Kriging metamodel;
(4) Record the input with the best output in the observation set, and name
it bestIndividual;
(5) Randomly generate an initial population of size M0 for a chosen evolu-
tionary algorithm and name it the current population;
(6) Use the current Kriging metamodel to evaluate the individuals in the
current population;
While (Global stopping criterion) f
(1) Perform evolutionary operations to generate some evolved individuals;
(2) Use the current Kriging metamodel to evaluate them;
(3) Use generation operations to generate a new population from the evolved
individuals and the individuals in the current population;
(4) Name the new population the current population;
(5) If (corrective condition) f
(5.1) Correct the fltness values of m0 individuals in the current popula-
tion by running the simulation model to evaluate them;
(5.2) Add the simulation inputs and corrected outputs to the observation
set;
(5.3) Update bestIndividual
(5.4) Fit a new Kriging model by using the individuals in the observation
set and name it the current Kriging model;
g
g
End While
ReportResults:
(1) Evaluate the optimal individual in the current population by running
the simulation model;
(2) Add the optimal individual to the observation set, and update bestIndi-
vidual;
(3) Report the results.
END
112
Figure 7.3: Flow Diagram of Fitting an Initial Kriging Model
test the fltted Kriging metamodels. The random sampling from a uniform distribution can
better show the robustness of chosen metamodel. Figure 7.3 gives the ow diagram to flt
an initial Kriging model.
Optimization capability of SOAKEA: SOAKEA uses an EA to search for optimal sim-
ulation inputs. In the EA, a simulation model is essentially an implicit fltness function.
Because the prohibitive computational expense of running the simulation model blocks the
113
EA optimization operations, a fltted Kriging model temporarily replaces the simulation
model to assist in the EA. The fltted Kriging model serves as a surrogate fltness function.
If each simulation input is allowed to be evaluated by the simulation model, SOAKEA be-
comes the EA itself. Therefore, the upper bound of optimization capability of SOAKEA is
the optimization capability of EA, which makes it necessary to choose an EA with strong
optimization capability.
Corrective operation: Since Kriging models in SOAKEA are surrogate fltness functions,
fltness values from Kriging will have some errors. Thus, a corrective operation is needed
in order to avoid errors misguiding evolutionary search. In the corrective operation, the
corrective condition can be a given number of function evaluations or generations or an
improvement rate, etc.. A trial-and-error method can be applied in order to flnd a suitable
value. Frequent corrections can increase computational expenses caused by running a sim-
ulation model. However, insu?cient corrections can cause error accumulation. Achieving a
good tradeofi between these two aspects is a standard to choose a corrective procedure.
Potential corrective operations can be the corrections of partial and complete fltness
values in a generation. Suppose the number of corrected fltness values in a generation is m0.
If m0 < M0 (see Table 7.1), the operation is a partial correction. Otherwise, it is a complete
correction. A disadvantage of correcting a complete generation is that its computational
cost is expensive. However, a partial correction will result in individuals with uncorrected
outputs continuing to misguide evolutionary search.
Correction operations make fltting Kriging models become a dynamic process. When
SOAKEA corrects fltness values by running a simulation model, more actual outputs can
be obtained. With more actual outputs, SOAKEA will update a current Kriging model,
114
resulting in a Kriging model which can better approximate its simulation model. If a
correction can only provide a small number of simulation outputs, the update may be
delayed to accumulate actual outputs. Thus, the expense related to fltting Kriging models
can be reduced. Usually, an update adopts the same Kriging structure and only changes
its coe?cients.
As optimization and corrective operations continue, a current Kriging model will be
frequently updated and become more and more accurate. Thus, a possible improved correc-
tion strategy is that it has a high correction frequency in the initial optimization stage and
then little by little decreases the frequency as the optimization operation of SOAKEA con-
tinues. In the corrective operation, the distance between two points may be considered. If
the points needed to be corrected are close to those already simulated, it may not be needed
to correct them or use them to update a current Kriging model because they can not add
much information. However, a disadvantage is that frequently calculating and comparing
distances of points will tremendously increase the computational complexity of SOAKEA.
Stopping criterion: In SOAKEA, selecting a global stopping criterion deserves discus-
sion. Most references of EAs use a certain number of function evaluations or generations
to terminate optimization search. A drawback is that the number of function evaluations
necessary for convergence is unknown. Thus, a trial-and-error method may be needed to
search for a suitable number. Zielinski et al. [162, 163] investigate some other stopping
criteria that include reference criteria, exhaustion-based criteria, improvement-based crite-
ria, movement-based criteria, distribution-based criteria, and combined criteria. For the
detailed introductions to these criteria, a reader can refer to [162, 163].
115
In summary, the idea behind SOAKEA is to integrate the precise interpolation features
ofKrigingwiththeoptimizationcapabilitiesofanEAtosearchforoptimalsimulationinputs
according to limited simulation observations. If SOAKEA, under a tolerated error level, can
e?ciently flnd optimal inputs, it can be concluded that it is efiective for the optimization
of a simulation model whose run-time is computationally expensive.
7.3 Computational Experience
Several simulation cases based on benchmark functions will be used to empirically
investigate the efiectiveness of SOAKEA. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is the cho-
sen evolutionary algorithm used in SOAKEA, and will be introduced in the next section.
Then the settings of some important parameters in SOAKEA will be empirically analyzed.
These parameters include the size of initial sample used to flt an initial Kriging model, the
correction strategy, and the number of corrected points used to update a current Kriging
model.
7.3.1 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
PSO is a population-based stochastic optimization method, and was developed by Eber-
hart and Kennedy [69]. PSO uses a fltness function to calculate fltness values of particles.
According to fltness values, PSO performs evolution operations to update position vectors.
PSO continues this loop until stopping criteria are satisfled. In PSO, each particle has
several common attributes: xVector, pVector, vVector, xFitness and pFitness. xVector
records the current position of a particle. If the investigated space is D dimensions, xVector
can be denoted by Xi = (xi1;xi2;:::;xiD). pVector is the best position found so far by
116
a particle and can be represented by Pi = (pi1;pi2;:::;piD). vVector is a velocity vector,
represented as Vi = (vi1;vi2;:::;viD). xFitness and pFitness record the fltness values of
xVector and pVector, respectively.
The evolutionary operation of each particle mainly includes two steps which can be
described as follows ([69]):
1. Step 1: The algorithm flnds particle g with the best pFitness in the neighborhood
of particle i, and then combines the pVector of particle g and the pVector of particle
i to generate a new vVector for particle i. Meanwhile, the algorithm introduces
the random disturbance rand() to increase the search pressure. The following is the
formula that updates the dth dimension of vVector:
vid = vid +?1 ?rand()?(pid ?xid)+?2 ?rand()?(pgd ?xid) (7.1)
2. Step 2: The algorithm uses the updated vVector to obtain a new xVector for particle
i. The related formula is:
xid = xid +vid (7.2)
In the above formulae, the two constants ?1 and ?2 are the cognition and social learning
components, respectively. In 1999, Maurice Clerc introduced a constriction factor K to
control the growth speed of vVector, and it is calculated as follows:
K = 2j2???p?2 ?4?j (7.3)
117
where ? = ?1 +?2 and ? > 4. The update operation of the dth dimension of vVector then
becomes
vid = K[vid +?1 ?rand()?(pid ?xid)+?2 ?rand()?(pgd ?xid)] (7.4)
The typical structures of PSO include ring and star topologies.
7.3.2 The Determination of Initial Sample Size
This section will discuss how to select a size of initial samples used to flt an initial
Kriging model. Too large a size of samples will increase the computational expenses of
running a simulation model. An insu?cient sample size will result in an inaccurate fltted
Kriging interpolation model. One simulated case based on a benchmark function is used
to empirically investigate the selection problem of sample sizes. The chosen benchmark
function is SHC. The difierent scenarios of sample sizes investigated are in Table 7.2. The
table shows that the numbers of fltting and testing samples are about 3/4 and 1/4 of total
initial samples, respectively. For these scenarios, the best fltted Kriging models are shown
in Table 7.3. Table 7.4 uses Scenario 4 to illustrate how to use AAREs as the performance
standard to choose a best fltted Kriging model.
Table 7.3 indicates that difierent scenarios of sample sizes result in difierent best-fltted
Kriging models. However, in the four scenarios, TK is always chosen. As the sample size
increases, a cubic (2) covariance function is further considered to be adequate. Four scenar-
ios show that in the chosen TK models, the orders of Taylor expansion are greater than or
equal to 3, and the in uence distances of covariance are 1 or 5 standard deviations. AAREs
118
Table 7.2: Sizes of Initial Samples
Fitting Testing
Samples Samples
15 5
60 20
100 30
150 50
Table 7.3: The Chosen Kriging Models and Their AAREs under Difierent Scenarios
Scenario Size of Samples Kriging Models and Parameters AARE
Fitting Validating Model Covariance Order SD (%)
Function
1 15 5 TK Gaussian 4 1 28.940
2 60 20 TK Cubic (2) 3 5 13.906
3 100 30 TK Cubic (2) 3 1 12.839
4 150 50 TK Cubic (2) 4 1 3.473
119
Table 7.4: AAREs of Difierent Kriging Models (The Size of Initial Samples=200)(%)
Covariance SD SK OK Order of Taylor Kriging
Function 1 2 3 4
Nugget 0 100.0000 78.9620 78.9620 80.4530 69.6518 764.9876
Linear 1 29.3027 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
2 29.3737 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
3 29.3946 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
4 29.4047 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
5 29.4105 51.1483 51.1483 51.2805 41.9032 35.1451
Cubic (2) 1 3.7112 4.0921 4.0921 4.0936 4.0055 3.4727
2 3.6456 4.1018 4.1018 4.1022 4.0112 3.4778
3 3.6213 4.1035 4.1035 4.1038 4.0122 3.4786
4 3.6087 4.1040 4.1040 4.1045 4.0124 3.4791
5 3.6015 4.1045 4.1045 4.1042 4.0132 3.4790
Spherical 1 29.3269 51.0731 51.0731 51.2141 42.0161 35.0955
2 29.3637 51.1230 51.1230 51.2571 41.9311 35.1327
3 29.3838 51.1365 51.1365 51.2696 41.9155 35.1396
4 29.3951 51.1415 51.1415 51.2743 41.9101 35.1420
5 29.4022 51.1440 51.1440 51.2765 41.9076 35.1431
Exponential 1 29.3259 51.1874 51.1874 51.3364 41.8479 35.1699
2 29.3796 51.1526 51.1526 51.2935 41.8892 35.1513
3 29.3974 51.1482 51.1482 51.2863 41.8970 35.1478
4 29.4063 51.1470 51.1470 51.2837 41.8997 35.1467
5 29.4116 51.1468 51.1468 51.2826 41.9009 35.1461
Minimum= 3.4727
120
state that Scenario 4 gives the best fltted Kriging model. When an initial sample size in-
creases, more information of a simulation model can be obtained, and a corresponding fltted
Kriging model will become more accurate. With a more accurate Kriging model, correc-
tive operations in later optimization can be reduced, which can decrease the computational
expenses related to simulation correction. However, a large number of initial observations
will tremendously increase the initial computational expense of simulation sampling, which
should be avoided. When two important parameters of a Kriging model, such as model
type and covariance function, can be determined, their corresponding initial sample size
can be considered to be su?cient. For TK, the order of Taylor expansion also need be
considered. In the initialization process, the main goal is to flnd an efiective Kriging model
structure. The speciflc model coe?cients can be improved in later optimization. Based on
this consideration, 80 may be a good initial sample size.
7.3.3 Corrective Operations and Update of Kriging Models
Corrective operations in SOAKEA are a crucial component. Two important problems
related to such operations need be considered. First, when should a corrective operation
be conducted, or what correction strategy is adopted? Second, after a corrective operation,
how are corrected points used to update a current Kriging model? One simulated case based
on the benchmark function SHC will be used to empirically analyze these two problems.
In SOAKEA, PSO is used to perform optimization operations. The population size
of PSO is set at 10, and the cognition and social learning rates are both set at 2.05,
consistent with [38, 69, 162]. The global stopping criterion is the number of Kriging function
evaluations, and it is set at 1000. The corrective condition is the number of updated
121
generations. For every G0 updated generations, a corrective operation will be conducted. A
correction per G0 generations is called a correction strategy. In order to investigate the flrst
problem, difierent correction strategies are tested. These strategies are that G0 are set to
10, 20, 40, and 80, respectively. G0 equal to 10 implies that for every 10 generations or 100
(10?10) Kriging function evaluations, a correction will be conducted. A correction means
that xVector and vVector of all 10 particles in a current population will be corrected. If
an xVector or vVector is the same as one of the vectors which were already corrected, its
simulation output can be directly obtained and running a simulation model is not needed.
After one correction, all of the corrected vectors are added to an observation set and utilized
to update a current Kriging model. The size of initial samples is set to 80. The algorithm
is run 30 times for each correction strategy.
Table 7.5 provides the test results. In this table, the total number of simulation evalu-
ations is decreased to 96 from 220 while G0 is increased to 80 from 10. When a simulation
evaluation is computationally expensive, the signiflcant decrease of simulation evaluations
has evident advantages for simulation optimization. In the table, Kriging points are deflned
as the known observation points used to flt a Kriging model, and the number is flnally
decreased to 95 from 219. Decreasing the number of Kriging points can efiectively reduce
the computational complexity of fltting a Kriging model. However, as G0 is increased to 80
from 10, a disadvantage of SOAKEA is that the success rate of searching optimal solutions
is decreased to 6.67% from 100%, which is unacceptable.
Although a strategy with frequent corrections, or G0 equal to a small value, ensures
that optimal solutions of a simulation model can be found more easily, frequent corrections
will signiflcantly increase the correction expenses caused by running a simulation model.
122
Table 7.5: The Test Results of Difierent Correction Strategies
Correction Kriging Kriging Simulation Success
Strategy Evaluation Points Evaluation Rate (%)
0 80 80
110 80 80
210 99 99
310 109 109
410 123 123
10 510 137 137 100
610 153 153
710 167 167
810 183 183
910 201 201
1000 219 220
0 80 80
210 80 80
20 410 98 98 100
610 113 113
810 129 129
1000 145 145
0 80 80
40 410 80 80 83.33
810 97 97
1000 111 112
0 80 80
80 810 80 80 6.67
1000 95 96
123
However, if G0 is too large, the corresponding correction strategy may not be able to provide
enough corrections. It is then di?cult for the algorithm to flnd optimal solutions. Figure
7.4 provides an intuitive explanation for this problem. Suppose the current position of a
particle is Circle 1. The optimal solution is Circle 2. The current search direction of particle
is shown in the flgure. In the search process, assume there are three possible correction
points which are Corr1, Corr2 and Corr3. According to the distance of points, it can be
concluded that point Corr1 corresponds to a frequent correction. Point Corr3 represents
an insu?cient correction. Figure 7.4 indicates that the correction in point Corr1 may be
unnecessary because the particle can move closer to the optimal solution. This correction
will waste some simulation evaluations but may not be able to improve the search direction.
However, point Corr3 is far away from the current position of particle and the optimal
solution. The correction at point Corr3 will waste some Kriging evaluations but can not
provide more useful information. The search direction can not be surely improved. An
efiective correction point may be Corr2. Point Corr2 is closer to the optimal solution. The
simulation output in this point can provide more information of the optimal solution from
the distance perspective. The search direction of particle can be more efiectively improved
because when the corrected output of point Corr2 is added to the observation set, a new
Kriging model can be fltted, and it can capture more information about the optimal solution
or Circle 2.
In the initial stage of optimization operations, there are less known observation points
and a fltted Kriging model can not provide precise interpolation values. In order to avoid
errors misguiding evolutionary search, frequent corrections are needed. As fltted Kriging
124
Figure 7.4: Diagrammatic Explanation of Correction Operations
125
Table 7.6: Numbers of Simulation Evaluations for Difierent Correction Strategies
Correction Strategy in the Second Half Stage
Correction 10 20 40 80
Strategy 10 220 173 156 156
in the 20 145 132 132
First Half 40 112 112
Stage 80 96
models become more accurate, Kriging evaluations can better approximate simulation eval-
uations. Thus, the correction frequency can be reduced. Based on this idea, a combination
correction strategy is created. [N1;N2] is used to express a combination correction strategy.
It implies that in the flrst half of optimization stage, a correction per N1 generations is
conducted, and in the second half a correction per N2 generations is used.
The efiectiveness of combination correction strategies is empirically investigated. Ta-
bles 7.6 and 7.7 provide the results. The numbers of simulation evaluations and success
rates for difierent strategies show that combination correction strategies have signiflcant
advantages. They can substantially reduce simulation evaluations while achieving com-
parable success rates. For example, if [10, 10] is replaced by the combination correction
strategy [10, 80], the number of simulation evaluations is reduced to 156 from 220 but the
100% success rate is maintained.
Combination correction strategies can have difierent mutations. A combination strat-
egy can consist of more than two strategies. These strategies could be combined during
any stage of optimization process. In the above empirical research, only a simple half-half
combination of two strategies is adopted.
126
Table 7.7: Success Rates of Optimization Search for Difierent Correction Strategies (%)
Correction Strategy in the Second Half Stage
Correction 10 20 40 80
Strategy 10 100 100 100 100
in the 20 100 100 100
First Half 40 83.33 83.33
Stage 80 6.67
After a corrective operation, more simulation outputs are available. These outputs
could be used to update a current Kriging model. During the fltting process, as more
simulation outputs are adopted, a more accurate fltted Kriging model can be generated.
However, a negative in uence is that adopting more simulation outputs will increase the
computational complexity of fltting a Kriging model. How to balance the interpolation
accuracy and computational complexity of Kriging will be investigated next. In the investi-
gation, the correction strategy G0 is set to 10. The parameter settings of PSO are the same
as before. Two scenarios are investigated. Scenario 1 is that all simulation outputs in the
observation set are used to update a current Kriging model; in scenario 2, as the number
of observation points in the observation set increases to 100, the algorithm continues to
use the current Kriging model fltted by the initial 100 simulation observations and stops
updating it, although corrective operations will be continuously conducted and the number
of points in the observation set will increase.
The empirical results are shown in Table 7.8. These results demonstrate that in the ini-
tial optimization stage, increasing Kriging points can signiflcantly improve current optimal
values. Kriging points imply the known simulation observation points in the observation
set used to flt Kriging models. However, in the following optimization search, the increase
127
Table 7.8: Numbers of Simulation Evaluations Used in Difierent Correction Strategies
Kriging Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Increase Improvement
Evaluation Kriging Current Kriging Current of Rate Rate of
Points Optimal Points Optimal Kriging Optimal
Value Value Points (%) Values (%)
0 80 -0.4739 80 -0.4739 0.0 0.000
110 80 -0.9850 80 -0.9850 0.0 0.000
210 99 -1.0306 99 -1.0306 0.0 0.000
310 100 -1.0306 109 -1.0315 9.0 0.093
410 100 -1.0310 123 -1.0316 23.0 0.058
510 100 -1.0314 137 -1.0316 37.0 0.024
610 100 -1.0315 153 -1.0316 53.0 0.015
710 100 -1.0316 167 -1.0316 67.0 0.007
810 100 -1.0316 183 -1.0316 83.0 0.000
910 100 -1.0316 201 -1.0316 101.0 0.000
1000 100 -1.0316 219 -1.0316 119.0 0.000
of Kriging points can not signiflcantly improve current optimal values. For example, as
Kriging points in Scenario 1 increase to 219 from 137, Kriging points in Scenario 2 are
always 100 and the current optimal values in two scenarios are very close. It is evident that
fltting a Kriging model in Scenario 1 has higher computational complexity and thus wastes
some computational resources. Furthermore, the two scenarios can both eventually reach
the optimal value of a test function. Figure 7.5 shows that the trend changes of current
optimal values in the optimization search of the two scenarios are close.
7.3.4 The Empirical Investigation on SOAKEA
After some important parameter settings of SOAKEA are analyzed, this section uses
four simulated cases based on benchmark functions to investigate its optimization capa-
bilities. The four benchmark functions are SHC, B2, Hmb, and Ras whose dimension of
128
Figure 7.5: Optimal Result Comparison of Difierent Scenarios
129
Table 7.9: Chosen Kriging Models for Difierent Cases
Benchmark Chosen Covariance Order SD
Function Kriging Type Function
SHC TK Cubic (2) 4 5
B2 TK Nugget 3 0
Hmb TK Cubic (2) 3 4
Ras TK Exponential 1 1
independent variables is arbitrarily set to 5. The chosen evolutionary algorithm in SOAKEA
is still PSO. The population size of PSO is set at 10, and the cognitional and social learning
rates are both 2.05. The size of initial samples of each case is 80. Speciflcally, 60 simulation
inputs are generated by LHS, and their outputs are obtained by running the corresponding
simulation model. These inputs and outputs are used to flt difierent Kriging models. The
rest of 20 simulation inputs are randomly sampled from a uniform distribution and utilized
to validate the fltted Kriging models. The best fltted model is used as a surrogate fltness
function in later optimization operations. According to this procedure, for each case, 10
difierent initial sample sets are generated and used to optimize a constructed simulation
model to test the robustness of SOAKEA. For four test cases, the best fltted Kriging models
are shown in Table 7.9. These models are used as surrogate fltness functions while PSO
searches for optimal solutions. In order to further examine the robustness of SOAKEA, 10
difierent initial populations for each initial sample set are randomly generated for PSO, and
thus SOAKEA is run 10 times for each initial sample set. Totally, the algorithm is run for
100 times for each case.
For the four test cases, the crucial parameter settings of SOAKEA are shown in Table
7.10. The parameter settings of test case based on the benchmark function SHC are used to
130
explain Table 7.10. The global optimization condition (stopping criterion) of SOAKEA is
the total number of Kriging evaluations. A Kriging evaluation denotes that SOAKEA uses
a fltted Kriging model to evaluate a solution only once. The global optimization condition is
1000 Kriging evaluations, which means that when the number of Kriging evaluations reaches
1000, SOAKEA will stop optimization search. Kriging points imply the known simulation
observation points used to flt Kriging models. The column of Kriging points in Table 7.10
provides the upper bound of numbers of Kriging points. For instance, a number in the
column being 100 implies that as the number of points in the observation set increases to
and then exceed 100, the following optimization operation in SOAKEA will still use the
Kriging model fltted by the initial 100 points. Based on the structure of dual Kriging model,
it means that SOAKEA will not need to calculate inverse Kriging coe?cient matrices later
and the computational complexity caused by Kriging can be efiectively controlled.
SOAKEA uses combination correction strategies to correct fltness values from Kriging
in the four test cases. The general form of a combination correction strategy is deflned as
[(N11;N12);(N21;N22);???;(Nm1;Nm2)]. That is, the combination strategy is combined by
m simple correction strategies. When the ratio of current and total numbers of Kriging
evaluations is less than N11+???+Ni1N11+???+Nm1 and greater than or equal to N11+???+Ni?1;1N11+???+Nm1 , the current
correction strategy is one correction per Ni2 generations. The ratio (N11 : N21 : ??? : Nm1)
determines when SOAKEA needs to adjust a current correction strategy, and therefore is
deflned as the correction adjustment ratio. For example, in the flrst test case, SOAKEA
adopts a combination correction strategy [(1;20);(1;80)]. The correction adjustment ratio is
1:1. Since the total Kriging evaluations are 1000, the ratio 1:1 indicates that the correction
adjustment point is the number equal to 500 which is given by 1000? 12 = 500. That is, for
131
Table 7.10: Parameter Settings of Correction Operations in SOAKEA for Difierent Cases
Benchmark Total Kriging Kriging Correction Correction Frequency
Function Evaluations Points Point 1 2
SHC 1000 100 1 : 1 20 80
B2 2000 150 1 : 2 3 10
Hmb 2000 100 1 : 2 10 40
Ras 2500 150 1 : 2 5 20
the flrst 500 Kriging evaluations, the corresponding correction strategy is one correction per
20 generations, and after that one correction per 80 generations. In a combination correction
strategy, initial simple correction strategies should provide frequent corrections so that
SOAKEA can frequently update current Kriging models and make them more precise. The
flrst row of Table 7.10 shows that for the benchmark function SHC, the correction frequency
of the flrst correction strategy is four times that of the second correction strategy.
The results from SOAKEA are compared with PSO without Kriging and two other
well known metaheuristics Simulated Annealing (SA) and Evolutionary Strategy (ES). For
SA, ES and PSO without Kriging, actual fltness functions or simulation evaluations are
used. Thus, it can be seen how many simulation evaluations are needed for optimization
algorithms without Kriging. The comparison results are in Table 7.11. These algorithms
record the number of simulation evaluations as soon as the deflned optimal solution is
reached. The average value of used simulation evaluations in successful optimization search
of running an algorithm for 100 times is given in the column of simulation evaluations of
Table 7.11. These values are used to compare the optimization performance of difierent
algorithms. Table 7.11 indicates that SOAKEA uses far fewer simulation evaluations but
achieves better or comparable success rates. It must be mentioned that SOAKEA has
132
Table 7.11: Performance Comparison of Difierent Algorithms
Benchmark Simulation Evaluations Success Rate (%)
Function SA ES PSO Krig-PSO SA ES PSO Krig-PSO
SHC 1203 460 250 119 95 97 99 99
B2 4247 1184 650 221 95 99 100 100
Hmb 2440 843 511 108 42 78 82 80
Ras 300145 3456 2365 141 2 7 21 40
some additional computational burden of building Kriging models frequently. But since
the number of Kriging points is limited and small in SOAKEA, the incurred additional
computational burden can be controlled, and not have critical in uences on optimization
search.
7.4 Conclusions
This chapter developed an optimization algorithm based on Kriging and evolutionary
algorithms for simulation problems with costly computational expenses. The developed
algorithm is named SOAKEA. Kriging is its surrogate fltness function and evolutionary
algorithms are used to search optimal solutions. Building a surrogate fltness function is
an e?cient approach to reducing computational cost of running a simulation model when
it is computationally prohibitive for standard metaheuristics. The accurate interpolation
feature of Kriging is an important factor of selecting it for SOAKEA. Taylor Kriging devel-
oped can provide more efiective interpolation and thus beneflt SOAKEA. The optimization
capabilities of SOAKEA are determined by the chosen evolutionary algorithm, and it is
necessary to choose an evolutionary algorithm with strong optimization capabilities.
133
The empirical investigation on some important parameters in SOAKEA, the size of
initial samples, correction strategies and Kriging points, provides some critical insights for
the settings of these parameters. The empirical comparison of SOAKEA with SA, ES
and PSO without Kriging indicates that SOAKEA has signiflcant advantages in optimizing
complex simulation models.
134
Chapter 8
The Kriging Application Software
8.1 Introduction
In this chapter, the Kriging software named Kriging Modeling is developed. The intro-
duction to the software is divided into four parts, which are the overview, Kriging Models,
Data Analysis, and Graphics. Kriging Models, Data Analysis, and Graphics are the three
tool packages of the Kriging Modeling software.
8.2 The Overview
The Kriging software makes use of Visual C++ 6.0 and Visual Basic 6.0. The software
includes four flles which are KrigModels.dll, KrigModeling.exe, KrigInformation.ini and
KrigHelp.pdf. KrigModels.dll is a dynamic-link library and developed in Visual C++ 6.0.
KrigModeling.exe is an executive flle coded in Visual Basic 6.0. KrigInformation.ini is an
informationflleandKrigHelp.pdfisahelpflleinPDFformatwhichprovidestheinstructions
about how to manipulate the software.
The installation of software is simple, and the speciflc procedure is as follows:
1. Create a flle fold: C:n KrigModels;
2. Save the following flles to this designated flle folder:
KrigModels.dll
KrigModeling.exe
135
KrigInformation.ini
KrigHelp.pdf
When a user double clicks KrigModeling.exe, two windows like Figure 8.1 will pop up. The
small window is the welcome interface of software. It could be displayed while other func-
tions are used. A simple way to remove it is to click the welcome window. The welcome
window gives a brief introduction to the software. More introduction information can be ob-
tained by clicking on \About" in the Help submenu under the main menu. Correspondingly,
a smaller window like Figure 8.2 will pop up.
In the main menu, the software provides the functions of document editing and flle
manipulation. Since these functions are very similar to those in Microsoft Word, they are
self-explanatory. The software has a help flle which is located under the Help submenu
in the main menu. If Content in the Help submenu is chosen, a PDF flle will open and
speciflc help information will be available. The software has a Windows menu under the
main menu. This submenu provides the facility to arrange several working windows in the
homepage of Kriging Modeling. The Tools submenu under the main menu gives the three
tool packages which are Kriging Models, Data Analysis, and Graphics.
8.3 Kriging Models
By clicking Kriging Models in the Tools submenu under the main menu, a user can
open the tool package named Kriging Models. The interface of this tool package is like
Figure 8.3. The interface mainly includes two types of parameter settings. One type is the
input settings, the other is the output settings. The input settings include the selection
of Kriging models, covariance functions and covariance ranges (in uence distances). When
136
Figure 8.1: The Welcome Interface
137
Figure 8.2: The About Interface
138
the chosen Kriging model is Taylor Kriging, one more parameter, namely order, needs to
be specifled. Similarly, when the chosen covariance function is the Power-function, a value
for powLambda needs to be set. When the chosen covariance range is \Deflne the Range",
a value for in uence distance of covariance needs to be provided. The requirements of these
parameters are that the highest order of Taylor expansion should be an integer among 1, 2,
3, and 4, the power of the power-function covariance function, that is b in Eq. (3.41), must
be less than 2 but greater than 0, and the chosen value of covariance range must be greater
than 0. The interface output settings deflne the output data flles.
8.3.1 Data Input File
The data layout in the data input flle needs to follow speciflc rules. Figure 8.4 gives an
example of data layout. In this flle, the flrst row of the data flle needs to list the number
of known points, the number of predicted points and the dimension number of independent
variables of each point. In the following rows, the flle needs to give known observed points
and predicted points. Speciflcally, in the flrst set of rows, the known observed points are
given with the last column as the dependent variable and the preceding columns representing
the independent variables. After the known observed points, the predicted points are given.
For these predicted points, the flle gives only their independent variable values and Kriging
will predict the values of the dependent variable. The dependent variable can only be
one dimension, but the Kriging software can simultaneously predict the dependent variable
values of multiple points by only running a Kriging Model once.
139
Figure 8.3: The Kriging Models Interface
140
Figure 8.4: An Example of the Data Layout of the Input File
141
8.3.2 Running the Software
The interface of Kriging Models provides three buttons which are named Clear, Run
and Exit. If a user wants to clear current settings, s/he clicks the Clear button to reset
the program in the default status. If a user wants to exit this tool package, s/he clicks the
Exit button. If the Run button is clicked, the program will call a related Kriging model to
perform required estimation operations. However, if any parameter settings do not satisfy
the requirements of the program, the program will report parameter selection mistakes and
the failure of calling the program, and at the same time identify the sources of mistakes by
changing the color of incorrect parameter settings like Figure 8.5. If the process of calling
a Kriging model is successful, the program will give a corresponding report, and ask a user
whether s/he needs to see output results. If the user wants to check output results, the
program will automatically open the flle KrigOutputData.out.
8.3.3 Data Output File
Kriging Models can output some data flles which are KrigOutputData.out, Simp-
KrigOutputData.out, MatrixLeft.out, MatrixRight.out, DualModelCoe?cients.out, andLamb-
daLagrangian.out. The interface in Figure 8.6 provides some choices to decide which flles
need be output. Notice that KrigOutputData.out and SimpKrigOutputData.out will be
automatically output, and SimpKrigOutputData.out is the simplifled version of KrigOut-
putData.out.
Figure 8.6 gives an example of KrigOutputData.out. In this flle, the flrst several rows
log the following information:
1. The date and time of running the Kriging model;
142
Figure 8.5: The Results of Calling a Kriging Model
143
2. The path of input data flle;
3. The index of chosen Kriging model;
4. The index of chosen covariance function;
5. The order of Power covariance function;
6. The index of chosen covariance range;
7. The chosen covariance range value;
8. The highest order in Taylor Expansion;
9. Input data;
10. Output data;
The index of a chosen Kriging model can equal to -1, 0, 1, or 2. These numbers cor-
respond to the indices under \Please Select the Kriging Model" in the interface of Kriging
Models. The matching relationship is as follows:
-1 ! Kriging Models (Or, not identifying any Kriging model)
0 ! Simple Kriging
1 ! Ordinary Kriging
2 ! Taylor Kriging
When Taylor Kriging is chosen, the software will ask a user to input the highest order
of Taylor expansion. The highest order must be equal to 1, 2, 3 or 4.
The index of the chosen covariance function can be equal to -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or
8. These numbers correspond to the indices under \Please Select the Covariance Function"
144
in the interface of Kriging Models. The matching relationship is:
-1 ! Covariance Functions (Or, not identifying any covariance function)
0 ! Pure Nugget Covariance
1 ! Linear Covariance
2 ! Cubic-1 Covariance
3 ! Cubic-2 Covariance
4 ! Spherical Covariance
5 ! Exponential Covariance
6 ! Gaussian Covariance
7 ! Power-function Covariance
8 ! Logarithmic (de Wijsian) Covariance
The index of the chosen covariance range can be equal to -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.
These numbers correspond to the indices under \Please Select the Covariance Range" in
the interface of Kriging Models. And the matching relationship is:
-1 ! Covariance Range (Or, not identifying any covariance range)
0 ! Default (Five Standard Deviations)
1 ! One Standard Deviation
2 ! Two Standard Deviations
3 ! Three Standard Deviations
4 ! Four Standard Deviations
5 ! Five Standard Deviations
145
6 ! Deflne the Range
By checking output parameter settings, a user can know whether s/he chose the de-
sired settings. Besides these parameter values, KrigOutputData.out also outputs input and
output data.
SimpKrigOutputData.out is the simplifled version of KrigOutputData.out. In Simp-
KrigOutputData.out, there are only the data of interpolated points, which makes it easier
to manipulate output data.
Additionally, in the frame \Data Output", the software provides four options to choose
ifmoredatawillbeoutput. ThesefourchoicesarefourdataoutputfllesMatrixLeft.out, Ma-
trixRight.out, DualModelCoe?cients.out, and LambdaLagrangian.out. MatrixLeft.out and
MatrixRight.out output the left coe?cient matrix and the right matrix in Kriging matrix
system, respectively. DualModelCoe?cients.out gives the coe?cients of the corresponding
dual Kriging model. And LambdaLagrangian.out gives the coe?cients ?i(i = 1;???;n) and
Lagrangian multipliers ul(l = 1;???;M). The data from these output flles can help a user
conduct more thorough analysis. However, in the default status, to increase the run-time
e?ciency of the program, the software will not output these flles.
8.4 Data Analysis
The software provides a tool package named Data Analysis which is in the Tools sub-
menu under the main menu. To perform the interpolation using Kriging, normalizing the
input data or flnding the extreme or mean values in the input data are often done. This
tool performs the above operations. Its interface is like Figure 8.7. Similar to Kriging
146
Figure 8.6: An Example of the Data Layout of the Output File (KrigOutputData.out)
147
Models, Data Analysis needs an input flle. In the input flle, the data layout has to follow
the same rules as those of the input flle of Kriging Models. That is, the number of points
and the dimensions of each point must be placed in the flrst row of the input flle. From the
second row, the flle then gives the data that will be normalized, or the point vectors. If the
points have multiple dimensions, the tool package will normalize the data by dimension.
After flnishing the required operations, Data Analysis creates a data output flle named
DataAnalysis.out. In the data output flle, the following parameters are output:
1. The date and time of running data analysis;
2. The path of the input data flle;
3. The normalized data (by dimension);
4. The mean (by dimension);
5. The mean of all of the data;
6. The maximum and minimum values (by dimension);
However, if the option of any operation is set to \No", the corresponding data results will
not be output. For example, for the operation of Data Mean, if its operation option is \No",
the data output flle will not output any mean values.
The interface of Data Analysis provides three buttons which are Clear, Run and Exit.
A user clicks the Clear button to set the program in the default status. If the Exit button
is clicked, the program will exit this tool package. If the Run button is clicked, the program
will perform required operations, such as normalizing input data. However, if all operation
options are \No", the program will report parameter selection mistakes. After flnishing
148
Figure 8.7: The Data Analysis Interface
149
required operations, the program will report if the process of data analysis is successful.
If the calling process fails, the program will identify the mistake source by changing the
color of the mistaken parameter setting as shown in Figure 8.8. If the calling process is
successful, the program will ask a user whether s/he needs to see output results which are
in a flle named DataAnalysis.out.
8.5 Graphics
Kriging Modeling also provides a tool package named Graphics to do graphic analysis
on data. The Graphics tool package is in the Tools submenu under the main menu in the
window of Kriging Modeling. Figure 8.9 gives the interface of the Graphics tool package.
In order to start drawing a flgure, a user needs to double click the area of the flgure in the
interface.
After double clicking the interface flgure in the Graphics window, the user will see a
working interface like Figure 8.10. For the convenience of later operations, the user could
make this window full-screen by double clicking the blue bar of the Graphics window. The
Graphics window itself provides a main menu with some functions which can help users
perform needed graphic operations.
Data input is the flrst step in the procedure for drawing a flgure. One way to input
data is that a user could click Datasheet under the View submenu in the Graphics window.
The datasheet window will then pop up. By following the rules of data layout in this sheet,
the user can input data. The other way to input data is to directly identify the input data
flle by clicking \Import File ???" under the Edit submenu in the Graphics window. The
identifled input flle must be an excel flle.
150
Figure 8.8: The Results of Calling Data Analysis
151
Figure 8.9: The Graphics Interface
152
Figure 8.10: The Working Interface of the Graphics Tool Package
153
The Chart submenu in the Graphics window provides some functions to set the graphic
parameters. After clicking Chart Type under the Chart submenu, a user can see an interface
like Figure 8.10. Here, a user can choose which type of flgure to draw, and can decide which
parameters to set or make some adjustments as would be usually done for the flgures in an
excel flle. For example, a user can change legends, the title of a flgure and the titles of axes,
and so on.
One more important submenu in the Graphics window is the Data submenu, which
provides two methods to set data series in the drawn flgure, that is, Series in Rows and
Series in Columns.
After a user flnishes drawing a flgure, the Copy command under the Edit submenu in
the Graphics window is used to copy the drawn flgure to any identifled flle. To exit the
operation of drawing a flgure, press the Esc key.
8.6 Conclusions
The chapter developed the Kriging software named Kriging Modeling which includes
three tool packages called Kriging Models, Data Analysis and Graphics, respectively. The
application instructions of these tool packages were presented in detail. The installation of
software is simple. The simulation cases in the previous chapters show that the software
is a powerful interpolation and data analysis tool. In addition, it is not only efiective for
simulation interpolation but also for any other areas needing interpolation.
154
Chapter 9
Summary And Conclusions
This chapter concludes the dissertation and discusses the future research directions.
9.1 Conclusions
It has been established in Kriging literature that Kriging metamodeling is applied to
the interpolation, sensitivity analysis and optimization of simulation models. Kriging has
the properties of precise interpolation, explicitness and difierentiation. Based on these prop-
erties, Kriging is used to conduct simulation interpolation in order to reduce the expenses
of running a simulation model, to assist sensitivity analysis on a simulation model, and to
optimize a simulation model. Simulation models considered are computationally expensive
and obtaining their su?cient outputs is di?cult. Some important results of the dissertation
are as follows:
1. Taylor expansion is introduced to construct a drift function of Kriging. The new drift
function can capture complicated drift behaviors of data so that simulation interpola-
tion capabilities of Kriging are enhanced. A Kriging model with Taylor expansion is
deflned as Taylor Kriging (TK). The empirical results from deterministic, stochastic
and physical simulations demonstrate that TK has stronger interpolation capabilities.
In addition, sample standard deviation is suggested to measure in uence distance of
covariance, which makes difierent problems have a consistent measurement unit for
in uence distance of covariance.
155
The simulation interpolation capabilities of Kriging, regression and artiflcial neural
networks (ANN) are compared theoretically and empirically. A signiflcant feature in
the comparison is that multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and speciflcation error are
considered. The conclusions of the comparison are that for interpolation accuracy,
Kriging is better than regression but worse than ANN. Regression and Kriging have
explicit fltted functions, but the function relationship of ANN is completely hidden.
2. The partial difierentiation equation of Kriging is developed and used together with
analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assist sensitivity analysis on a simulation model.
Sensitivity analysis can help modelers to flnd critical input factors of a simulation
model. Thus, controlling, improving and optimizing a simulation model become easier.
The empirical results show that the sensitivity analysis assisted by Kriging is efiective.
3. The dissertation integrates Kriging with evolutionary algorithms to search for optimal
inputs of a simulation model with costly computational expenses. A novel algorithm
is developed and named SOAKEA. The properties of SOAKEA are analyzed. Its
parameter settings are empirically investigated, andsome importantconclusions about
how to set parameters for SOAKEA are obtained. Several simulation cases are used
to examine the optimization capabilities of SOAKEA. The results indicate that it is
a promising optimization tool for simulation models with expensive running costs.
4. The Kriging application software is developed. The software has a user-friendly
graphic interface. It is exible and powerful and manipulating it is simple. The
software is not only for simulation interpolation but for wider areas which need inter-
polation operations.
156
9.2 Future Research Directions
Kriging metamodeling has some attractive properties for simulation interpolation, sen-
sitivity analysis and optimization. The potential research directions include the following
aspects:
1. If a Kriging coe?cient matrix is singular, its corresponding Kriging matrix system can
not be obtained. The Kriging estimator thus does not exist. Finding a good method
to avoid this problem is important.
2. While constructing a Kriging model, a modeler has to choose among some potential
covariance functions. Generating an approach to e?ciently identifying a covariance
function with limited observations deserves further consideration.
3. Kriging usually assumes that the covariance between any two points only depends on
their distance and is not in uenced by their locations. However, this is not always
true. When this assumption is partially or completely relaxed, how to make Kriging
accommodate the relaxed assumption need be investigated.
4. Taylor expansion relies on the premise that continuous partial derivatives of a drift
function have to exist. However, if this premise does not exist, it is worthy to inves-
tigate how to identify an approximate drift function to describe complicated drift of
data.
5. The fundamental objective of SOAKEA is to integrate the prediction features of Krig-
ing with optimization functions of an evolutionary algorithm in order to search for
optimal inputs of a simulation model. Improving SOAKEA can be done from two as-
pects. One is to enhance the interpolation capabilities of Kriging; another is to flnd a
157
better optimization algorithm. More work is needed in these two aspects. In addition,
currently SOAKEA is only applied to deterministic simulation optimization. How to
extend SOAKEA to optimize stochastic simulation models should be examined.
6. The simulation models investigated in this dissertation have multiple input variables
but only one output variable. However, some simulation models may have several
output variables. How to use Kriging to address such simulation models deserves ex-
ploration. A Kriging model with two or more dependent variables is named cokriging.
Cokriging has the potentials to flt simulation models with multiple output variables.
Similarly, its partial difierentiation equation can be developed and used to assist in
sensitivity analysis of simulation models. Some evolutionary algorithms can handle
multi-objective optimization problems. The integration of cokriging and these evo-
lutionary algorithms can be applied to optimizing simulation models with multiple
output variables.
158
Bibliography
[1] Adleman, L.M., \Molecular Computation of Solutions to Combinatorial Problems,"
Science, Vol. 266, pp: 1021-1024, 1994.
[2] Ahmed, S. and de Marsily, G., \Comparison of Geostatistical Methods for Estimating
Transmissivity Using Data on Transmissivity and Speciflc Capacity," Water Resources
Research, Vol. 23 (9), pp: 1717-1737, 1987.
[3] Andr, B., Trochu, F. and Dansereau, J., \Approach for the Smoothing of Three-
dimensional Reconstructions of the Human Spine Using Dual Kriging Interpolation,"
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, Vol. 34 (3), pp: 185-191, 1996.
[4] Armstrong, M. and Myers, D., \Robutness of Kriging: Variogram Modeling and Its Ap-
plications," Technical Report, Centre de Geostatistique, Fontainebleau, France, 1984.
[5] Aunon, J. and Gomez-Hernandez, J.J., \Dual Kriging with Local Neighborhoods: Ap-
plication to the Representation of Surface," Mathematical Geology, Vol. 32 (1), pp:
69-86, 2000.
[6] Barton, R.R. \Metamodeling: A State of the Art Review," Proceedings of the 1994
Winter Simulation Conference ed. by Tew, J.D., Manivannan, S., Sadowski, D.A. and
Seila, A.F., pp: 237-244, 1994.
[7] Box, G.E.P. and Jenkins, G.M., \Time Series Forecasting and Control," Holden-Day
Inc., San Francisco, 1976.
[8] Branin, F.H., \Widely Convergent Methods for Finding Multiple Solutions of Simul-
taneous Nonlinear Equations," IBM Journal of Research Developments, Vol. 16, pp:
504-522, 1972.
[9] Bras, R.L. and Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., \Random Functions and Hydrology," Addison-
Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA, 1985.
[10] Brass, J., Gerrard, A.M. and Peel, D. \Estimating Vessel Cost via Neural Networks,"
Proceedings of the 13th International Cost Engineering Congress, London, 1994.
[11] Carrier, J., Aubin, C.-E., Trochu, F. and Labelle, H., \Optimization of Rib Surgery
Parameters for the Correction of Scoliotic Deformities Using Approximation Models,"
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol. 127 (4), pp: 680-691, 2005.
[12] Chaveesuk, R. and Smith, A.E. \Dual Kriging: An Exploratory Use in Economic
Metamodeling," The Engineering Economist, Vol. 50 (3), pp: 247-271, 2005.
159
[13] Cheng, S.J. and Wang, R.Y., \An Approach for Evaluating the Hydrological Efiects
of Urbanization and its Application," Hydrological Processes, Vol. 16, pp: 1403-1418,
2002.
[14] Chiles, J. and Delflner, P., \Geostatistics: Modeling Spatial Uncertainty," John Wiley
& Sons, New York, pp: 355, 1999.
[15] Choobineh, F. and Behrens, A., \Use of Intervals and Possibility Distributions in Eco-
nomic Analysis," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 43 (9), pp: 907-918,
1992.
[16] Clifton, P.M. and Neuman, S.P., \Efiects of Kriging and Inverse Modeling on Condi-
tional Simulation of the Avra Valley Aquifer in Southern Arizona," Water Resources
Research, Vol. 18 (4), pp: 1215-1234, 1982.
[17] Cressie, NaA.C., \Statistics for Spatial Data," John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1993.
[18] Cressie, N., \The Origins of Kriging," Mathematical Geology, Vol. 22 (3), pp: 239-252,
1990.
[19] Curran, R., Gomis, G., Castagne, S., Butterfleld, J., Edgar, T., Higgins, C. and Mc-
Keever, C., \Integrated Digital Design for Manufacture for Reduced Life Cycle Cost,"
International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 109, pp: 27-40, 2007.
[20] David, M., \Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation," Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977.
[21] Davis, J.C.,\Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology," John Wiley & Sons, New York,
1986.
[22] Davis, M. and David, M., \Automatic Kriging and Contouring in the Presence of
Trends (Universal Kriging Made Simple)," The Journal of Canadian Petroleum Tech-
nology, Vol. 17 (1), 1978.
[23] Davis, M.W. and Culhane, P.G., \Contouring Very Large Datasets Using Kriging,"
Verly G. et al. (eds), Geostatistics for Natural Resources Characterization, D. Reidel
Publishing Co., Part 2, pp: 599-619, 1984.
[24] Davis, M.W. and Grivet, C., \Kriging in a Global Neighborhood," Mathematical Ge-
ology, Vol. 16 (3), pp: 249-265, 1984.
[25] De Iacoa, S., Myers, D.E. and Posa, D., \Space-time Variogram and a Functional Form
for Total Air Pollution Measurements," Computational Statistics and Data Analysis,
Vol. 41, pp: 311-328, 2002.
[26] Delhomme, J.P., \Kriging in the Hydrosciences," Advanced Water Resources, Vol. 1
(5), pp: 251-266, 1978.
160
[27] Delhomme, J.P., \Spatial Variability and Uncertainty in Groundwater Flow Parame-
ters: A Geostatistical Approach," Water Resources Research, Vol. 15 (2), pp: 269-280,
1979.
[28] Delorme, S., Petit, Y., de Guise, J.A., Aubin, C.-E., Labelle, H., Landry, C. and
Dansereau, J., \Three-dimensional Modelling and Rendering of the Human Skeletal
Trunk from 2D Radiographic Images," Proceedings of the Second International Con-
ference on 3-D Imaging and Modeling, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, pp: 497-505, October
4-8, 1999.
[29] Diamond, P. and Armstrong, M., \Robustness of Variograms and Conditioning of
Kriging Matrices," Mathematical Geology, Vol. 16, pp: 809-822, 1984.
[30] Doncker, Ph. De, Cognet, X., Dricot, J-M and Meys, R., \Electromagnetic Wave Prop-
agation Prediction Using Spatial Statistics: Experimental Validation," Proceedings of
the 9th Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux,
Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, October 2002.
[31] Doncker, Ph. De, Dricot, J-M, Meys, R., Heliery, M. and Tabbaray W., \Kriging the
Fields: A New Statistical Tool for Wave Propagation Analysis," Proceedings of the
Intertional Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, Turin, Italy,
September 2003.
[32] Dorigo, M. and Gambardella, L.M., \Ant Colony System: A Cooperative Learning
Approach to the Traveling Salesman Problem," IEEE Transaction on Evolutionary
Computation, Vol. 1 (1), pp: 53-66, 1997.
[33] Dowd, P.A., \A Review of Geostatistical Techniques for Contouring," Earnshaw,
R.A. (eds), Fundamental Algorithms for Computer Graphics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
NATO ASI Series, Vol. F17, 1985.
[34] Dubrule, O., \Two Methods with Difierent Objectives: Splines and Kriging," Mathe-
matical Geology, Vol. 15 (2), pp: 245-257, 1983.
[35] Echaabi, J., Trochu, F. and Gauvin, R., \A General Strength Theory for Composite
Materials Based on Dual Kriging Interpolation," Journal of Reinforced Plastics and
Composites, Vol. 14 (3), pp: 211-232, 1995.
[36] El-Beltagy, M.A., Nair, P.B. and Keane, A.J., \Metamodelling Techniques for
Evolutionary Optimization of Computationally Expensive Problems: Promise and
Limitations," Proceeding of the Genetic and Evolutionary Compution Conference
(GECCO99), pp: 196-203, 1999.
[37] Falkner, C.H. and Shanker, N., \Physical Simulation of Flexible Manufacturing Sys-
tems," Proceedings of the 1984 Winter Simulation Conferences ed. by Sheppard, S.,
Pooch, U. and Pdgden, D., pp: 397-404, 1984.
161
[38] Fan, S.K.S., Liang, Y.C. and Zahara E., \A Genetic Algorithm and a Particle Swarm
Optimizer Hybridized with Nelder-Mead Simplex Search,", Computers & Industrial
Engineering, Vol. 50, pp: 401-425, 2006.
[39] Fang, K.T., Li, R.Z. and Sudjianto, A., \Design and Modeling for Computer Experi-
ments," Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2006.
[40] Fereshteh-Saniee, F. and Hosseini, A.H., \The Efiects of Flash Allowance and Bar
Size on Forming Load and Metal Flow in Closed Die Forging," Journal of Materials
Processing Technology, Vol. 177, pp: 261-265, 2006.
[41] Fogel, L.J., Owens, A.J., and Walsh, M.J., \Artiflcial Intelligence through Simulated
Evolution," John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1966.
[42] Fregeau, M., Saeed, F. and Paraschivoiu, I., \Numerical Heat Transfer Correlation
for Array of Hot-air Jets Impinging on 3-Dimensional Concave Surface," Journal of
Aircraft, Vol. 42 (3), pp: 665-670, 2005.
[43] Galli, A., Murillo, E. and Thomann, J., \Dual Kriging-Its Properties and Its Uses in
Direct Contouring," Verly G. et al. (eds), Geostatistics for Natural Resources Charac-
terization, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Part 2, pp: 621-634, 1984.
[44] Galli, A. and Sandjivy, L., \Analyse Krigeante et Analyse Spectrale," Sciences de la
Terre, Serie Informatique Geologique, Vol. 21, pp: 115-124, 1985.
[45] Gerrard, A.M., Brass, J. and Peel, D. \Using Neural Nets to Cost Chemical Plants,"
Proceedings of the 4th European Symposium on Computer-Aided Process Engineering,
pp: 475-478, 1994.
[46] Glover, F., \Tabu Search - Part I," Operations Research Society of America Journal
on Computing, Vol. 1 (3), pp: 190-206, 1989 .
[47] Glover, F., \Tabu Search - Part II," Operations Research Society of America Journal
on Computing, Vol. 2 (1), pp: 4-32, 1990.
[48] Goldberg, D.E., \Genetic Algorithms inSearch, Optimization, and MachineLearning,"
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts,1989.
[49] Goovaerts, P., \Factorial Kriging Analysis: A Useful Tool for Exploring the Structure
of Multivariate Spatial Soil Information," Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 43, pp: 597-619,
1992.
[50] Goovaerts, P., \Using Elevation to Aid the Geostatistical Mapping of Rainfall Erosiv-
ity," Catena, Vol. 34 (3-4), pp: 227-242, 1999.
[51] Goovaerts, P., \Geostatistics in Soil Science: State-of-the-art and Perspectives," Geo-
derma, Vol. 89, pp: 1-45, 1999.
162
[52] Hemyari, P. and Nofziger, D.L., \Analytical Solution for Punctual Kriging in One
Dimension," Soil Science Society of America journal, Vol. 51 (1), pp: 268-269, 1987.
[53] Hertog, D., Kleijnen, J.P.C. and Siem, A.Y.D., \The Correct Kriging Variance Esti-
mated by Bootstrapping," Journal of the Operational Research Society , Vol. 57 (4),
pp: 400-409, 2006.
[54] Hofmeyr, S.A. and Forrest, S., \Immunity by Design: An Artiflcial Immune System,"
in Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computing Conference, Orlando, FL,
pp: 1289-1296, 1999.
[55] Holland, J.H., \Adaptation in Natural and Artiflcial Systems," University of Michigan
Press, Ann Arbor, 1975.
[56] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meta-modeling.
[57] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramsey RESET test.
[58] http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/etsug/60372/HTML/default/etsug aut
oreg sect025.htm.
[59] http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract id=570142.
[60] Huang, D., Allen, T.T., Notz, W.I. and Miller, R.A., \Sequential Kriging Optimiza-
tion Using Multiple-fldelity Evaluations," Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimiza-
tion, Vol. 32 (5), pp: 369-382, 2006.
[61] Huang, D., Allen, T.T., Notz, W.I. and Zheng, N., \Global Optimization of Stochastic
Black-box Systems via Sequential Kriging Metamodels," Journal of Global Optimiza-
tion, Vol. 34 (3), pp: 441-466, 2006.
[62] Jin, R., Chen, W. and Simpson, T.W., \Comparative Studies of Metamodeling Tech-
niques under Multiple Modeling Criteria," Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimiza-
tion, Vol. 23, pp: 1-13, 2001.
[63] Jones, D., Schonlau, M. and Welch, W., \E?cient Global Optimization of Expensive
Black-box Functions," Journal of Global Optimization, Vol. 13, pp: 455-492, 1998.
[64] Journel, A.G., \Nonparametric Estimation of Spatial Distributions," Mathematical
Geology, Vol. 15 (3), pp: 445-468, 1983.
[65] Journel, A.G. and Huijbregis, Ch.J., \Mining Geostatistics," Academic Press, London,
1978.
[66] Jowett, G.H., \The Accuracy of Systematic Sampling from Conveyor Belts," Applied
Statistics, Vol. 1, pp: 50-59, 1952.
163
[67] Jowett, G.H., \Multiple Regression between Variables Measured at Points of a Plane
Sheet," Applied Statistics, Vol. 4, pp: 80-89, 1955.
[68] Kamanayo, G., Trochu, F. and Sanschagrin, B., \Prediction of Shrinkage by Dual
Kriging for Injection Molded Polypropylene Plaques," Advances in Polymer Technol-
ogy, Vol. 13 (4), pp: 305-314, 2003.
[69] Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R., \Particle Swarm Optimization," in Proceedings of the
1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, pp: 1942-1948, 1995.
[70] Kennedy, M.C. and O?Hagan, A., \Predicting the Output of a Complex Computer
Code when Fast Approximation Are Available," Biometrika, Vol. 87 (1), pp: 1-13,
2000.
[71] Khoo, L.P. and Chen, C.H., \Integration of Response Surface Methodology with Ge-
netic Algorithms," The International Journal of Advance Manufacturing Technology,
Vol. 18, pp: 483-489, 2001.
[72] Kleijnen, J.P.C., \An Overview of the Design and Analysis of Simulation Experiments
for Sensitivity Analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 164 (2), pp:
287-300, 2005.
[73] Kleijnen, J.P.C., \Experimental Design for Sensitivity Analysis, Optimization, and
Validation of Simulation Models," Chapter 6 in: Handbook of Simulation, edited by
Banks, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp: 173-223, 1998.
[74] Kleijnen, J.P.C. and van Beers, W.C.M., \Application-driven Sequential Designs for
Simulation Experiments: Kriging Metamodeling," Journal of the Operational Research
Society, Vol. 55, pp: 876-883, 2004.
[75] Kleijnen, J.P.C. and van Beers, W.C.M., \Robustness of Kriging when Interpolating
in Random Simulation with Heterogeneous Variances: Some Experiments," European
Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 165 (3), pp: 826-834, 2005.
[76] Koehler, J.R. and Owen A.B., \Computer Experiments," Ghosh, S. and Rao, C.R.,
Handbook of Statistics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 13, pp: 261-308, 1996.
[77] Kolmogorov, A.N., \Sur 1?interpolation et Extrapolation des Suites Stationnaires,"
Comptes Rendus Academie des Sciences, Paris, Vol. 208, pp: 2043-2045, 1939.
[78] Kolmogorov, A.N., \The Distribution of Energy in Local Isotropic Turbulence," Dok-
lady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow, Vol. 32, pp: 19-31, 1941.
[79] Korzybski, A. and Meyers, R., \Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Nonaristotelian
Systems and General Semantics," Fourth edition. International Nonaristotelian Library
Publishing Company, Lakeville, 1958.
164
[80] Koza, J.R., \Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural
Selection," MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.
[81] Krige, D.G., \A Statistical Approach to Some Basic Mine Valuation Problems on the
Witwatersrand," Journal of the Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Society of South
Africa, Vol. 52, pp: 119-139, 1951.
[82] Krige, D.G., \Lognormal-de Wijsian Geostatistics for Ore Evaluation," South African
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, 1978.
[83] Kushner, H.J., \A New Method of Locating the Maximum Point of an Arbitrary
Multipeak Curve in the Presence of Noise," Journal of Basic Engineering, Vol. 86, pp:
97-106, 1964.
[84] Larranaga, P. and Lozano, J.A., \Estimation of Distribution Algorithms: A New
Tool for Evolutionary Computation," Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Norwell,
Massachusetts, 2002.
[85] Leary, S.J., Bhaskar, A. and Keane, A.J., \A Knowledge-based Approach To Response
Surface Modelling in Multifldelity Optimization," Journal of Global Optimization, Vol.
26 (3), pp: 297-319, 2003.
[86] Le bvre, J., Roussel, H., Walter, E., Lecointe, D. and Tabbara, W., \Prediction from
Wrong Models: The Kriging Approach," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine,
Vol. 38 (4), pp: 35-45, 1996.
[87] Li, B.H., Rizos, C. and Lee, H.K, \Utilizing Kriging to Generate a NLOS Error Cor-
rection Map for Network Based Mobile Positioning," Journal of Global Positioning
Systems, Vol. 4 (1-2), pp: 27-35, 2005.
[88] Li, B.H., Salter, J., Dempster, A.G. and Rizos, C., \Indoor Positioning Techniques
Based on Wireless LAN," 1st IEEE International Conference on Wireless Broadband
& Ultra Wideband Communications, Sydney, Australia, 13-16 March, paper 113, CD-
ROM procs, 2006.
[89] Limaiem, A. and ElMaraghy, H.A., \Automatic Inference of Parametric Equations in
Geometric Modeling Using Dual Kriging," in Proceedings of 1996 IEEE International
Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 2, pp: 1499-1504, 1996.
[90] McKay, M.D., Beckman, R.J. and Conover, W.J., \A Comparison of Three Methods
for Selecting Values of Input Variables in the Analysis of Output from a Computer
Code," Technometrics, Vol. 21, pp: 239-245, 1979.
[91] Mamat, A., Trochu, T.F. and Sanschagrin, B., \Analysis of Shrinkage by Dual Kriging
for Filled and Unfllled Polypropylene Molded Parts," Polymer Engineering and Science,
Vol. 35 (19) , pp: 1511-1520, 2004.
165
[92] Matheron, G., \Traite de Geotatistique Appliquee, Tome I: Memoires du Bureau de
Recherches Geologiques et Minieres," Editions Technip, Paris, Vol. 14, 1962.
[93] Matheron, G., \Traite de Geotatistique Appliquee, Tome II: Memoires du Bureau de
Recherches Geologiques et Minieres," Editions Technip, Paris, Vol. 24, 1963.
[94] Matheron, G., \Principles of Geostatistics," Economic Geology, Vol. 58 (8), pp: 1246-
1266, 1963.
[95] Matheron, G., \Les Variables Regionalisees et Leur Estimation," Une application de
la theorie des fonctions aleatoires aux Sciences de la Nature, Masson et Cie, Paris,
France, 1965.
[96] Matheron, G., \Le krigeage universel," Cachiers du Centre de Morphologie Mathema-
tique, Ecole des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau, Vol. 1, 1969.
[97] Matheron, G., \A Simple Substitute for the Conditional Expectation: The Disjunctive
Kriging," In: Guarascio, David, and Huijbregts (eds),\Advanced Geostatistics in the
Mining Industry," Vol. 24 of NATO Advances Study Institute Series; Series C: Math-
ematical and Physical Sciences, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht (NL), pp:
221-236, 1976.
[98] Matheron, G., \Splines and Kriging: Their Formal Equivalence," in Merriam, D.F.
(eds.), Down-to-earth Statistics: Solutions Looking for Geological Problems, Syracuse
University Geological Contributions, pp: 77-95, 1981.
[99] Matheron, G., \Pour une Analyse Krigeante de Donnes Rgionalises," Note N- 732 du
Centre de Gostatistique. Ecole des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau, France, pp: 1-22,
1982.
[100] Matson, J.E., Barret, B. and Mellichamp, J., \Software Estimation Using Function
Points," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 20, pp: 275-287, 1994.
[101] McLean, P., Lger, P. and Tinawi, R., \Post-processing of Finite Element Stress Fields
Using Dual Kriging Based Methods for Structural Analysis of Concrete Dams," Finite
Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol. 42 (6), pp: 532-546, 2006.
[102] Michalewicz, Z., \Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs,"
(Third, Revised and Extended Edition), Springer-Verlag, London, UK, 1996.
[103] Mijaylova, P., Sandoval, L., Garzn, M.A., Moeller, G., Chacn, J.M. and Gonzles, A.,
\Pilot Scale Evaluation and Economical Feasibility on Difierent Wastewater Treatment
Options to Obtain Reclaimed Water in Mexico," Usos Mltiples del Agua, para la Vida
yel Desarrollo Sostenible, Cartagena de Indias, pp: 10-18, 2003.
166
[104] Mitchell, T.J. and Morris, M.D., \The Spatial Correlation Function Approach to
Response Surface Estimation," Swain, J.J., Goldsman, D., Crain, R.C., and Wilson,
J.R. (eds), Proceedings of the 1992 Winter Simulation Conference, pp: 565-571, 1992.
[105] Moyeed, Rana A. and Papritz, Andreas \An Empirical Comparison of Kriging Meth-
ods for Nonlinear Spatial Point Prediction," Mathematical Geology, Vol. 34 (4), 2002.
[106] Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S. and Seneviratne, L., \Product Cost Estimation:
Technique Classiflcation and Methodology Review," Journal of Manufacturing Science
and Engineering, Vol. 128, pp: 563-575, 2006.
[107] Odeh, I., McBratney, A.andChittleborough, D., \SpatialPredictionofSoilProperties
from Landform Attributes Derived from a Digital Elevation Model," Geoderma, Vol.
63 (3-4), pp: 197-214, 1994.
[108] Odeh, I., McBratney, A. and Chittleborough, D., \Further Results on Prediction
of Soil Properties from Terrain Attributes: Heterotopic Cokriging and Regression-
Kriging," Geoderma, Vol. 67 (3-4), pp: 215-226, 1995.
[109] Olea, R.A., \Optimal Contour Mapping Using Universal Kriging," Journal of Geo-
physical Research, Vol. 79, pp: 695-702, 1974.
[110] Ong, Y.S., Nair, P.B. and Keane, A.J., \Evolutionary Optimization of Computation-
ally Expensive Problems via Surrogate Modeling," American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics Journal, Vol. 41 (4), pp: 687-696, 2003.
[111] Ord, J.K., \Kriging, Entry," Kotz, S. and Johnson, N. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Sta-
tistical Sciences, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, Vol. 4, pp: 411-413, 1983.
[112] Orr, E.D. and Dutton, O.R., \An Application of Geostatistics to Determine Regional
Groundwater Flow in the San Andres Formation, Texas and New Mexico," Ground-
water, Vol. 21 (5), pp: 619-624, 1983.
[113] Owen, A.B., \Orthogonal Arrays for Computer Experiments, Integration and Visu-
alization," Statistica Sinica, Vol. 2, pp: 439-452, 1992.
[114] Ramsey, J.B., \Tests for Speciflcation Errors in Classical Linear Least Squares Re-
gression Analysis," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (31), pp: 350-371,
1969.
[115] Ratle, A., \Accelerating Evolutionary Algorithms Using Fitness Function Models,"
Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, Vol. 5, pp: 87-96, 1998.
[116] Ratle, A., \Kriging as a Surrogate Fitness Landscape in Evolutionary Optimization,"
Artiflcial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing, Vol. 15 (1),
pp: 37-49, 2001.
167
[117] Rechenberg, I., \Evolutionsstrategie: Optimierung technischer systeme nach prinzip-
ien der biologischen evolution," Frommann-Holzboog Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany,
1973.
[118] Rgnire, J. and Sharov, A., \Simulating Temperature- Dependent Ecological Processes
at the Subcontinental Scale: Male Gypsy Moth Flight Phenology," International Jour-
nal of Biometereology, Vol. 42, pp: 146-152, 1999.
[119] Reis I.A., \Alternatives for Geosensors Networks Data Analysis," VII Simpsio
Brasileiro de Geoinformtica, Campos do Jord.o, Brasil, INPE, pp: 94-104, 20-23 novem-
bro 2005.
[120] Reisa, A.P., Sousab, A.J., Ferreira da Silvac, E., Patinhac, C. and Fonsecac, E.C.,
\Combining Multiple Correspondence Analysis with Factorial Kriging Analysis for
Geochemical Mapping of the Gold-silver Deposit at Marrancos (Portugal)," Applied
Geochemistry, Vol. 19, pp: 623-631, 2004.
[121] Reynolds, R.G., \An Introduction to Cultural Algorithms," in Proceedings of the
Third Annual Conference on Evolutionary Program, San Diego, CA, pp: 131-139,
1994.
[122] Sabin, M.A., \Contouring-theStateoftheArt," Earnshaw, R.A.(eds), Fundamental
Algorithms for Computer Graphics, Springer-Verlag, NATO ASI Series, Vol. F17, 1985.
[123] Sacks, J., Schiller, S.B. and Welch, W., \Design for Computer Experiments," Tech-
nometrics, Vol. 31, pp: 41-47, 1989.
[124] Sacks, J., Welch, W.J., Mitchell T.J. and Wynn, H.P., \Design and Analysis of
Computer Experiments," Statistical Science Vol. 4 (4), pp: 409-435, 1989.
[125] Santner, T.J., Williams, B.J. and Notz, W.I., \The Design and Analysis of Computer
Experiments," Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003.
[126] Sasena, M.J., \Flexibility and E?ciency Enhancements for Constrained Global De-
sign Optimization with Kriging Approximations," Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Michigan, 2002.
[127] Sasena, M.J., Papalambros, P.Y. and Goovaerts, P., \ Exploration of Metamodeling
Sampling Criteria for Constrained Global Optimization," Engineering Optimization,
Vol. 34, pp: 263-278, 2002.
[128] Savi, M.A., Paiva, A., Baeta-Neves, A.P. and Pacheco, P.M.C.L., \Phenomenologi-
cal Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Shape Memory Alloys: A Thermo-Plastic-
Phase Transformation Coupled Model," Journal of Intelligent Materials Systems and
Structures, Vol. 13, pp: 261-273, 2002.
168
[129] Schefi, H., \The Analysis of Variance," John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1959.
[130] Schwefel, H.P., \Evolution and Optimum Seeking," John Wiley & Sons, New York,
1995.
[131] Schonlau, M., \Computer Experiments and Global Optimization," Ph.D. Disserta-
tion, University of Waterloo, 1997.
[132] Simpson, T.W., Mauery, T.M., Korte, J.J. and Mistree, F., \Comparison of Re-
sponse Surface and Kriging Models for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization," 7th
AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimiza-
tion, St. Louis, MO, Sept. 2-4, 1998, Collection of Technical Papers. Pt. 1 (A98-39701
10-31).
[133] Simpson, T.W., Mauery, T.M., Korte, J.J. and Mistree, F., \Kriging Models for
Global Approximation in Simulation-Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization,"
AIAA Journal, Vol. 39 (12), pp: 2233-2241, 2001.
[134] Smith, A.E., Mason and A.K., \Cost Estimation Predictive Modeling: Regression
versus Neural Network," Engineering Economist, Vol. 42, pp: 137-161, 1996.
[135] Smith, J.L., Halvorson, J.J. and Papendick, R.I., \Using Multiple-variable Indicator
Kriging for Evaluating Soil Quality," Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 57
(3), pp: 743-749, 1993.
[136] Soares, A., \Geostatistical Estimation of Orebody Geometry: Morphological Krig-
ing," Mathematical Geology, Vol. 22 (7), pp: 787-802, 2004.
[137] Song, W.B., \Shape Optimisation Of Turbine Blade Firtrees," Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Southampton, 2002.
[138] Sousa, A.J., \Factorial Kriging as a Method to Include Spatial Structure into Clas-
siflcation. A Case Study on a Sulphide Orebody," Chung, C.F., Fabbri, A.G. and
Sinding-Larsen, R. (Eds.), Quantitative Analysis of Mineral and Energy Resources,
Reidel, Dordrecht, pp: 385-392, 1988.
[139] Stein, M., \Large Sample Properties of Simulations Using Latin Hypercube Sam-
pling," Technometrics, Vol. 29, pp: 143-151, 1987.
[140] Stein, M.L., \Asymptotically E?cient Spatial Interpolation with a Misspecifled Co-
variance Function," Annals of Statistics, pp: 55-63, 1988.
[141] Stein, M.L. and Handcock M.S., \Some Asymptotic Properties of Kriging when the
Covariance Function is Misspecifled," Mathematical Geology, Vol. 21 (2), pp: 171-189,
1989.
169
[142] Sukhatme, S., \Kriging with Perturbed Variogram," Proceedings of the Social Statis-
tics Section of the American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, pp: 296-299,
1985.
[143] Terriault, P., Meunier, M.-A. and Trochu F., \Application of Dual Kriging to the
Construction of a General Phenomenological Material Law for Shape Memory Alloys,"
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 8 (7), pp: 605-618, 1997.
[144] Trangmar, B.B., Yost, R.S. and Uehara, G., \Application of Geostatistics to Spatial
Studies of Soil Properties," Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 38, pp: 45-94, 1985.
[145] Trochu. F., \A Contouring Program Based on Dual Kriging Interpolation," Engineer-
ing with Computers, Vol. 9, pp: 160-177, 1993.
[146] Trochu, F., Sacepe, N., Volkov, O. and Turenne, S., \Characterization of NiTi Shape
Memory Alloys Using Dual Kriging Interpolation," Materials Science and Engineering,
Vol. 273-275, pp: 395-399, 1999.
[147] Tynan, R., OHare, G.M.P., Marsh, D. and OKane, D., \Interpolation for Wireless
Sensor Network Coverage," Embedded Networked Sensors, 2005, EmNetS-II. The Sec-
ond IEEE Workshop, pp: 123-131, May 30-31, 2005.
[148] Van Beers, W.C.M. and Kleijnen, J.P.C., \Kriging for Interpolation in Random
Simulation," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 54 (3), pp: 255-262,
2003.
[149] Van Beers, W.C.M. and Kleijnen, J.P.C., \Kriging Interpolation in Simulation: A
Survey," Ingalls, R.G., Rossetti, M.D., Smith, J.S., and Peters B.A., (eds), Proceed-
ings of the 2004 Winter Simulation Conference, Vol. 55, pp: 113-121, 2004.
[150] Vieira, S.R., Hatfleld, J.L., Nielsen, D.R. and Biggar, J.W., \Geostatistical Theory
and Application to Variability of Some Agronomical Properties," Hilgardia , Vol. 51,
pp: 175, 1983.
[151] Viscarra Rossel, R.A., Goovaerts , P. and McBratney, A.B., \Assessment of the Pro-
duction and Economic Risks of Site-speciflc Liming Using Geostatistical Uncertainty
Modelling," Environmetrics, Vol. 12 (8), pp: 699-711, 2001.
[152] Voltz, M. and Webster, R., \A Comparison of Kriging, Cubic Splines and Classifl-
cation for Predicting Soil Properties from Sample Information," European Journal of
Soil Science, Vol. 41, pp: 473-490, 1990.
[153] Wackernagel, H., \Multivariate Geostatistics: An Introduction with Applications,"
2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag, 1998.
[154] Ward, T.L., \Discounted Fuzzy Cash Flow Analysis," 1985 Annual International
Industrial Engineering Conference Proceedings, pp: 476-481, 1985.
170
[155] Warnes, J.J., \A Sensitivity Analysis for Universal Kriging," Mathematical Geology,
pp: 653-676, 1986.
[156] Webster, R., \Local Disjunctive Kriging of Soil Properties with Change of Support,"
European Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 42, pp: 301-318, 1991.
[157] Wiener, N., \The Extrapolation, Interpolation, and Smoothing of Stationary Time
Series with Engineering Applications," Published jointly by the Technology Press of
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York, and Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London, pp: 163, 1949.
[158] Wold, H., \A Study in the Analysis of Stationary Time Series," Almquist & Wiksell,
Stockholm, Sweden, pp: 211, 1938, 2nd Edition, with Appendix by Peter Whittle, pp:
236, 1954.
[159] Yakowitz, S.J. and Szidarovszky, F., \A Comparison of Kriging with Nonparametric
Regression Methods," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Vol. 16, pp: 21-53, 1985.
[160] Yu, Y., Govindan, R., Rahimi, M. and Estrin, D., \Two Case Studies on Data Sensi-
tivity of Wireless Sensor Network Algorithms and our Proposal on Scalable, Synthetic
Data Generation," International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Vol. 2, pp:
355-386, 2006.
[161] Zhou, Z.Z, Ong, Y.S. and Nair, P.B., \Hierarchical Surrogate-Assisted Evolutionary
Optimization Framework," Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2004 (CEC2004),
Vol. 2, pp: 1586-1593, 2004.
[162] Zielinski, K. and Laur, R., \Stopping Criteria for a Constrained Single-Objective
Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm," Informatica, Vol. 31, pp: 51-59, 2007.
[163] Zielinski, K., Peters, D. and Laur, R., \Stopping Criteria for Single-Objective Opti-
mization," Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Intel-
ligence, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 2005, Singapore.
171
Appendix A
Proof Of Kriging Estimator In Equation (3.11)
According to Eq. (3.11), the following equations can be obtained:
FT? = f(X) (A.1)
FU+S? = C(X) (A.2)
Equation (A.2) can be transformation into the form below:
FTS?1FU+FTS?1S? = FTS?1C(X) (A.3)
That is,
FTS?1FU = FTS?1C(X)?FT? (A.4)
If FTS?1F is invertible, the estimator of U can be calculated:
^U = (FTS?1F)?1(FTS?1C(X)?FT?) (A.5)
Based on Eq. (3.2), the estimator ^U becomes
^U = (FTS?1F)?1(FTS?1C(X)?f(X)) (A.6)
Substituting U in Eq. (A.2) with Eq. (A.6) leads to the following equation.
F^U+S? = C(X) (A.7)
which can be further transformed into
S?1F^U+S?1S? = S?1C(X) (A.8)
Here S is supposed to be invertible. Then the estimator of ^? is
^? = S?1(C(X)?F^U) (A.9)
Note that the estimator of ^Z(X) is
^Z(X) = ^?TZ = (S?1(C(X)?F^U))TZ = (CT(X)? ^UTFT)S?1Z (A.10)
According to Eq. (A.6), the estimator of ^Z(X) becomes:
^Z(X) = CT(X)S?1Z?((FTS?1F)?1(FTS?1C(X)?f(X)))TFTS?1Z (A.11)
172
That is,
^Z(X) = CT(X)S?1Z?CT(X)S?1F(FTS?1F)?1FTS?1Z+
fT(X)(FTS?1F)?1FTS?1Z (A.12)
Let
^a = (FTS?1F)?1FTS?1Z (A.13)
Eq. (A.12) is simplifled:
^Z(X) = CT(X)S?1Z?CT(X)S?1F^a+fT(X)^a (A.14)
That is,
^Z(X) = ^aTf(X)+CT(X)S?1(Z?F^a) (A.15)
Thus Eq. (3.11) is proved.
173
List of Acronyms
Average Absolute Relative Error (AARE) , 42
Actual Cost (AC) , 89
Artiflcial Neural Network (ANN) , 22
Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) , 3
Absolute Relative Error (ARE) , 49
Block Kriging (BK) , 24
Disjunctive Kriging (DK) , 24
Diameter Square of the Product (DS) , 89
Diameter ? Thickness of the Product (DT) , 89
Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) , 107
E?cient Global Optimization (EGO) , 15
Evolutionary Strategy (ES) , 107
Error Sum of Squares (ESS) , 90
Factorial Kriging Analysis (FKA) , 25
Genetic Algorithm (GA) , 14
Generalized Least Squares (GLS) , 22
174
Height ? Diameter of the Product (HD) , 89
The Himmelblau Function (Hmb) , 46
Height Square of the Product (HS) , 89
Height ? Thickness of the Product (HT) , 89
Indicator Kriging (IK) , 24
Kriging with External Drift (KED) , 23
Latin Hypercube Design (LHD) , 45
Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) , 44
Lognormal Kriging (LK) , 24
Logarithmic Linear Regression (LLR) , 91
Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR) , 86
Mean Square Errors (MSE) , 23
Ordinary Kriging (OK) , 12
Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) , 23
Predicted Cost by MLR (PC) , 91
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) , 107
175
Regression Analysis (RA) , 76
The Rastrigin Function (Ras) , 46
Regression Kriging (RK) , 23
Simulated Annealing (SA) , 131
Standard Deviation (SD) , 3
The Six Hump Camelback Function (SHC) , 46
Simple Kriging (SK) , 13
Sequential Kriging Optimization (SKO) , 14
Simulation Optimization Algorithm based on Kriging and EA (SOAKEA) , 109
Simple Random Sampling (SRS) , 44
Taylor Kriging (TK) , 38
Thickness Square of the Product (TS) , 89
Universal Kriging (UK) , 11
176