High Sensitivity Signatures for Test and Diagnosis of Analog, MixedSignal and
RadioFrequency Circuits
by
Suraj Sindia
A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
Auburn University
in partial ful?llment of the
requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Auburn, Alabama
August 3, 2013
Keywords: Analog Circuit, Test, Diagnosis, MixedSignal Test, RadioFrequency Test,
SignatureBased Test
Copyright 2013 by Suraj Sindia
Approved by
Vishwani D. Agrawal, Chair, James J. Danaher Professor of Electrical & Computer Eng.
Foster F. Dai, Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Adit D. Singh, James B. Davis Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Alvin Lim, Professor of Computer Science & Software Engineering
Abstract
The conventional approach, widely practiced in the industry today, for testing analog
circuits is to ensure that the circuit conforms to datasheet limits on all its speci?cations.
However, such a speci?cation based test methodology su?ers from high levels of test cost
stemming from long testtimes on expensive test equipment. In recent years the situation
has only worsened with the advent of mixed signal systems on chip (SoC), to a point where
analog circuit test cost is often found to be as much as 50% of the total test cost in spite of
analog portions occupying less than 5% of the chip area.
To alleviate the analog circuit test cost problem, a number of techniques exist in the
literature that can be broadly classi?ed as (a) faultmodel based test or (b) alternate test.
Fault model based test techniques direct their tests to identify faults in circuit components
much like their digital circuit test counterparts resulting in a test approach that can be
easily automated and relies on readily available output measurements on inexpensive test
equipment. Ontheotherhand, alternatetesttechniquestestacircuitbybuildingaregression
model relating a few easily observable output parameters as signatures of the circuit to the
actual circuit speci?cation.
Both these test paradigms for analog circuit test, however, have limited industry accep
tance due to a lack of con?dence in the defect level and yield loss that the test procedures
can guarantee in the face of high manufacturing process variation and low signal levels that
are characteristic of modern analog circuits. An important reason for the (typically) high
defect level and yield loss resulting from the use of either of these two test paradigms is the
unavailability of easily obtainable circuit outputs that are (a) su?ciently sensitive to circuit
component values and (b) have a high degree of correlation with circuit speci?cations.
ii
The main objective of this thesis is to design analog test signatures (and associated
test procedures) that are (i) sensitive enough to capture even small variations in circuit
components, and (ii) su?ciently correlated to circuit speci?cations and yet obtainable at
limited or no additional hardware and input signal design e?ort. Additional objectives of this
thesis are to: 1) Extend the use of the new signatures to diagnose faulty circuit components
in analog circuits. 2) Use the test signatures to distinguish faults resulting from defects
caused by manufacturing process related variations. 3) Evaluate the theoretical bounds on
the achievable defect level and the resulting yield loss of fault model based test procedures
relying on these signatures.
The sensitivity of the proposed test signatures is enhanced by an exponential transforma
tion, called VTransform. The new test signatures and associated procedures are evaluated
using three metrics test time, defect level (test escapes), and yield loss. We analyze the
proposed signatures theoretically in addition to extensive computer simulations and hard
ware measurements on common RF/analog circuits such as ?lters and low noise ampli?ers.
A representative result of one of our experiments is as follows: For 400 low noise ampli?er
circuits that were tested, we ?nd that the proposed Vtransform based signatures resulted
in smaller test escape (? 2%) and yield loss (? 3%) when compared to other prevailing
alternate test or faultmodel based test methods, while signi?cantly reducing test time (by
as much as 50%) compared to the traditional speci?cation based test methods.
iii
Acknowledgments
First and foremost, I would like to thank my advisor Prof. Vishwani D. Agrawal for
encouraging me to start on this doctoral program and constantly challenging me to push the
limits and seek out bold, new ideas. His enthusiasm for research and learning is infectious,
which is something I hope I have picked up and would like to embody in my own life.
Big thanks goes out to Prof. Adit Singh and Prof. Foster Dai for serving on my thesis
committee, and in each of whose classes, I learned signi?cant material that helped me get a
good grounding in the broad areas of VLSI Design and Test. Thanks are due to Prof. Alvin
Lim for serving as the external reader on my committee. I owe a debt of gratitude to Prof.
Virendra Singh (IIT Bombay, India), whose early interest in my work spurred me to pursue
it further, which has eventually come to be my PhD thesis. I should thank members of the
analog test community, particularly Haralampos Stratigopoulos (TIMA labs, France), whose
comments at various points in time have bene?ted this work.
Some other professors who I have interacted with closely and learned from are: Prof.
Prathima Agrawal through the Wireless Networking seminar series in which I presented at
least once and was educated on numerous emerging topics in wireless communication; Prof.
Stan Reeves, whose course on digital image processing helped spawn several of my papers
in the area of fault tolerant image processing; Prof. Stu Wentworth who o?ered the Radar
Engineering course where he helped us build a radar target model, but in him I saw ?rsthand
how to be a great teacher with a keen interest in the student success.
A word of thanks goes to all my present and past lab colleagues and o?ce mates at
Auburn University for making it a fun place to spend long hours each day. O?ce sta? in ECE,
namely Mary Lloyd, Shelia Collis and Linda Allgood were particularly helpful throughout
iv
my stay in Auburn. Linda Barresi and Joe Haggerty were helpful in procuring components
for my experiments in a timely fashion.
I acknowledge the Department of ECE at Auburn University for supporting my studies
with generous teaching fellowships; Auburn University Wireless Engineering Research and
Education Center (WEREC) for funding several conference travels. I would like to acknowl
edge Intel Corporation, and my colleagues there, for being particularly supportive of my
thesiswriting e?ort during the last semester of my graduate school that I spent in practical
training.
Finally, I would like to thank my extended family for being supportive of all my endeav
ors. This thesis is dedicated to them.
v
Poem by the Author
Working is tricky,
If you choose to be picky!
Research is sucky,
When you try to be nicky!
I knew this already,
But I chose to be heady.
After a while,
I?ve realized, it was all worthwhile!
I pushed myself to publish many papers,
Even as I wonder if they?ll end up in diapers!
I hope many other folks will cite my paper,
Lest I be labeled an academic pauper!
I?m nishing this dissertation,
Without much adoration;
Oh God, my Committee,
Will they approve my Ph.D.?
vi
Table of Contents
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 What are RF/Analog/MixedSignal Circuits? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Role of RF/Analog/MixedSignal Circuits in Today?s Digital World . . . . . 2
1.3 Analog Test Versus Digital Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4 Important Challenges in RF/Analog/Mixedsignal Circuit Testing . . . . . . 5
1.5 A Brief History of RF/Analog Test and Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5.1 Taxonomy of Analog Circuit FaultDiagnosis Techniques . . . . . . . 9
1.5.2 Taxonomy of RF/Analog Circuit Test Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.5.3 E?orts on Test Cost Reduction for Analog Circuits . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.6 Contributions of this Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.7 What Lies Ahead? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2 Signature Based Testing of RF, Analog and MixedSignal Circuits . . . . . . . . 18
2.1 The Need for Circuit Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2 Attributes of an Ideal Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3 Analog Circuit Testing Based on Signatures: Test Methodology . . . . . . . 20
2.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3 Polynomial Coe?cients as Test Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.2 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
vii
3.2.1 Analysis of Polynomial Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.2.2 De?nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.3 Problem Description and Sketch of Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.4 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.5 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.6 Fault Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.6.1 Computation of Sensitivities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.6.2 Diagnosing Parametric Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.6.3 Deducing Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4 VTransform Coe?cients as Test Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.3 The VTransform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.4 A Problem and an Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.5 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.6 Fault Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.7 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.8 Experimental Veri?cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.8.1 Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.8.2 Measured Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.9 Sumamrizing VTransform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
5 Probability Moments as Test Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.2.1 Moment Generating Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.2.2 Random Variable Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
viii
5.2.3 Minimum Size Detectable Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.3 Problem and Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.4 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.5 Fault Detection in Elliptic Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.6 Fault Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
5.7 Fault Diagnosis in Low Noise Ampli?er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.8 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6 Bounds on Fault Coverage and Defect Level in Signature Based Testing . . . . . 85
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.2 Problem Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.3 Our Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.3.1 Bounding Defect level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.3.2 Bounding Fault Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.4 Simulation and Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
6.5 Simulation Versus Optimization: A Tradeo? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.1 Thoughts on Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.1.1 Adaptive Test With Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.1.2 Preliminary Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.1.3 Estimating Defect Level in Analog and RadioFrequency Circuit Testing104
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
A Some Theorems on Nonlinear Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
B Output Variance of RC Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
ix
List of Figures
1.1 Distribution of input/output functions of di?erent types of circuits. . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Hypothetical picture illustrating di?erent blocks that make use of analog/RF
modules in a typical RFSoC (for mobile devices). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Mixedsignal SystemonChip (SoC) showing size of analog block as a fraction of
total die area. Analog interface contributes to about 30% of the total die area.
Chip micrograph courtesy of Neolinear [107]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 Mixedsignal SystemonChip (SoC) showing size of analog block as a fraction of
total die area. Analog interface contributes to about 12% of the total die area.
Chip micrograph courtesy of Frank Op?t Eynde, Alcatel [107]. . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 Manufacturing cost per transistor on a die has steadily decreased, while test cost
per transistor has remained almost constant [1, 2]. Around 2014, it is expected
that testing a transistor will cost more than manufacturing one. Also of note is
that the analog/mixedsignal test cost per transistor is almost 10 times that of
the digital test cost per transistor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6 A possible classi?cation of analog circuit faultdiagnosis techniques [17]. . . . . . 10
1.7 A possible classi?cation of analog circuit test techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8 Speci?cation testing of analog/mixedsignal circuits in a production test setting. 13
x
2.1 Scatter plot of measurements showing the signature on the Xaxis and the circuit
speci?cation on the Yaxis. An ideal signature will have all points lined up along
a straight line such that there is perfect correlation between the signature and
the speci?cation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.1 A second order low pass ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.2 Cascade ampli?er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.3 Flow chart showing fault simulation process and bounding of coe?cients. . . . . 34
3.4 Flow chart outlining test procedure for CUT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.5 Elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.6 DC response of elliptic ?lter with curve ?tting polynomial. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.7 Curve?t polynomial with coe?cients at frequency = 100Hz. . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.8 Curve?tting polynomial with coe?cients at frequency = 900Hz. . . . . . . . . . 38
3.9 Curve?tting polynomial with coe?cients at frequency = 1000Hz. . . . . . . . . 38
3.10 Curve?tting polynomial with coe?cients at frequency = 1100Hz. . . . . . . . . 39
3.11 Mapping showing one possible relation between various parameters and coe?cients. 39
3.12 Low noise ampli?er (LNA) schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.13 I/O response of LNA at four frequencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.14 Comparison of I/O plots of LNA at 3 di?erent values of load resistance RL =
95k?, 100k? (nominal), and 105k?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.1 Cascade ampli?er. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
xi
4.2 Fault simulation process and bounding of coe?cients (Flowchart I), and complete
test procedure (Flowchart II). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.3 Probability distribution of polynomial coe?cient C under a parametric fault (bro
ken line) as opposed to that with only process variation (solid line). . . . . . . . 59
4.4 Elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.5 DC response of elliptic ?lter with curve ?tting polynomial and Vtransform plot. 61
4.6 Test setup with elliptic ?lter built on the prototyping board, which is in turn
mounted on the NI ELVISII+ benchtop module. Voltage and frequency control
of the applied signal is handled through the PC which is connected through USB
port to the benchtop module. Output from the circuit is sampled and transferred
through the same USB connection to the PC (where it can be postprocessed).
Also, circuit output can be displayed on the PC using a virtual oscilloscope utility
available in the ELVIS software (see Figure 4.7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.7 Input/output, to/from the elliptic ?lter displayed on the PC based virtual oscil
loscope at a frequency f = 100Hz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.1 Moments of di?erent orders as functions of input noise power (standard deviation
of input RV) with (in red/dashed) and without (in blue/solid) RV transformation
for ?rst order RC ?lter. See Figure 5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.2 Firstorder RC ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.3 A cascade ampli?er. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.4 Block diagram of a system with CUT using white noise excitation. . . . . . . . 76
5.5 Fault simulation process and bounding of moments (Flowchart I), and the com
plete test procedure (Flowchart II). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
xii
5.6 Elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
5.7 Fault simulation (Flowchart I) and Fault diagnosis (Flowchart II) procedures
summarized. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.8 Schematic of low noise ampli?er. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.1 Hypercube around coe?cient Ck and associated regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.2 Defect level (DL) as a function of number of components (N). . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.3 Defect level (DL) plotted against ratio of coe?cient of uncertainty to tolerance
of components (??). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.4 RC ladder ?lter network of n stages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.5 Comparison of defect level bounds with simulated value (?? = 0.1) for RC ladder
?lter network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.6 CPU time (in seconds) to compute NMSDF by simulation versus coe?cient of
uncertainty, ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.1 Block diagram of the adaptive test system based on circuit signatures. . . . . . 103
7.2 Scatter plot of tested devices showing defect level and yield loss for the open loop
signature test, where the input stimulus is not tuned adaptively. . . . . . . . . . 104
7.3 Scatter plot of tested devices showing defect level and yield loss for the closed
loop signature test, where the input stimulus is tuned adaptively. . . . . . . . . 105
A.1 A possible system model for a nonlinear circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
A.2 Nonlinear, nonmonotonic function decomposed into piecewise monotonic func
tions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
B.1 First order RC lowpass ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
xiii
List of Tables
3.1 MSDF for cascade ampli?er of Figure 3.2 with ? = 0.05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.2 LNA speci?cation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.3 Parameter combinations leading to maximum values of coe?cients with ? = 0.05
for the LNA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4 Parameter combinations leading to Min values of coe?cients with ? = 0.05 for
the LNA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.5 Parameter combinations leading to Max and Min Values of coe?cients with ? =
0.05 at 1000Hz for the elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.6 Results of some injected faults at di?erent frequencies for the elliptic ?lter. . . . 46
3.7 Parametric fault ?agnosis with con?dence levels of ? 98.9% for the elliptic ?lter. 47
3.8 Results of test and diagnosis of some injected faults for LNA. . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.1 MSDF for cascade ampli?er of Figure 4.1 with ? = 0.05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.2 Parameter combinations leading to maximum values of Vtransform coe?cients
with ? = 0.05 for the elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.3 Parameter combinations leading to minimum values of Vtransform coe?cients
with ? = 0.05 for the elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.4 Results for some injected faults in the elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.5 Parametric fault diagnosis with con?dence levels of ? 88% for the elliptic ?lter. 62
4.6 Measured results for some injected faults in elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.1 MSDF for cascade ampli?er of Figure 5.3 with ?0 = 0.05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.2 Parameter combinations leading to maximum values of moments with device
tolerance ? = 0.05 in elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
xiv
5.3 Parameter combinations leading to minimum values of moments with device tol
erance ? = 0.05 in elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.4 Fault detection of some injected faults in elliptic ?lter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.5 Fault dictionary for catastrophic faults in low noise ampli?er. . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.1 Defect level and fault coverage of benchmark circuits obtained from computation
and simulation. For brevity in the table, T: Transistor, O: Opamp, R: Resistor,
C: Capacitor, N: Total number of components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
7.1 Comparison of defect level, yield loss, and test time for actual speci?cation test,
signature test in open loop, and signature test in closed loop. . . . . . . . . . . 103
xv
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 What are RF/Analog/MixedSignal Circuits?
?RF/Analog/Mixedsignal? is a label associated with circuits that have a portion of
their operating input, or output, or both input and output, consisting of continuoustime,
continuousamplitude signals, as opposed to digital circuits that have both their operating
input and output consisting of discretetime, quantizedamplitude (Boolean) signals.
RF circuits can be broadly classi?ed as circuits that process signals in the highfrequency
(ranging from a low of 20 kHz all the way up to 60 GHz or higher) domain. Examples include
low noise ampli?er (LNA), mixer, ?lter, and voltage controlled oscillator among others.
Analog circuits are a bigger class of circuits, in that, they encompass all continuous
time, continuousamplitude signal processing circuits. As such RF circuits can be thought of
as a subset of analog circuits operating in the highfrequency range [103]. Examples include
dc power supply circuits such as regulators, opamps, and signals conditioning circuits.
Mixedsignal circuits are those that function as a bridge between the digital and the
analog worlds, in that one of their operating input (output) is continuoustime, continuous
amplitude (known as analog) signal, while the output (input) is discretetime, discrete
amplitude (known as digital) signal. Examples include analogtodigital converters (in
put = analog, output = digital), and digitaltoanalog converters (input = digital, out
put = analog). Digital circuits have both their inputs and outputs in the discretetime
discreteamplitude domain. Figure 1.1 illustrates the input/output domain distribution of
RF/analog/mixedsignal and digital circuits with example circuits for each type.
1
Figure 1.1: Distribution of input/output functions of di?erent types of circuits.
1.2 Role of RF/Analog/MixedSignal Circuits in Today?s Digital World
The nature of information produced in the world around us is analog, that is, the
myriad information sources?such as sensors, be it video, audio, heat, light, or radio frequency
(RF)?generate signals in a continuousamplitude, continuoustime fashion. On the other
hand, today?s computing is leveraging the digital microprocessor revolution where most
computation happens digitally in a large monolithic piece of silicon. Consequently, any
processing of these signals calls for a bridge between the analog and digital worlds. Analog
todigital converter (?ttingly named) is a typical circuit that functions as a bridge. There
are many other analog circuits needed before the signal becomes bridgeable like signal
conditioning circuits that make use of ampli?ers, ?lters and so on.
Similarly, the radio waves transmitted in free air by today?s ubiquitous cellphones are
relayed by virtue of those waves being highfrequency analog signals [74]. At the trans
mitting as well as the receiving end of such a wireless communication system, processing
2
Figure 1.2: Hypothetical picture illustrating di?erent blocks that make use of analog/RF
modules in a typical RFSoC (for mobile devices).
(coding/decoding) of radio signals is accomplished by several RF or analog circuit blocks
such as low noise ampli?ers, phaselocked loops, mixers, and ?lters [104].
Analog ampli?ers are also used at the digital chip boundaries acting as bu?ers to drive
the pins with adequate amounts of current [50]. Directcurrent (dc) powersupply required
to power digital or analog circuits are composed of analog circuitry. Virtually any system
onchip (SoC) or custom integrated circuit conceivable ends up having a portion of analog
circuitry for accomplishing one or more of the tasks noted above. In other words, analog is
everywhere in todays digital world. Figure 1.2 shows the RF/analog circuit portions in a
typical RFSoC of today. Notice that RF/analog circuits contribute to roles from powering
up the chip to enabling communication with the external world.
1.3 Analog Test Versus Digital Test
Digital circuits have succinct fault models (like the stuckat fault) allowing the use of
?structural? tests that target speci?c faults instead of testing for the entire functionality
of the circuit. They serve as e?ective replacements of functional tests, thereby obviating
long test times that would have otherwise been necessary for running functional tests even
on a moderatelysized digital circuit. Consider for example an ninput, moutput, ggate
3
digital circuit (without memory elements like ?ip?ops); testing such a circuit exhaustively
for functionality can take 2n vectors in the worstcase [33]. Clearly the number of vectors
needed to test the circuit is exponential in the number of inputs in the circuit. On the other
hand by targeting faults individually (based on a fault model), the number of test vectors
needed to test the complete circuit is bounded by the number of faults to be targeted.
For this example, it is of the order of m + n + g. Consequently, fault model based tests
considerably reduce the number of test vectors needed when compared to functional tests
for large digital circuits. Common structural defects (e.g., signal line short to power and/or
ground rails or other signal lines) in integrated circuits are easier to model as faults in digital
circuits due to the fact that the deviant behavior in the presence of a fault can be de?ned
concisely (for example, as an incorrect logic value, of which there are only two possibilities?1
or 0) at any node in the digital circuit. This simplicity in faultmodeling is an important
factor contributing to the prevalence of structural testing in digital circuits.
In contrast, analog circuits propagate signals through them in a continuum of signal
values, requiring a large number of test signals to test the circuit. The deviant behavior in
a faulty analog circuit can take a whole spectrum of incorrect values. For example, if the
acceptable range of voltage at some node in an analog circuit is [Vnom ?Vtol,Vnom +Vtol],
then the faulty behavior can take a whole spectrum of values outside this nominal range.
One possible fault model for this situation could be to have a resistor tied to the supply rail
and changing the value of that resistor to emulate the incorrect spectrum of voltage values.
Unfortunately, there is no one resistance value (or faultsize) that can change the voltage at
the node to all incorrect values in the spectrum.
A number of resistor values have to be used to sample the faulty voltage spectra suf
?ciently. So a large number of faultinjections may be necessary to model a fault even at
a single node of an analog circuit. This complexity of fault models makes the modelbased
testing of analog circuits an unsuitable proposition. The prevalent practice in the industry
is to use a large set of signals to functionally qualify or test the circuit. Applying these test
4
Figure 1.3: Mixedsignal SystemonChip (SoC) showing size of analog block as a fraction
of total die area. Analog interface contributes to about 30% of the total die area. Chip
micrograph courtesy of Neolinear [107].
signals to test analog circuits can take disproportionately large amounts of time. An often
quoted number is that analog test take as much as 50% of the total testtime in spite of the
analog circuitry occupying less than 15% of the diearea [2]. See for example the micrographs
of two mixedsignal systemonchip (SoC) integrated circuits shown in Figures 1.3 and 1.4.
Both have fairly complex analog features, yet the analog circuit size is no greater than 30%.
1.4 Important Challenges in RF/Analog/Mixedsignal Circuit Testing
Previous sections show that analog circuits ?nd their way on almost every system
onchip type of integrated circuit besides dedicated customanalog circuits. Heterogeneous
integration, increasing wafer sizes, and very ?ne device geometry have contributed to an
increase in analog circuit failure modes that can be harder to catch, degrade the circuit
speci?cation in ever more subtle ways, and impact revenue with higher defect level and
consequent customer returns. Added to that, innovations in test technology have not kept
up with the decreasing manufacturing cost per transistor. As can be seen in the plot in
5
Figure 1.4: Mixedsignal SystemonChip (SoC) showing size of analog block as a fraction
of total die area. Analog interface contributes to about 12% of the total die area. Chip
micrograph courtesy of Frank Op?t Eynde, Alcatel [107].
Figure 1.5, test cost has remained fairly constant with the passing of years, while the cost
of manufacturing a transistor has dropped steadily [1]. Furthermore, though analog circuits
contribute less than 1020% of the chip area, they account for over 50% of the test cost [2].
This can also be noticed in from the plot in Figure 1.5 where the analog test cost per
transistor is almost an order of magnitude higher than digital test cost per transistor.
Test cost stemming from long testtimes on expensive ATE is the underlying theme of
important test problems in analog/mixed signal circuits.
1. Nonlinear, continuoustime, continuousamplitude nature of analog circuits:
Most analog circuits are nonlinear, continuoustime, and continuous amplitude in
nature and that makes it a computational challenge to both implement automatic test
generation algorithms, and store the large amounts of waveform data that is to be
applied to the circuitundertest in a production test environment.
6
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 201510
?2
10?1
100
101
102
103
104
Cost: Cents/10,000 transistors
Manufacturing cost
Analog/Mixed?signal test cost
Digital test cost
Figure 1.5: Manufacturing cost per transistor on a die has steadily decreased, while test cost
per transistor has remained almost constant [1, 2]. Around 2014, it is expected that testing
a transistor will cost more than manufacturing one. Also of note is that the analog/mixed
signal test cost per transistor is almost 10 times that of the digital test cost per transistor.
2. ?Functionallygoodenough? testing does not cut the deal:
Testing if a circuit is goodenough (or functional) for some speci?cations can be rel
atively easy, but extracting the absolute value of that speci?cation can involve sig
ni?cantly higher e?ort. For example, in speci?cation testing an RF transceiver, the
circuit can be quali?ed as good if it passes a simple loopback test. In a loopback test,
the transmitter is tied back to the receiver and the transceiver is considered ?pass,?
if it meets all the receiver speci?cations, but to make sure that its speci?cations meet
all the regulatory compliance requirements and binning it within a performance bin
can be more di?cult. Further not all wireless standards permit concurrent operation
of transmit and receive modes in a transceiver (which is a prerequisite for loopback
test), and designing the circuit enable this capability can involve major design e?ort
and consequent cost.
7
3. Inadequate signal visibility at the circuit output:
Analog circuits for speci?c functions can be small and deeply embedded within a larger
circuit. Bringing out these signals to the pads without degrading the signal quality can
be a challenge. Further the measurement inaccuracies due to noise (and consequent
lack of repeatability) may call for longer measurement times to average out any noise
induced errors. Such measurement errors due to noise is uncommon in digital circuits
due to the inherent noise margins.
4. Process variation has made life di?cult not only for designers, but also for test engi
neers:
Random manufacturing process variation can have signi?cant impact on analog perfor
mance parameters. This is because analog circuits are designed with stringent match
ing requirements (for example, transistors in both the legs of a currentmirror cir
cuit [50, 51] should be a replica of each other lest we risk a high o?set current in one
branch and the resulting nonlinearity if the circuit were to be used in an ampli?er).
Traditionally testing for sizable manufacturing defects has been the primary concern
during test. With process variation induced local variation of circuit parameters, distin
guishing between random process variations and recurring small manufacturing defects
can be di?cult if the deviation in nominal functional performance and defective cir
cuits is small. This is an important concern in analog circuits much like the problem
encountered in distinguishing smalldelay faults from process variation induced delay
faults in digital circuits.
In the next section, we review the e?orts spent on RF/Analog circuit testing and diag
nosis since the early secondhalf of the twentieth century.
8
1.5 A Brief History of RF/Analog Test and Diagnosis
Majority of the circuits before the 1960s were analog. These circuits were usually made
with discrete components on printedcircuitboards. There were minimal, if any, monolithic
integrated circuits. The traditional research focus was not as much on testing these circuit
boards as it was on diagnosis of faulty components on the circuit board. The challenge
traditionally lay in determining which component was at fault, so that the broken circuit
could be ?xed by replacing the faulty component causing the faulty output. This was so
because integrated circuits were still nascent, and it was expensive to discard the entire circuit
board instead of replacing the few faulty components. The premise was that if there are any
circuits that are bad, it is probable that the faulty components could be identi?ed based on
certain uniquely associable attributes of the outputs to the components in the circuit. Many
researchers [17, 19, 46, 62, 64, 73, 87, 144, 150] proposed several unique and interesting
solutions to the diagnosis problem, which is essentially a fault localization problem. In
addition, researchers have also worked on the faultprediction problem [11, 108, 109, 149],
where the circuit output is continuously monitored to predict if any of the circuitcomponents
are about to fail, so they can be replaced in advance of an actual failure. Clearly fault
prediction is a more challenging problem than faultdiagnosis. We will ?rst examine the
di?erent faultdiagnosis techniques that have been proposed in literature.
1.5.1 Taxonomy of Analog Circuit FaultDiagnosis Techniques
Several di?erent criteria could be used for categorizing faultdiagnosis techniques. The
popular method of classi?cation is based on the stage in the testing at which simulation of
the circuit is undertaken [97, 106, 110]:
? Simulationbeforetest, and
? Simulationaftertest.
Figure 1.6 [17] shows a taxonomy of faultdiagnosis techniques based on the above criteria.
9
Figure 1.6: A possible classi?cation of analog circuit faultdiagnosis techniques [17].
Fault Dictionary Based Diagnosis
Faultdictionary techniques classi?ed under simulationbeforetest techniques in Fig
ure 1.6 are similar to the widely used faultdictionary based diagnosis approaches for digital
circuits [7, 33]. The ?rst step is to de?ne the most likely faults that can be expected in
a given circuit. De?ning faults is an important step as the dictionarysize is limited by
number of faults de?ned. An appropriate number of test responses are then captured by
simulating the circuitundertest (CUT) by injecting the de?ned faults onebyone, such
that unique identi?cation of each fault can be possible by deductive reasoning based on the
captured responses for all the applied tests before actually subjecting the circuit in question
to test. At the time of test, the captured responses are used to identify the fault or local
ize it to a small ?ambiguityset? of faults. The test responses can be captured in frequency
domain [31, 88, 89, 133, 148] or in the time domain [113, 132, 147], or as a combination of
both [78, 114].
10
Diagnosis Based on Parameter Identi cation Techniques
Parameter identi?cation techniques, grouped under simulationaftertest approach in
Figure 1.6 involves estimating the deviation in nominal values of circuit components based
on voltage/current measurements made at speci?c nodes in the circuitundertest for a known
input response. The nominal component values and topology of circuitundertest is known
a priori. The deviations in the component values from their nominal values is uniquely
determined by solving the set of linear or nonlinear equations of the circuit (as determined
by the circuit topology). Such circuits for which component values are uniquely determinable
based on a few measurements are said to be elementvaluesolvable [20, 21, 22] circuits and
are amenable to parameter identi?cation techniques.
Diagnosis Based on Fault Veri cation Techniques
Fault veri?cation techniques are based on the premise that for a circuit ofnc components,
with nm measurements taken at test, all the faulty elements (nf in number) can be uniquely
identi?able if nf is very small, such that the inequality nf << nm < nc is satis?ed. The
faulty elements are identi?ed by checking the consistency of certain equations which are
invariant on the changes in the faulty component values [49, 69, 105, 146].
Approximation Techniques for Diagnosis
Approximation techniques are able to localize faults with limited number of measure
ments. Two prominent types of approximation techniques are probabilistic [30, 71] and
optimizationbased [60, 81, 102]. In probabilistic diagnosis techniques all the circuit fault
simulation is done before test and can be classi?ed under simulationbeforetest. Their work
ing principles are very similar to the dictionary based approach. Optimization techniques,
on the other hand, optimize some predetermined criterion to ?nd the most likely faulty
element. For example, the L2 approximation technique [81, 102] uses weighted least squares
11
Figure 1.7: A possible classi?cation of analog circuit test techniques.
criterion in identifying the?mostlikely faulty element?the element that has undergone the
largest deviation from its nominal value.
However, with the advent of integrated circuits, things began to change. Cost of man
ufacturing even complex circuits, with fairly large component counts, was cheaper than
building the bulky boards. The focus slowly shifted from ?nding the faulty component, or
diagnosis, to ?nding out if the overall circuit behaved as it was designed to behave. We will
now examine taxonomy of e?orts in analog circuit testing that are geared towards di?erent
aspects of the test problem, all of which can be either categorized as aiming to reduce the
analog test cost, or increase the testability of the circuit and testquality.
1.5.2 Taxonomy of RF/Analog Circuit Test Techniques
Figure 1.7 shows the taxonomy of test techniques for analog/RF circuits. The di?erent
analog test techniques that are proposed in literature can be classi?ed under three broad
categories: functional, structural, and alternate (combination of functional and structural)
testing. We shall now review each of the categories and sampling of di?erent test techniques
that have been proposed under each of those categories.
12
Figure 1.8: Speci?cation testing of analog/mixedsignal circuits in a production test setting.
Speci cationBased Testing
The traditional and widely prevalent approach to analog/RF test has been to test the
circuit speci?cations against a list of acceptable limits for each of those speci?cations. The
circuit is deemed to be ?Pass,? if all its speci?cations are within the acceptable limits; else
it is considered ?Fail?. Figure 1.8 shows an illustrative picture of how speci?cation based
testing is carried out in a production test setting. This approach, though widely prevalent,
is expensive even for a pass/fail type of test. The higher test cost stems from large amounts
of input stimulus to be applied on the circuitundertest for measuring all the speci?cations
contributing to the test time on expensive test equipment [32, 79, 91, 112]. In addition, there
is the simulation overhead to develop the input stimulus needed for production testing of all
speci?cations [66, 82, 153].
FaultModel Based Test Techniques
In faultmodel based test techniques, the primary objective is to abstract the many
physical defects that occur in manufacturing into its electrical equivalent such that tests
can target these faults instead of the circuit speci?cations. The expectation is that testing
for these faults will su?ciently cover all the speci?cations and will do so in a shorter time
than the time required for testing the speci?cations themselves. Typical fault models for
13
analog circuits are component opens and shorts that mimic large defects that can signi?
cantly deviate the behavior of the component. Such faults are known as catastrophic faults.
Examples of catastrophic faults can be resistor open or short. Defects that lead to small
deviations in functionality of the circuit components are modeled as fractional drifts from
the nominal values of the circuit element (usually beyond the component tolerance limit),
and are called parametric faults or soft faults. Examples of parametric faults can be ?10%
deviation in the nominal value of the resistor. Number of such fault models have been de
veloped for di?erent components in analog circuits [141]. Di?erent faultmodel based test
schemes [29, 36, 53, 55, 57, 58, 80, 90, 100, 101, 130, 131] have been proposed in literature.
We brie?y discuss a representative set of these techniques.
Sensitivity based test and diagnosis techniques [57, 58, 129] constitute testing circuit
speci?cations using the sensitivity of the speci?cations to components in the circuit. The
sensitivity, SCp , of a circuitspeci?cation, C, to a circuitcomponent, p, is de?ned as:
SCp =
?C
C
?p
p
(1.1)
This sensitivity of speci?cations to the circuit components is leveraged to both test
and diagnose the circuit for component faults. Whenever a circuit component undergoes
deviation from its nominal, faultfree value, multiple circuit speci?cations can be tracked,
and along with the sensitivity matrix relating the speci?cations to the circuit components,
the most likely circuit component at fault can be determined.
Transfer function based testing [53] proposes the use of modeling the circuit in the
frequency domain through the transfer function of the circuit?s output with respect to its
input. By using a frequency rich input signal, the transfer function of the circuitundertest
is estimated. This transfer function is then compared with the ideal circuit transfer function
and any deviation in the coe?cients of transfer function beyond an acceptable threshold
is treated as a ?fail,? and a full conformance of all coe?cients to predetermined limits on
14
the coe?cient values is treated as a ?pass.? The acceptable limits on the coe?cients are
determined by evaluating the coe?cients at di?erent fault sizes of the circuit components.
Alternate Test Techniques
Alternate test techniques [56, 151, 156, 154] combine the prowess of faultmodel based
testing with speci?cationbased testing, in that, they target certain key circuit variables such
as currents and voltages (commonly referred to as circuitsignatures) at critical nodes instead
of the actual speci?cation, yet they deliver a go/nogo judgment on the circuitundertest
based on whether or not the CUT meets all the speci?cation limits set in the datasheet.
Chapter 2 discusses this approach in detail and we reserve this discussion until then.
1.5.3 E orts on Test Cost Reduction for Analog Circuits
Test Reordering
Test reordering involves changing the sequence of speci?cation tests in order to optimize
the test sequence for some predetermined objective. Test sequence can be optimized to reveal
the failure modes of the devices, which may be helpful early in the production test setting
for yield ramp up by identifying the most common causes of failure and ?xing them [83, 85].
As the process ?ow matures, an objective to be optimized for is the testtime since testtime
(the time spent by DUT on an expensive ATE) is an important contributor to the overall
production test cost [25].
Redundant Test Elimination
Production test cost is primarily due to the long testtimes (stemming from the long
input stimuli) needed for RF/analog devices. With speci?cation tests, where di?erent spec
i?cations are tested for in sequence, there is a possibility of dropping certain speci?cations
that may subsume other speci?cations. For example in case of an ADC testing if the integral
15
nonlinearity (INL) speci?cation is ?0.5 LSB and di?erential nonlinearity (DNL) speci?
cation is ?1 LSB, then there is no need for a separate code sweep measurement for DNL
speci?cation testing. Eliminating tests for such redundant speci?cations has been proposed
in [84]. Similarly, depending on the chip fall out data from the failed chip statistics, one may
be able to leverage the tests that uncover the most defects or fail the most chips. Keeping
such tests in the test ?ow helps retain the quality of the shipped parts while cutting out
unnecessary tests that do not add value to the test ?ow. Techniques based on statistical
analysis to eliminate redundant tests for analog and mixedsignal circuits have been proposed
in [24, 25].
DfT E orts in the Analog/MixedSignal Test Domain
As predicted in the test/manufacturing cost curve shown in Figure 1.5, over the years,
the cost of putting a transistor on the die has gone down exponentially and is converging
with the cost of testing one. It is predicted that the future cost of circuits will be limited by
its test cost. This has led to the explosion of techniques to drive the test cost lower by adding
extra hardware on the chip such that the manufacturing cost incurred in the process is o?set
by the test cost savings. Several researchers have developed designfortest (DfT) techniques
needed to address this problem. The most prominent industrywide DfT for analog portions
in a mixedsignal SoC is the IEEE standard analog bus for test access to analog blocks in
a DUT. Literature on DfT other than test access for analog and mixed signal circuits has
primarily been on builtin self test schemes for ADC/DAC [14, 145].
1.6 Contributions of this Thesis
The principal problem addressed in this thesis is that of designing highsensitivity
circuittest signatures that are capable of uncovering both parametric and catastrophic faults
in RF/analog/mixedsignal circuits. In addition, the proposed signatures have high corre
lation with speci?cations of the circuit so that these circuitsignatures can replace actual
16
circuit speci?cations as is the practice in alternate test framework for RF/analog and mixed
signal circuits. Further, these signatures have been demonstrated to work well for diagnosis
of faulty circuit elements. Finally, bounds on the defect level and fault coverage achievable
while using these signatures is theoretically evaluated and validated through simulations on
a number of benchmark RF/analog circuits.
1.7 What Lies Ahead?
Chapterwise summary of the thesis is as follows. First chapter provided an introduction
to the analog test problem, important challenges today in this area, and the existing methods
in the literature. In the second chapter, entitled ?Signature Based Testing of RF, Analog
and MixedSignal Circuits,? we take a closer look at the use of signatures in lieu of actual
speci?cations. This chapter forms the basis of the remaining chapters in the thesis which
builds on the notion of signatures, thereby proposing stronger and better ones as we go try
to increase their sensitivity and correlation to speci?cation measurements. In Chapter 3, we
introduce polynomial coe?cients of the circuit function which are used as signatures in a
closedform sense to build a model that can accurately detect parametric faults (also known
as soft faults). Chapter 4 describes an enhanced sensitivity transformation on polynomial
coe?cients called Vtransform that can deliver almost con?dence levels of up to 98% in the
detected parametric faults. Chapter 5 discusses an alternate signature that needs little or
no input signal design e?ort. It leverages moments of the probability distribution at the
output to uncover faults that are otherwise hidden. It uses a simple distribution function
of the input. Chapter 6 provides a formulation, with examples to compute upper bound
on the defect level and lower bound on the fault coverage achievable in signaturebased test
methods. We draw conclusions in Chapter 7, with some thoughts forwardlooking ideas that
can further enhance the correlation of circuitsignatures to speci?cation through adaptive
testing.
17
Chapter 2
Signature Based Testing of RF, Analog and MixedSignal Circuits
2.1 The Need for Circuit Signatures
In a conventional speci?cation based test methodology, as we saw in the previous chap
ter, the circuit is classi?ed as ?good?or ?bad? depending on whether it conforms to the de
signed speci?cations listed on the datasheet. To make the measurements on these circuits,
expensive instrumentation is needed and devices end up spending considerable amounts of
time on these expensive instruments. Circuit signatures circumvent this problem by elimi
nating the need for measuring the circuit speci?cations themselves. Instead, signature based
testing seeks to replace expensive speci?cation measurement with a direct measurement that
is lowcost, in that, it either does not need expensive instrumentation or can be measured
in a fraction of the time required to make a fullspeci?cation measurement on an expensive
tester. Examples of circuit signatures include the supply current drawn by the circuit for a
predetermined input [10], the temperature at speci?c neighborhoods of the circuit [5], out
put voltage envelope [155, 156], the spectral coe?cients of the supply current and voltage,
and a combination of one or more of these [18].
2.2 Attributes of an Ideal Signature
Good signatures are required to be able to replace speci?cation measurements. But the
buyer of an integrated circuit is interested in the speci?cation of the part being purchased.
So an indirect measurement or signature that seeks to replace speci?cation should be a very
good replacement of the circuitspeci?cation. This means, the correlation of the circuits
chosen signature to the actual speci?cation should be very good. Further, for signatures to
18
Figure 2.1: Scatter plot of measurements showing the signature on the Xaxis and the circuit
speci?cation on the Yaxis. An ideal signature will have all points lined up along a straight
line such that there is perfect correlation between the signature and the speci?cation.
be practically useful, it should be possible to extract them in a production test setting within
a fraction of the time required to extract the actual speci?cation measurements themselves.
We now brie?y go over each of these attributes:
1. High sensitivity signatures detect su?ciently small parametric faults, thus augmenting
existing fault model based test schemes. Signatures should be sensitive to changes
in component values beyond their tolerance range. This will ensure they signatures
are capable of detecting small parametric faults that are the result of local process
variations.
2. High correlation with circuit speci?cations augmenting alternate circuit test schemes.
Signatures are expected to replace actual circuit speci?cations, so they should be as
accurate as possible in predicting the speci?cations. The more accurate the capability
of the signature, the smaller is the yield loss and defect level. Figure 2.1 shows the
19
scatter plot where the points lined up together (resulting from good correlation between
speci?cation and signature) will lead to fewer parts misclassi?ed.
3. Small area overhead requires little additional hardware on chip for production testing.
4. Large number observables handy in diagnosis.
5. Suitable for large class of circuits ? there are a variety of classes of analog circuits and
the concerned test scheme should be amenable to all of them.
6. Aids distinction of small defects from process variation (PV) induced faults ? current
need in advanced technology nodes.
7. Amenable to selftest building structures on the circuit, and using signatures that aid
in testing the circuits themselves can speedup the test process as all the fabricated
dies can be tested in parallel.
2.3 Analog Circuit Testing Based on Signatures: Test Methodology
1. Selecting good signatures
The choice of test signatures can be a signi?cant factor in the e?cacy of the signature
test scheme for testing any circuit. A signature that is capable of capturing most
speci?cations over a wide range of values will ensure high test quality, i.e., a test that
results in low defect level and yield loss.
2. Designing good input signals
Input signals that bring out all the circuit characteristics are important for ensuring
that the signatures serve as a good replacement to the circuit speci?cation. In fact,
the combination of input signal and output signature works in tandem to provide
the needed robustness for replacing an actual circuit speci?cation with the circuits
signature.
20
3. MonteCarlo circuit simulation
Circuit components can vary about their nominal values; it is important that the
signature chosen have good correlation to the speci?cation over the variation range of
the component. Heuristically chosen limits for the component variation is from ?3?
to +3?. Numbers for ? range from a low of 2% (for thin ?lm resistors) to a high of
15% (advanced technology node transistors) for di?erent components.
4. Defect ltering
This step involves choosing the simulation output by weeding out the outliers to build
a good regression model. While it is important the signatures correlate well to the
speci?cation over the nominal component range, it is important that there is no cor
relation between the circuit speci?cation and signature for the outlying component
values. Defect ?ltering is a step that ensures any outliers in the circuit simulation are
weeded out so that only the ideal circuit response is available for regression modeling
between signature and the circuit speci?cation. Popular defect ?lters use techniques
from machinelearning for distinguishing the circuitoutput [137, 139, 140] of a nom
inally good circuit (whose speci?cation is within some prede?ned range) from a bad
one.
5. Building a regression model or a neural network classi er
Regression modeling is a step where a relational model relating the circuit signatures
to the circuit speci?cation that the signature seeks to replace is formulated. Multi
variate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) [47] is a method that e?ciently builds
a regression model with only a small number of training samples  essentially pairs of
speci?cation and signature for di?erent inputs applied to the circuit in question [59].
6. Predicting speci cation from indirect measurements
Once an adequate regression model is available, the deviceundertest (DUT) is applied
with a stimulus to elicit a response, which is then used to predict the speci?cation of
21
the circuit. If the regression model predicts a speci?cation that is signi?cantly deviant
from the nominal range of acceptable speci?cations, then the DUT is classi?ed as
faulty; whereas if the deviation of the predicted speci?cation is close to the boundary
of the acceptable speci?cation range, then the DUT can be either retested with actual
speci?cation measurements to minimize misclassi?cation or the test procedure can rely
solely on the indirect measurement (or signature), in which case there can be a defect
level/yield loss penalty.
7. Improving the models in closed loop
The regression model built in the previous step can be continuously tuned to improve
the correlation between test signature and speci?cation. This is typically done by
having an online training method that updates the regression model based on the actual
speci?cation measured on a small sample of training devices right o? the production
line.
2.4 Conclusion
This chapter introduced the signature based test scheme and described the important
constituent steps in this test methodology. In the next chapter we will examine polynomial
coe?cients as a circuittest signature. We will demonstrate its use for fault detection and
diagnosis on common analog circuits such as elliptic ?lter and low noise ampli?er.
22
Chapter 3
Polynomial Coe?cients as Test Signatures
3.1 Introduction
An analog circuit is called either linear or nonlinear based on the type of inputoutput
behavior it displays [38, 68]. Linear circuits preserve linearity and homogeneity of output
with the input, and can be described by a linear constant coe?cient di?erential equation [27].
Typically, in the time domain, the output y(t) may be expressed as a function of input x(t),
as follows:
M?
m=1
amd
my
dtm +a0y =
N?
n=1
bnd
nx
dtn +b0x (M >N) (3.1)
where am,bn ? ? ? m,n ? Z. The general solution for (3.1) is of the form (3.2), where
H(t) ? ? is a real function of time t.
y(t) = H(t)x(t) (3.2)
Linear circuits are mainly composed of passive components [38]. Typical examples include
RC and LC ladder ?lters and resistive attenuators among others.
In case of nonlinear circuits, coe?cients am,bn ?m, n in (3.1) are functions of x and a
general solution in time domain for such circuits can be expressed as in (3.3), where Hn ?n
are real functions of t.
y(t) =
n=N?
n=1
Hn(t)xn(t) (3.3)
Testing of linear circuits is well studied and several methods can be found in the litera
ture [53, 85, 90, 93]. Savir and Guo [53] describe a method in which the circuit is modeled
as a linear timeinvariant (LTI) system. They obtain the transfer function of the circuit in
23
Vin Vout
R1 R2
C1 C2
Figure 3.1: A second order low pass ?lter.
the frequency domain, which is of the following form:
H(s) =
M?
i=0
aisi
N?
i=0
bisi
(M Cin(1+pi) or
Ci < Cin(1pi)
i = 0
i = i+1
i < N ?
Subject CUT
to further tests
CUT is faulty
No
Yes
No
Yes
Stop
Repeat process
for all chosen
frequencies
Choose a frequency
Polynomial Curve fit the I/O data
points; Obtain the coefficients i = 0?N
Figure 3.4: Flow chart outlining test procedure for CUT.
vout = 2.5 + 5.4vin ?8.6v2in + 4v3in ?0.77v4in + 0.054v5in (3.23)
vout = 1.1707 + 2.4132vin ?3.8777v2in + 1.8035v3in ?0.3465v4in + 0.023962v5in (3.24)
vout = 0.23 + 0.48vin ?0.74v2in + 0.34v3in ?0.063v4in + 0.0043v5in (3.25)
35
?
+
?
+
?
+
Vout
Vin
R1
R2
R4
R5
R3 R7
R6
R8
R9
R10
R11 R12
R13
R14
R15
C1
C3
C4
C5
C6 C7
C2
Figure 3.5: Elliptic ?lter.
Example 2: Low Noise Ampli er (LNA). We simulated a Low noise ampli?er shown in
Figure 3.12 for polynomial coe?cient based test. Notice that the bias current Ibias shown
in the ?gure is derived from a current mirror powered by bandgap reference circuitry (not
shown). The circuit parameter values were chosen to meet performance speci?cations tab
ulated in Table 3.2. We used parametric faults of sizes ? = 5% from their nominal value
to ?nd minmax values of coe?cients. Figure 3.13 shows the simulated response at four
di?erent frequencies, namely, f = 1GHz, 10GHz, 15GHz, and 35GHz and the estimated
polynomials obtained by curve ?tting a ?fth order polynomial are given by equations (3.26)
through (3.29), respectively. To obtain these curves, input o?set voltage is varied from 0
through 5V as shown (on Xaxis), while measuring the output voltage magnitude at each
of these input voltage points. As we can see in the ?gure (on the far right), the output
magnitude at 35GHz, drops to about 72% its value at preceding three frequencies, which
36
0 1 2 3 4 5?3
?2
?1
0
1
2
3
4
5
Input DC voltage (Vin)
Output Voltage(Vout)
Simulated
5th degree polynomial
a5 = 0.039463
a4 = ?0.50514
a3 = 2.1309
a2 = ?2.5487
a1 = ?3.498
a0 = 4.5341
Figure 3.6: DC response of elliptic ?lter with curve ?tting polynomial.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5?1
0
1
2
3
4
5
Input Voltage, Vin(v)
Output Voltage, Vout(v)
a5 = 0.049
a4 = ? 0.78
a3 = 4.4
a2 = ? 11
a1 = 7.9
a0 = 3
Simulated
5th degree Polynomial
Figure 3.7: Curve?t polynomial with coe?cients at frequency = 100Hz.
37
0 1 2 3 4 5?2
?1
0
1
2
3
4
5
Input Voltage, Vin(v)
Output Voltage, Vout(v)
a5 = 0.054
a4 = ? 0.77
a3 = 4
a2 = ? 8.6
a1 = 5.4
a0 = 2.5
Simulated
5th degree Polynomial
Figure 3.8: Curve?tting polynomial with coe?cients at frequency = 900Hz.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5?0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Input Voltage, Vin(v)
Output Volage, Vout(v)
Simulated
5th degree Polynomial
a5 = 0.024
a4 = ?0.35
a3 = 1.8
a2 = ?3.9
a1 = 2.4
a0 = 1.2
Figure 3.9: Curve?tting polynomial with coe?cients at frequency = 1000Hz.
38
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5?0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Input Voltage, Vin(v)
Output Voltage, Vout(v)
a5 = 0.0043
a4 = ? 0.063
a3 = 0.34
a2 = ? 0.74
a1 = 0.48
a0 = 0.23
Simulated
5th degree Polynomial
Figure 3.10: Curve?tting polynomial with coe?cients at frequency = 1100Hz.
p1
p2
p3
...
pk
C1
C2
C3
.
.
Ci
.
Cn
1
1
C
pS
1
k
C
pS
n
k
C
pS
2
2
C
pS
3
k
C
pS
Parameter space
Coefficient space
Figure 3.11: Mapping showing one possible relation between various parameters and coe?
cients.
39
Figure 3.12: Low noise ampli?er (LNA) schematic.
Table 3.2: LNA speci?cation.
Performance Parameter Nominal Value
Gain (dB) 16
IIP3 (dBm) 18
Noise gure (dB) 9.1
S11 (dB) 16.5
con?rms (in close neighborhood of) 35GHz as the 3dB cuto?, and thereby the ultrawide
bandwidth LNA designed and tested in this example.
Figure 3.14 compares the I/O response of the LNA for three di?erent value of the load
resistance RL.
vout =(2.5?1.498vin ?1.2688v2in + 1.139v3in ?0.88514v4in + 0.039463v5in)?10?3 (3.26)
vout =(2.36?1.348vin ?1.3268v2in + 1.049v3in ?0.63614v4in + 0.04443v5in)?10?3 (3.27)
vout =(2.12?1.267vin ?1.1285v2in ?1.016v3in + 0.88516v4in ?0.052876v5in)?10?3 (3.28)
vout =(1.95?1.068vin +.9268v2in +.786v3in ?0.77324v4in + 0.042v5in)?10?3 (3.29)
40
Figure 3.13: I/O response of LNA at four frequencies.
Figure 3.14: Comparison of I/O plots of LNA at 3 di?erent values of load resistance RL =
95k?, 100k? (nominal), and 105k?.
The combinations of parameter values leading to limits on the coe?cients are as shown
in Tables 3.3 and 3.4. Some of the circuit parameters are not shown in the table because they
do not appear in any of the coe?cients and are kept at their nominal values. Further, results
on pass/fail detectability of few injected faults are tabulated in Table 3.8. Last column in
41
Table 3.3: Parameter combinations leading to maximum values of coe?cients with ? = 0.05
for the LNA.
Component a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5
(ohm, nH, fF)
Rbias = 10 10 10 10.5 10.5 9.5 10.5
LC = 1 1 0.95 1.05 0.95 1.05 1
CC1 = 100 95 95 95 95 95 105
L1 = 1:5 1.425 1.5 1.5 1.425 1.575 1.425
L2 = 1:5 1.5 1.425 1.425 1.575 1.5 1.5
Lf = 1 1.05 1.05 1.05 1 1.05 1
Cf = 100 105 95 95 105 95 95
CC2 = 100 95 100 105 95 95 95
Rbias1 = 100k 105k 105k 100k 105k 105k 95k
Rbias2 = 100k 105k 95k 100k 95k 95k 95k
RL = 100k 100k 95k 95k 100k 105k 100k
Table 3.8 shows the diagnosed results of a few injected faults using sensitivity of polynomial
coe?cients to circuit parameters as described in Section 3.6.
3.6 Fault Diagnosis
Fault diagnosis using sensitivity of output to circuit parameters has been investigated in
the literature [129]. We have extended that approach exploiting the sensitivity of polynomial
coe?cients to circuit parameters. The advantage of the new approach is an improved fault
diagnosis without circuit augmentation. Sensitivity of ith coe?cient Ci to kth parameter pk
is represented by SCipk and is given by:
SCiPk = pkC
i
?Ci
?pk (3.30)
42
Table 3.4: Parameter combinations leading to Min values of coe?cients with ? = 0.05 for
the LNA.
Component a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5
(ohm, nH, fF)
Rbias = 10 10 9.5 9.5 10 10 10
LC = 1 1.05 0.95 0.95 1 1 0.95
CC1 = 100 100 105 95 100 95 105
L1 = 1:5 1.425 1.5 1.575 1.575 1.575 1.575
L2 = 1:5 1.5 1.575 1.5 1.425 1.425 1.5
Lf = 1 1.05 1.05 0.95 0.95 1 0.95
Cf = 100 105 95 95 105 105 105
CC2 = 100 95 105 100 105 95 105
Rbias1 = 100k 100k 95k 105k 105k 95k 100k
Rbias2 = 100k 100k 105k 95k 95k 105k 95k
RL = 100k 95k 100k 95k 100k 105k 95k
3.6.1 Computation of Sensitivities
Numerical computation of sensitivities given by (3.30) is accomplished by introducing
fractional drifts (=?) in each component (pk ?k); simulating the circuit and measuring the
fractional drift in each coe?cient of the polynomial resulting from curve ?tting operation.
This way the numerical sensitivities are computed and a dictionary is maintained for sensi
tivities. The complexity in computation of sensitivities is linear in the number N of circuit
parameters, i.e., O(N).
3.6.2 Diagnosing Parametric Faults
Restricting ourselves to single parametric faults, we ?nd the descending order of sensi
tivities of coe?cients (with respect to circuit parameter) that have exceeded their limiting
values. The parameter with highest sensitivity is said to be at fault with a probability
P(?pk?Ci) (which can be interpreted as the con?dence in diagnosing fault), given by (3.31),
where ?pk is the suspected drift in parameter pk and ?Ci is the measured drift in coe?cient.
P(?pk?Ci) = S
Ci
Pk?pk
?Ci (3.31)
43
3.6.3 Deducing Faults
At each frequency, the above process of diagnosis is repeated. This gives the set of fault
sites above a certain con?dence level at each of these frequencies. The intersection of sets of
fault sites at all the frequencies (and at DC) gives a fault site with much higher con?dence
level. That is, if the con?dence of diagnosis of a fault site at one frequency is say Pi, then
the resulting con?dence level after diagnosis at all the frequencies is as follows[94]:
P = 1?
i=N?
i=1
(1?Pi) (3.32)
where N is the number of frequencies (including DC) at which the circuit is diagnosed.
The single parametric faults for the elliptic ?lter in Figure 3.5 were diagnosable with con?
dence levels up to 60% at each frequency. The resulting con?dence level after fault deduction
from the four frequencies at which it was diagnosed is about 98.9%. The diagnosis results
are tabulated in Table 3.7 for several injected single parametric faults. Another observation
worthy of mention here is that the cardinality of set of fault sites detected at frequencies close
to cuto? frequency is greater than that at frequencies closer to DC. This can be attributed
to higher sensitivity of coe?cients to circuit parameters at these frequencies. As a result,
fault coverage is better by observing coe?cient drifts at frequencies close to fc. However
these frequencies tend to be unfavourable for diagnosis as more than one parameter is likely
to have displaced the coe?cients out of their respective hypercubes. We can overcome this
by looking at the set of fault sites obtained at much lower frequencies than fc (here DC and
100Hz).
3.7 Conclusion
A new approach for testing nonlinear circuits based on polynomial expansion of the
circuit function was proposed in this chapter. By expanding polynomial coe?cients at critical
frequencies the fault coverage of test for parametric (and catastrophic) faults is signi?cantly
44
Table 3.5: Parameter combinations leading to Max and Min Values of coe?cients with
? = 0.05 at 1000Hz for the elliptic ?lter.
Circuit Parameters (Resistance in ?,Capacitance in Farad)
Nominal Maximum values Minimum values
Values a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5
R1 = 19.6k 18.6k 18.6k 20.5k 20.5k 20.5k 18.6k 18.6k 18.6k 18.6k 18.6k 20.5k 20.5k
R2 = 196k 205k 205k 205k 205k 186k 186k 205k 186k 186k 205k 205k 205k
R3 = 147k 139k 139k 154k 139k 139k 139k 139k 139k 154k 139k 139k 139k
R4 = 1k 950 950 1.05k 1.05k 1.05k 1.05k 1.05k 950 1.05k 950 950 1.05k
R5 = 71.5 75 67 75 67 67 75 75 75 67 67 75 67
R6 = 37.4k 35k 39k 39k 35k 35k 39k 39k 39k 35k 35k 35k 35k
R7 = 154k 146k 146k 161k 161k 146k 146k 146k 146k 161k 161k 146k 146k
R8 = 260 247 273 273 247 247 273 273 247 273 247 273 247
R9 = 740 703 777 703 703 777 703 703 703 777 703 703 703
R10 = 500 475 525 525 475 525 525 475 525 475 475 525 475
R11 = 110k 115k 115k 115k 104k 104k 104k 115k 115k 104k 115k 104k 104k
R12 = 110k 104k 104k 115k 115k 115k 115k 115k 115k 104k 104k 115k 104k
R13 = 27.4k 28.7k 26k 26k 26k 28.7k 28.7k 26k 26k 28.7k 26k 28.7k 26k
R14 = 40 42 38 42 38 38 42 42 38 42 42 38 42
R15 = 960 912 912 912 912 912 1k 1k 1k 912 1k 912 912
C1 = 2.67n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.5n
C2 = 2.67n 2.5n 2.8n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n
C3 = 2.67n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n 2.8n
C4 = 2.67n 2.5n 2.8n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.8n 2.5n 2.5n 2.8n
C5 = 2.67n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n
C6 = 2.67n 2.5n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n 2.5n 2.5n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.5n
C7 = 2.67n 2.5n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.8n 2.5n 2.8n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.5n 2.8n
improved, yielding a minimum size of detectable faults in some circuit components as low as
5%. The method has been extended to sensitivity based fault diagnosis with probabilistic
con?dence levels in parameter drifts. Further the expansion at multiple tones leads to a
higher con?dence level (up to 98.9%) in diagnosing single parametric fault sites. In the next
chapter, we shall discuss the use of Vtransform for further enhancing the fault detection
capabilities of the polynomial coe?cients.
45
Table 3.6: Results of some injected faults at di?erent frequencies for the elliptic ?lter.
Injected Coe?cients out of Bounds at Detected
fault DC f1=100Hz f2=900Hz f3=1000Hz f4=1100Hz
R1 down 15% a0 ?a4 a1 ?a4 a3;a5 a2;a4 a1;a2 Yes
R2 down 5% a2;a5 a1;a3 a1;a5 a1;a2;a5 a1;a2 Yes
R3 up 10% a1;a2;a3 a3;a5 a0;a3;a4 a1;a3;a4 a1;a5 Yes
R4 down 20% a0 ?a3 a1 ?a2 a2;a3 a1;a2;a3 a2;a3 Yes
R5 up 15% a0;a5 a1 a0;a2 a0;a2;a3 a3 Yes
R6 up 5% ? a1;a2 a2;a3;a5 a1;a3 a1 Yes
R7 down 10% a2;a4 a3;a5 a0;a1;a2 a1;a4;a5 a2;a3 Yes
R8 up 10% ? a2 a0;a4 a0;a2;a5 a3;a4 Yes
R9 down 5% ? a3;a2 a1;a2;a4 a2;a3;a5 a1;a3 Yes
R10 up 15% ? a1;a4 a1;a3;a4 a0;a1;a4 a1;a2 Yes
R11 down 10% a0;a2 a3;a4 a0;a1 a1;a2;a4 a1;a2 Yes
R12 down 15% a0;a4 a1;a3 a1;a2;a3 a1;a2 a2;a5 Yes
R13 up 5% ? a3;a5 a1;a2 a1;a2;a4 a0;a2 Yes
R14 up 20% ? a1;a3 a0;a3;a4 a0;a1;a2 a3;a4 Yes
R15 up 5% ? a4 a3;a5 a0;a1;a3 a0;a5 Yes
C1 down 10% ? a4;a5 a4;a5 a1;a2;a3 a1;a4 Yes
C2 up 10% ? a2;a3 a1;a2 a2;a3;a4 a0;a4 Yes
C3 down 15% ? a1;a3 a0;a1;a2 a4;a5 a0;a1 Yes
C4 down 10% ? a0;a1 a1;a2 a2;a3 a2;a5 Yes
C5 up 5% ? a0;a1 a1;a5 a1;a2 a3;a4 Yes
C6 up 15% ? a3;a4 a1;a2;a4 a3;a4;a5 a1;a2 Yes
C7 up 15% ? a1;a4 a1;a3;a4 a1;a3;a5 a3;a4 Yes
46
Table 3.7: Parametric fault ?agnosis with con?dence levels of ? 98.9% for the elliptic ?lter.
Injected fault Diagnosed fault sites at Deduced
DC 100Hz 900Hz 1000Hz 1100Hz fault site
R1 down 15% R1;R4 R1 R1;R2 R1;R2;C1 R1;C1 R1
R2 down 5% R2 R2;C1 R2;R3;C1 R2;R3 R2;C1 R2
R3 up 10% R1;R3 R3;C3 R3;R4;C3 R3 R3;C3 R3
R4 down 20% R1;R4 R1;R4 R2;R4;C1 R1;R2;R4 R1;R2;R4 R4
R5 up 15% R5 R5;C2 R4;R5 R4;R5;C2 R5;R6;C3 R5
R6 up 5% ? R6;C2 R6;R7 R6;C2;C4 R6;C2;C3 R6
R7 down 10% R3;R7 R7;C3 R3;R7 R3;R6;R7 R3;R7;C3 R7
R8 up 10% ? R6;R8 R8;R9 R6;R8 R8;R9 R8
R9 down 5% ? R8;R9 R8;R9 R9;R10 R8;R9 R9
R10 up 15% ? R10 R10;C6 R10 R10;C6 R10
R11 down 10% R11;R12 R11 R11;C5 R11;R12 R11;R12;C5 R11
R12 down 15% R11;R12 R11;R12 R12;C5 R12;C5 R12;C5;C7 R12
R13 up 5% ? R13;C5 R13;C7 R13;C5;C6 R13;C5 R13
R14 up 20% ? R14 R14;R15 R14;R15 R14;R15 R14
R15 up 5% ? R13;R15 R14;R15 R14;R15;C5 R14;R15 R15
C1 down 10% ? R2;C1 R2;C1 R2;C1 R2;C1 C1
C2 up 10% ? R5;C2 C2;C4 C2 C2 C2
C3 down 15% ? C3 R3;C3 C3 C3 C3
C4 down 10% ? R6;C4 C2;C4 C2;C4 C2;C4 C4
C5 up 5% ? C5 R12;C5 C5 C5 C5
C6 up 15% ? R10;C6 C6;C7 C6;C7 C6;C7 C6
C7 up 15% ? C6;C7 C7 C6;C7 C6;C7 C7
Table 3.8: Results of test and diagnosis of some injected faults for LNA.
Circuit Parameter Coe?cients that are Detected Diagnosed
out of bounds fault sites
Rbias down 25% a0 ?a4 Yes Rbias
LC down 15% a2,a5 Yes LC or CC1
CC1 up 10% a1,a2,a3 Yes CC1 or LC
L1 down 25% a0 ?a4 Yes L1
L2 up 15% a0,a4 Yes L2
Lf up 10% a1,a2 Yes Lf or Cf
Cf up 10% a4,a5 Yes Lf
CC2 down 10% a4,a5 Yes CC2
47
Chapter 4
VTransform Coe?cients as Test Signatures
4.1 Introduction
Nonlinear circuit testing has been well studied and di?erent methods have been pro
posed for ?nding parametric faults [6, 35, 37, 40, 44, 52, 75, 99]. Prominent among them in
the industry is the IDDQ based testing where current from the supply rail is monitored and
sizable deviation from its quiescent value is reported. However, this requires augmentation
of the CUT. For example, in the simplest case a regulator supplying power to any sizable
circuit has to be augmented with a current sensing resistor and an ADC (for digital output)
and then there is subsequent analysis to be performed on sensed current. Further IDDQ is
suitable only for catastrophic faults as the current drawn from the supply is distinguishable
only when there is some ?big enough? fault so as to change the current drawn from the
supply from its quiescent value to a region where it is distinguishable. For example with
resistor R2 being open in Figure 4.1, the current drawn from supply can change by 50% of
its quiescent value. Such faults can typically be found by monitoring IDDQ using a current
sensor. However parametric deviations say lesser than 10% from its nominal value cannot
be observed using this scheme, specially so in the deep submicron era where the leakage
currents can be comparable with defect induced current [45]. The other approach for testing
parametric faults that can be found in literature [65, 67, 134, 135, 137] is based on the use of
neural networks. Neural network based approaches propose the use of circuit observer blocks
to track the output for a set of input signals which is used for training the neurons. The
trained set of neurons is then used to estimate variations in the output for a standard input
stimulus. This method, however, su?ers from large amounts of training required and the
consequent increase in test application time that the scheme is prohibitive for even medium
48
sized analog circuits at production. More recently, the use of Volterra series coe?cients was
proposed to estimate nonlinear characteristics of the system. These coe?cients are then
used for testing the circuit with a pseudo random input stimulus [95, 96]. This method
however su?ers from the high computational requirement of estimation of Volterra series
coe?cients for every circuit at production which can increase the test cost signi?cantly. It
is therefore interesting to develop a method to detect parametric faults with little circuit
augmentation while keeping the test access mechanism simple and the test application time
to a minimum.
To address the issue of parametric deviation, we would typically need more observables
to have an idea about the parametric drift in circuit parameters. This would mean an increase
in complexity of the sensing circuit. However, we would also want only little augmentation
to tap any of the internal circuit nodes or currents. To overcome these seemingly contrasting
requirements the method intended should have some way of ?seeing through? the circuit
with only the outputs and inputs at its disposal. References [53, 93] have accomplished this
sort of a strategy for linear circuits in a di?erent context as described next.
Guo and Savir [53] describe a method based on transfer function of a circuit under test
(CUT). The transfer function, H(s), of the CUT is expressed as:
H(s) =
M?
i=0
aisi
N?
i=0
bisi
(M VCin(1+?i) or
VCi < VCin(1?i)
i = i+1
i < N ?
Subject CUT
to further tests
CUT is faulty
No
Yes
No
Yes
Stop
Flowchart I Flowchart II
Figure 4.2: Fault simulation process and bounding of coe?cients (Flowchart I), and complete
test procedure (Flowchart II).
57
coe?cients. The bounds on coe?cients of fault free circuit are found a priori as shown in
Flowchart I of Figure 4.2.
4.6 Fault Diagnosis
Fault diagnosis involves the location of likely fault sites in a CUT given that the CUT has
failed an applied test giving a particular response. We use Vtransform coe?cients (VTC) to
characterize the response of the circuit at di?erent frequencies (about 4 or 5 frequencies are
su?cient for most circuits with less than 100 circuit elements), by obtaining its inputoutput
response over the entire input range. Process variation induces a faultfree variation of say?,
about the mean value of every VTC. Any value beyond ? from the mean ? of VTC indicates
a circuit failure. Assuming a normal distribution for circuit parameter variation, we can
?nd the probability distribution of the coe?cients by MonteCarlo simulation for process
variation of all circuit parameters. Once the MonteCarlo distributions for the coe?cients of
fault free circuit are obtained we can inject desired sizes of parametric faults (those that are
induced due to manufacturing defects) and obtain the new probability distribution of faulty
circuit under process variation.
As an illustration, Figure 4.3 shows the probability density distributions obtained with
(broken line) and without (solid line) parametric fault. There are three distinct regions in the
probability space of any coe?cient Ck. Region R is the faultfree space because coe?cients
at all frequencies are within the desired limits. Region 1 where dominant mechanism of faults
are due to PV of circuit parameters and Region 2 where dominant mechanism of faults is due
to manufacturing defects (also called parametric fault). The crossover point of these two
distributions gives the equiprobable region of faults, where we can have faults due to either
of the mechanism with the same likelihood. We denote this point on the coe?cient axis as
Cth. Measuring the value of coe?cient C of CUT, we can now determine the likelihood of the
nature of fault mechanism. That is, C ? [?,Cth] =? failures due to PV are more in number
and C ? [Cth,??] =? failures due to parametric faults are more in number. The con?dence
58
R1
m m?m+sms CCth
R2R
G1 G2
Figure 4.3: Probability distribution of polynomial coe?cient C under a parametric fault
(broken line) as opposed to that with only process variation (solid line).
of this distinction is given by the relative magnitudes of the two probability density function
G1 and G2 at the point C on coe?cient axis. Once we know, that the fault mechanism is due
to a manufacturing defect, we can predict the fault site based on knowledge of the sensitivity
of the coe?cient to various circuit parameters at di?erent frequencies [128, 129]. A fault
dictionary is maintained for faults against circuit parameters at di?erent frequencies. On
measuring a parametric fault, the most likely fault site is deduced by intersection of fault
sites that can contribute to this fault at most of frequencies. The con?dence level (P) of this
deduction is given by:
P = 1?
i=N?
i=1
(1?Pi) (4.17)
where N is the number of frequencies (including DC) at which the circuit is diagnosed and
Pi is the con?dence of fault diagnosis at ith frequency.
4.7 Simulation Results
We simulated an elliptic ?lter shown in Figure 4.4 for Vtransform coe?cient based
test. The circuit parameter values are as in the benchmark circuit maintained by Stroud et
al. [70]. Our MonteCarlo simulation included 50,000 circuit instances, with process varia
tions sampled as zero mean and standard deviation = ?10% of nominal circuit component
value. This was repeated for di?erent injected parametric faults to obtain distribution of the
coe?cients under both parametric faults and process variation (PV) of circuit components.
59
?
+
?
+
?
+
Vout
Vin
R1
R2
R4
R5
R3 R7
R6
R8
R9
R10
R11 R12
R13
R14
R15
C1
C3
C4
C5
C6 C7
C2
Figure 4.4: Elliptic ?lter.
Table 4.2: Parameter combinations leading to maximum values of Vtransform coe?cients
with ? = 0.05 for the elliptic ?lter.
Circuit Vc0 Vc1 Vc2 Vc3 Vc4 Vc5
Parameter (?)
R1 = 19.6k 18.6k 20.5k 20.5k 20.5k 18.6k 18.6k
R2 = 196k 186k 205k 186k 186k 186k 205k
R3 = 147k 139k 154k 154k 154k 139k 154k
R4 = 1k 950 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010
R5 = 71.5 70 80 80 70 80 70
R6 = 37.4k 37.4k 37.4k 37.4k 37.4k 37.4k 37.4k
R7 = 154k 161k 161k 146k 161k 146k 146k
R11 = 110k 115k 115k 104k 115k 104k 104k
R12 = 110k 104k 115k 104k 104k 104k 104k
We used parametric faults of sizes ? = 5% from their nominal value to ?nd minmax
values of coe?cients. Figure 4.5 shows the computed response and the estimated polynomial
obtained by curve ?tting:
vout = 4.5341?3.498vin ?2.5487v2in
+ 2.1309v3in ?0.50514v4in + 0.039463v5in
(4.18)
The combinations of parameter values leading to limits on the coe?cients are as shown
in Tables 4.2 and 4.3. Some of the circuit parameters are not shown in the table because they
do not appear in any of the coe?cients and are kept at their nominal values. Further, results
on pass/fail detectability of few injected faults are tabulated in Table 4.4. In the cases where
60
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
V?Transform Coefficient plot
Input DC Voltage (Vin)
V?Transformed Output Voltage
0 1 2 3 4 5
?3
?2
?1
0
1
2
3
4
5
Output Voltage (Vout)
Polynomial Coefficient Plot
Input DC Voltage (Vin)
Simulated
5th degree polynomial
a5 = 0.039463
a4 = ?0.50514
a3 = 2.1309
a2 = ?2.5487
a1 = ?3.498
a0 = 4.5341
Vc5 = 1.0402
Vc4 = 1.6572
Vc3 = 8.4224
Vc2 = 12.7904
Vc1 = 33.0492
Vc0 = 93.1396
Figure 4.5: DC response of elliptic ?lter with curve ?tting polynomial and Vtransform plot.
Table 4.3: Parameter combinations leading to minimum values of Vtransform coe?cients
with ? = 0.05 for the elliptic ?lter.
Circuit Vc0 Vc1 Vc2 Vc3 Vc4 Vc5
Parameter (?)
R1 = 19.6k 20.5k 18.6k 18.6k 20.5k 20.5k 20.5k
R2 = 196k 205k 186k 205k 205k 205k 186k
R3 = 147k 150k 139k 139k 146k 154k 139k
R4 = 1k 1010 950 950 950 950 950
R5 = 71.5 80 70 70 80 70 80
R6 = 37.4k 39.2k 39.2k 39.2k 39.2k 35.5k 39.2k
R7 = 154k 146k 146k 161k 146k 161k 161k
R11 = 110k 104k 104k 115k 104k 115k 115k
R12 = 110k 115k 104k 115k 115k 115k 115k
coe?cient deviation lies in the region R1 for a coe?cient Ck, the fault is attributed to PV
as opposed to parametric fault. The same procedure is repeated for VTC and the number
of cases in which the fault is diagnosed to be in the region R1 and incorrectly attributed to
PV is reduced. This is due to he enhanced sensitivity of Vtransform coe?cients to circuit
parameters. Table 4.5 shows the diagnosed results of a few injected faults using sensitivity
of Vtransform coe?cients to circuit parameters as described in Section 4.6.
61
Table 4.4: Results for some injected faults in the elliptic ?lter.
Circuit Out of bound Fault Out of bound Fault
Parameter polynomial coe?cient detected? Vtransform coe?cient detected?
R1 down 5% a3; a4 Yes Vc0 ?Vc4 Yes
R2 down 10% a2 Yes Vc2; Vc5 Yes
R3 up 5% a3 Yes Vc1; Vc2; Vc3 Yes
R4 down 10% a0 Yes Vc0 ?Vc4 Yes
R5 up 10% a4 Yes Vc0; Vc4 Yes
R7 up 5% None PV Vc1; Vc2 Yes
R11 up 5% None PV Vc4; Vc5 Yes
R12 down 5% None PV Vc4; Vc5 Yes
Table 4.5: Parametric fault diagnosis with con?dence levels of ? 88% for the elliptic ?lter.
Injected Diagnosed fault sites Deduced
fault DC 100Hz 900Hz 1000Hz 1100Hz fault
R1 R1 R1 R1;R2 R1;R2 R1 R1
dn 15% R4 C1 C1
R2 R2 R2 R2;R3 R2;R3 R2 R2
dn 10% C1 C1 C1
R3 R1 R3 R3;R4 R3 R3;C3 R3
up 5% R3 C3 C3 C3
R4 R1 R1 R2;R4 R1;R2 R1;R2 R4
dn 20% R4 R4 C1 R4 R4
R5 R5 R5 R4;R5 R4;R5 R5;R6 R5
up 15% C2 C2 C3
R7 R3 R7 R3;R7 R3;R6 R3;R7 R7
dn 10% R7 C3 R7 C3
4.8 Experimental Veri cation
Besides the simulation results presented in the previous section, we carried out an ex
perimental validation of polynomial and Vtransform coe?cient based scheme for test and
diagnosis of parametric faults in the ?fthorder elliptic ?lter that was analyzed in the previous
section. For all stimulus application and measurement, we used the National Instruments
Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite ELVISII+ [3] benchtop module. In
the sequel, we will brie?y outline the details of the ELVIS II+ benchtop module and our
test setup. In Section 4.8.2, we present the measured results.
62
Figure 4.6: Test setup with elliptic ?lter built on the prototyping board, which is in turn
mounted on the NI ELVISII+ benchtop module. Voltage and frequency control of the
applied signal is handled through the PC which is connected through USB port to the
benchtop module. Output from the circuit is sampled and transferred through the same
USB connection to the PC (where it can be postprocessed). Also, circuit output can be
displayed on the PC using a virtual oscilloscope utility available in the ELVIS software (see
Figure 4.7).
4.8.1 Test Setup
The NI ELVISII+ system consists of two modules. A hardware module comprises of
a benchtop module that houses a detachable prototyping board, several power supplies, a
function generator, multiple channel digital to analog and analog to digital converters and
terminals for oscilloscope and digital multimeter (DMM), all in one portable unit. The
second module, a computer interface referred to as ELVIS instrument launcher, provides a
software interface to control various utilities available on the hardware module.
The experimental setup for our test scheme is shown in Figure 4.6. The test circuit
under test (CUT), a ?fthorder elliptic ?lter, was realized using discrete, o?theshelf com
ponents such as three ?A741 type opamps, seven electrolytic capacitors, and ?fteen carbon
coated resistors. These components were mounted on the prototyping board that is housed in
63
Figure 4.7: Input/output, to/from the elliptic ?lter displayed on the PC based virtual oscil
loscope at a frequency f = 100Hz.
the NI ELVIS benchtop module. Inputs can be applied directly from the benchtop module
through dedicated pins available on the prototyping board. Frequency and amplitude of the
applied inputs can be controlled through a software interface. Thus, a discrete component
breadboard implementation in conjunction with virtual instruments for signal generation
and response capture gave us the ?exibility to inject a variety of parametric faults that
might occur in an actual integrated circuit. This allowed us to automate the postprocessing
analysis of the captured response on the available PC of the system.
4.8.2 Measured Results
Typical inputoutput waveform pair for the elliptic ?lter as captured on the PC based
ELVIS virtual oscilloscope is shown in Figure 4.7. There are two display channels in the
oscilloscope. However, up to eight di?erent inputs can be transferred to the PC, simulta
neously, from the ELVIS hardware module. We injected the same set of parametric and
64
Table 4.6: Measured results for some injected faults in elliptic ?lter.
Circuit Out of bound Fault Out of bound Fault
Parameter polynomial coe?cient detection? Vtransform coe?cient detection?
R1 down 5% a3 Yes Vc1 ?Vc4 Yes
R2 down 10% a2 Yes Vc2, Vc5 Yes
R3 up 5% None No Vc1, Vc2, Vc3 Yes
R4 down 10% a0 Yes Vc0 ?Vc3 Yes
R5 up 10% None No Vc0, Vc4 Yes
R7 up 5% None No Vc1, Vc2 Yes
R11 up 5% None No Vc4, Vc5 Yes
R12 down 5% None No Vc4, Vc5 Yes
catastrophic faults used for the simulated circuit in Section 4.7 (see Tables 4.4 and 4.5).
Using Vtransform coe?cients, all the faults that were identi?ed in the simulation were also
detected by measurement. When polynomial coe?cients were used without the Vtransform,
the measurement setup of Figure 4.6 detected fewer faults as recorded in Table 4.6. This
reduced performance in fault classi?cation when relying just on polynomial coe?cients is due
to the measurement noise, whose primary contributor is the ADCDAC quantization noise
from the ELVIS module. We see pronounced reduction in performance when there are fewer
than two coe?cients that are pushed out of their respective nominal range by the injected
parametric fault. However, the increased sensitivity of Vtransform coe?cients is able to
overcompensate for any additional measurement noise and gives the same performance as
predicted by simulation.
While there is no loss of test quality with Vtransform coe?cients, we observe that
sometimes coe?cients of certain order do not fall out of the nominal range when a fault is
introduced. For example, the ?rst fault in Table 4.6, R1 down 5%, had Vc0 ?Vc4 going out
of the nominal range in simulation, but on measurement we see only coe?cients Vc1 ?Vc4
falling out of nominal range.
65
4.9 Sumamrizing VTransform
In this chapter, a new approach for test and diagnosis of nonlinear circuits based
on a transformation of polynomial expansion of the circuit was demonstrated. The V
transform renders the polynomial coe?cients monotonicity and enhances their sensitivity.
The minimum sizes of detectable faults in some of the circuit parameters are as low as 5%
which implies that impressive fault coverage can be achieved with Vtransform coe?cients.
The use of Vtransform coe?cients shows a reduction in masking of parametric faults due
to process variation. The method is then extended to sensitivity based fault diagnosis by
evaluating Vtransform coe?cients at di?erent frequencies. The next chapter will examine
probability moments of the circuit output as a circuittest signature, with circuit input as
noise (or random variable).
66
Chapter 5
Probability Moments as Test Signatures
5.1 Introduction
Defects in analog integrated circuits can be classi?ed into two important categories,
namely, catastrophic faults (open or shorted components) and parametric faults (fractional
deviations of circuit components from their nominal values). While extensive literature [8,
15, 28, 41, 48, 76, 85, 143] exists on test schemes for detecting catastrophic (open/short)
faults, testing of parametric faults has not received similar attention [33, 45, 54, 157]. The
main reason for this disparity is that catastrophic faults tend to upset the supply current
drawn by the circuit or the output voltage by a reasonably large factor and any test scheme
based on their observation can conveniently uncover them. Some parametric faults have
little impact on supply current and are easily masked by measurement noise or general
insensitivity of the output to circuit parameter unless they are tested by careful designed
input signal targeting their excitation [111]. Di?erent methods have been proposed to test
parametric faults in analog circuits including the use of neural networks [13, 34, 39, 130, 142],
spectral analysis [12, 158], transfer function coe?cient based testing [53] or, more recently,
polynomial coe?cient based testing [124, 125]. IDDQ measurement needs a sizable deviation
in a circuit component value from its nominal value to be useful [99]. Some test methods
require extra die area for testing or call for speci?c input signal excitation and increased
test time [77] (as is the case in neural networks based test methods). While some of these
problems are addressed in polynomial based test [124, 125], it is still in its early stages and
the correct choices of order and frequency of test points are critical for good fault coverage
Thus, we have a need for a production test, that has little additional hardware, reduced
test application time and minimized complexity of input signal design. To respond to the
67
last question we ask, ?What is the easiest available signal that needs little or no design
e?ort?? Without doubt, it is white noise, always available as random voltage ?uctuations
across an R ? resistor due to thermally agitated electrons. Power spectral density of this
white noise is given by SN (f) = 4kTR volt2/Hz, where k is the Boltzmann constant and T
is temperature in Kelvin. Previously [65] white noise has been used as an excitation signal
for testing circuits, and the output Fourier spectrum is used for ensuring the circuit conforms
to speci?cation. However, in this work, to leverage a random signal like white noise which is
characterized only by its statistics such as mean, variance, third and higher order moments,
we compute probability moments at the output to be able to derive information on deviation
in circuit parameters. Reference [96] proposes the use of a pseudo random noise source as
the input and higher order statistics with Volterra kernel at the output as a signature for
characterizing the CUT as good or faulty. The work presented in this chapter di?ers on
three counts from previous work, 1) we use a truly random noise source as input, namely,
thermal noise from a resistor; though pseudo random noise source will work equally well,
2) higher order moments with an exponentially sensitive random variable transformation
is used at the output instead of Volterra kernel. Such a transformation gives better fault
resolution for parametric faults than Volterra kernel as shown by our simulation of the
elliptic ?lter example, those results are not included here, 3) we demonstrate fault diagnosis
in addition to testing while the earlier work discussed only testing. We view the circuit as a
communication channel [9, 115, 116] that transforms the probability density function of the
input signal as it propagates through the channel (circuit). The output, which is now the
transformed random variable (RV) has its signature moments that are used for testing the
CUT for both catastrophic and parametric faults. We show that probability moments can
be made exponentially sensitive [119, 127] to circuit parameters, so that parametric faults
of 10% and over result in su?cient excursions of the output probability moments to uncover
these faults. In the sequel, we describe our scheme on a cascaded ampli?er and a low pass
?lter. We then evaluate the performance of probability moments in conjunction with an
68
exponential RV transformation to enhance sensitivity for fault detection on a benchmark
elliptic ?lter.
Section 5.2 develops the background on moment theory and random variable transforma
tion, and de?nes a minimum size detectable fault. The problem at hand and our approach is
described with examples in Section 5.3. In Section 5.4, we generalize the method to arbitrar
ily large circuits. We report experimental results on benchmark elliptic ?lter in Section 5.5.
Section 5.6 introduces fault diagnosis procedure that leverages on unique relationships be
tween moments and circuit components, and Section 5.7 reports results of a fault diagnosis
experiment using moments of output of a low noise ampli?er. We conclude in Section 5.8.
5.2 Background
We brie?y review the moment method to characterize a random variable (RV) (see [120]
for more details). We then give a transformation of RV to increase the sensitivity of moments
to circuit parameters.
5.2.1 Moment Generating Functions
The jth moment ?j = 2???N of a continuous time RV X(t), sampled at time instants
t = kT, and denoted by Xk where k = 0,1???? is given by
?j =
??
k=0
(Xk ??1)jp(Xk) (5.1)
Moment generating functionM (s) of such a discrete RVXk, serves as a convenient expression
from which di?erent orders of moments ?j may be computed using the following relation:
?j = d
jM (s)
dsj
s=0
(5.2)
where M (s) is given by
M (s) = E(esXk)=
??
k=0
esXkp(Xk) (5.3)
69
5.2.2 Random Variable Transformation
We require a random variable transformation [94] that can narrowly track small changes.
We look for a transformation with following properties:
1. It increases the sensitivity of output function for small changes in the input.
2. It increases absolute values of the ?rst and higher order moments of the output.
Let X be a RV whose domain is R. We de?ne a transformation f (X) mapping X from
R =?R as follows:
f (X) = Xe?X? X (5.4)
where ?, ?? 0 are parameters of the transformation. It can be shown that transformation
f (X) always gives second and higher order moments which are such that
loge?jf(X) ? loge?j?j = 2,3,???N (5.5)
We plot the ?rst six moments of the transformed RV, with ? = 0.01,? = 0.001 against
standard deviation of input RV in 5.1, which shows that the moments of the transformed
RV is always greater than that of the RV without transformation. At a few input standard
deviations, transformed RV can have signi?cantly higher moments compared to moments
without transformation (Notice that the Yaxis in the plots are in the logarithmic scale).
This makes the transformation de?ned in equation 5.4 very amenable for use as a post
processing RV transformation at the output of the CUT. Even for small changes in the input,
the resulting moments can be signi?cantly di?erent. The sensitivity of the transformed RV
to the input RV is given by
SfX = Xf ?f?X = 1 +?X + ?X (5.6)
By appropriate choice of ? and ?, based on dynamic range of X, we can increase the sensi
tivity of f (X) for both small and large variations of X.
70
0 2 4 6 8 10?20
?10
0
10
20
Standard deviation of input RV
Moment (bel)
Order of moment = 1
0 2 4 6 8 10?50
0
50
100
150
200
Standard deviation of input RV
Moment (bel)
Order of moment = 2
0 2 4 6 8 10?50
0
50
100
150
Standard deviation of input RV
Moment (bel)
Order of moment = 3
0 2 4 6 8 10?50
0
50
100
150
Standard deviation of input RV
Moment (bel)
Order of moment = 4
0 2 4 6 8 10?50
0
50
100
150
200
Standard deviation of input RV
Moment (bel)
Order of moment = 5
0 2 4 6 8 10?50
0
50
100
150
200
250
Standard deviation of input RV
Moment (bel)
Order of moment = 6
Figure 5.1: Moments of di?erent orders as functions of input noise power (standard deviation
of input RV) with (in red/dashed) and without (in blue/solid) RV transformation for ?rst
order RC ?lter. See Figure 5.2.
71
R
C vovin
Figure 5.2: Firstorder RC ?lter.
5.2.3 Minimum Size Detectable Fault
De nition: Minimum size detectable fault (MSDF) of a circuit parameter is de?ned as
the minimum fractional deviation in the circuit parameter from its nominal value for it to
be detectable with all other circuit parameters held at their nominal values. The fractional
deviation ? can be positive or negative and is named upsideMSDF (UMSDF) or downside
MSDF (DMSDF) accordingly. This de?nition of minimum size detectable fault is general,
regardless of the test technique used to uncover faults. In the context of the test technique
described here, we de?ne MSDF based on moments of the probability density function of the
circuit output. Suppose pi, where i = 1???K is the nominal value of ith circuit parameter
with a fault free tolerance range of pi (1??), and ?j, where j = 1???N is the jth faultfree
probability moment of the circuit output. Then the UMSDF (DMSDF), ??i (??i) of circuit
parameter pi is given by a minimum value x, such that pi (1?x) puts at least one of the
moments ?j outside the fault free hypersphere ?j ??j ? ?0, where ?0 is the permitted
deviation in moments when the circuit parameters are allowed excursions within their toler
ance range. As speci?ed earlier, this range is characterized by a tolerance factor ?.
5.3 Problem and Approach
We ?rst illustrate with an example the calculation of limits of the probability moments
of a ?rst order low pass ?lter. We follow this up with calculation of MSDF values of the
circuit parameters. We then consider a two stage cascade ampli?er.
72
Vdd
R2R1
I
M1
I
M2
M1 M2
V
in
V
out
Figure 5.3: A cascade ampli?er.
Example 1. First order RC ?lter: With white noise as the input, the discrete values are
sampled Gaussian RV of zero mean and variance, ?2in = No2 . The faultfree ?ltered response
has a variance (also the second order moment)?2 = No?4RC. Details of this calculation are shown
in the appendix. However, if there is a parametric fault of size x in the circuit parameter
R, then the new output variance is given by ?2 = No?4R(1+x)C. If the circuit speci?cations can
tolerate a moment deviation of ?0, then the MSDF of R is given by the minimum value of x
that violates ?2 ??2 ? ?0. For the example in question, since we consider only the second
order moment, the MSDF in R, denoted by ?R is given by
?R = 4?0CRN
o??4?0CR
(5.7)
Similarly MSDF of capacitor C, ?C can be found and by symmetry it is equal to ?R.
Example 2. Two stage ampli?er: Consider the cascade ampli?er shown in Figure 5.3.
The output voltage Vout in terms of input voltage results in a fourth degree polynomial:
vout = a0 +a1vin +a2v2in +a3v3in +a4v4in (5.8)
where constants a0,a1,a2,a3 are de?ned symbolically in (5.9) for transistors M1 and M2
operating in the saturation region.
73
a0 (R1,R2) = VDD ?R2K
(
W
L
)
2
??
?
??
(VDD ?VT)2 +
R21K2
(
W
L
)2
1
V 4T?
2(VDD ?VT)R1
(
W
L
)
1
V 2T
??
?
??
a1 (R1,R2) = R2K
(
W
L
)
2
?
?
?
4R21K2
(
W
L
)2
1
V 3T
+2(VDD ?VT)R1K
(
W
L
)
1
VT
?
?
?
a2 (R1,R2) = R2K
(
W
L
)
2
??
?
2(VDD ?VT)R1K
(
W
L
)
1
?6R21K2
(
W
L
)2
1
V 2T
??
?
a3 (R1,R2) = 4VTK3
(
W
L
)2
1
(
W
L
)2
2
R21R2
a4 (R1,R2) = ?K3
(
W
L
)2
1
(
W
L
)2
2
R21R2
(5.9)
If the cascade ampli?er is excited with white noise at its input, the fault free output can be
a estimated as a random variable with its ?rst order moment, namely, mean ?1 given by
?1 = E{a0 +a1vin +a2v2in +a3v3in +a4v4in} (5.10)
= a0 +a1?1,in +a2?2,in +a3?3,in +a4?4,in (5.11)
To ?nd MSDF in R1, let us assume we have a fractional deviation x in R1 and the other
circuit parameters are at their fault free values. If ?0 is the tolerable fractional deviation in
the ?rst order moment at the output, the minimum value of x that satis?es the following
inequality is the MSDF of parameter R1:
?
???
???
???
??
???
???
???
??
a0 (R1 (1 +x),R2)
+a1 (R1 (1 +x),R2)?1,in
+a2 (R1 (1 +x),R2)?2,in
+a3 (R1 (1 +x),R2)?3,in
+a4 (R1 (1 +x),R2)?4,in
?
???
???
???
??
???
???
???
??
??1 ??0 (5.12)
Maximizing x, while meeting the constraint in equation 5.12 gives MSDF of R1 as
?R1 = ?0a
0 + a1?1,in + a2?2,in + a3?3,in + a4?4,in
(5.13)
74
Table 5.1: MSDF for cascade ampli?er of Figure 5.3 with ?0 = 0.05.
Circuit %upside %downside
parameter MSDF MSDF
Resistor R1 7 8
Resistor R2 10.5 7.5
Similarly MSDF of R2 can be evaluated. Table 5.1 gives the MSDF for R1 and R2 based on
the above calculation. Nominal values of VDD = 1.2V, VT = 400mV, (WL)1 = 12(WL)2 = 20,
and K = 100?A/V2 are used for this example.
5.4 Generalization
The computation of MSDF in the previous section is too complex for large circuits. As
shown in Figure 5.4 a complex circuit having more than 20 components is supplied the input
noise voltage (derived from a resistor maintained at desired temperature). The output of the
circuit is then passed through a suitable RV transformation function like the one given by
equation 5.4. Probability density function (PDF) of the output of this RV transformation is
estimated using the histogram spread of the output voltage values. Next,Nth order moments
(orders up to N = 6 are su?cient for most analog circuits having component count of ? 40)
are found using the moment generating function de?ned in equation 5.3. The jth derivatives
w.r.t. s required for jth order moments are found as ?nite di?erences about s = 0. Once the
fault free values of all N moments are available, single parametric faults are injected into the
circuit and the corresponding deviation in one or more moments are noted. Based on the
moment deviations that can be tolerated, the fault size injected is steadily increased. The
minimum fault size of any circuit parameter that causes at least one of the moments to just
fall outside of its tolerance band (also called the faultfree hypersphere) gives the MSDF of
that circuit parameter. In Figure 5.5, Flowchart I summarizes the process of numerically
?nding the probability moments and their bounds and Flowchart II in Figure 5.5 outlines
a procedure to test CUT using the PDF moments. The bounds on moments of fault free
circuit are found a priori in Flowchart I.
75
Vn2 = 4kTR
+

CUT
ADC
DSP
Pass/Fail
ATE
Compute&
Compare
ROM
Golden Moments
Figure 5.4: Block diagram of a system with CUT using white noise excitation.
5.5 Fault Detection in Elliptic Filter
We simulated an elliptic ?lter shown in Figure 5.6 according to the test scheme of
Figure 5.5. The circuit parameter values are as in the benchmark maintained by Stroud et
al. [70]. Thermal noise from resistors R = 40G?, 60G?, 80G?, 100G? was used at T =
300K. On application of RV transformation, signal levels (and so are moments) signi?cantly
better resolved as compared to that without RV transformation. For example, the six fault
free moments of the elliptic ?lter before transformation (for R = 40G?) are as follows:
?1 = 4.53453, ?2 = 0.03234, ?3 = 0.02345, ?4 = 0.01125, ?5 = 0.009325, ?6 = 0.00623125.
After RV transformation, the fault free moments are given by ?1 = 338.6453, ?2 = 1.8234,
?3 = 0.9254, ?4 = 0.8812, ?5 = 0.6365, ?6 = 0.1638125.
Combinations of parameter values leading to limits on the coe?cients are as shown in
Tables 5.2 and 5.3. Results on pass/fail detectability of few injected faults are tabulated in
Table 5.4.
76
Start
Stop
Simulate for all single parametric
faults to find respective MSDF
Apply noise excitation
and note corresponding
output voltage levels
Apply desired RV transformation
on circuit output
Estimate PDF and compute
moments using Moment
generating function
Start
Estimate
moments ?i?i=1?N
Apply desired
RV transformation
on circuit output
Apply noise excitation
and note corresponding
output voltage levels
 ?i >  ?i(1+?0)or
 ?i<  ?i(1?0)
i= 1
i = i+1
i < N ?
Subject CUT
to further tests
CUT is faulty
No
Yes
No
Yes
Stop
Flowchart I Flowchart II
Figure 5.5: Fault simulation process and bounding of moments (Flowchart I), and the com
plete test procedure (Flowchart II).
77
?
+
?
+
?
+
Vout
Vin
R1
R2
R4
R5
R3 R7
R6
R8
R9
R10
R11 R12
R13
R14
R15
C1
C3
C4
C5
C6 C7
C2
Figure 5.6: Elliptic ?lter.
5.6 Fault Diagnosis
Flowchart I in Figure 5.7 describes fault simulation and creation of a fault dictionary.
Every probability moment of the output is a function of one or more circuit elements. Con
versely, we can ?nd one or more moments that are functions of a particular circuit element.
By simulating all catastrophic faults in the circuit, we can ?nd those moments that are dis
placed out of their faultfree ranges for each of the fault and create a fault dictionary. The
fault dictionary consists of a list of all catastrophic faults and the corresponding moments
that are displaced. Next, using the single catastrophic fault assumption we can compute all
the moments of the CUT. Depending on moments that lie outside their faultfree range an
estimation of the circuit parameter that has a catastrophic fault is found. Now based on the
moments that are displaced from their faultfree value, we can locate the fault in the CUT.
Flowchart II in Figure 5.7 gives the diagnosis procedure.
78
Start
Apply Noise excitation at the Input
and note corresponding
output voltage levels
Compute moments of
of the circuit output
to the desired order
Start
Apply Noise excitation at the Input
of CUT and note corresponding
output voltage levels
Compute moments of
of the CUT
Retain moments that lie outside of
their tolerance band
Inject Catastrophic fault
in the circuit netlist
Stop
Create fault dictionary noting moments
that deviate beyond
tolerance for every fault simulated
Stop
Look up the fault dictionary for
deducing possible fault sites that cause
similar deviations in moments
All faults
simulated?
Record moments
that deviate beyond
tolerance
YES
NO
Flowchart II
Flowchart I
Figure 5.7: Fault simulation (Flowchart I) and Fault diagnosis (Flowchart II) procedures
summarized.
79
Table 5.2: Parameter combinations leading to maximum values of moments with device
tolerance ? = 0.05 in elliptic ?lter.
Circuit 1 2 3 4 5 6
Parameter (?;nF)
R1 = 19:6k 19.6k 20.58k 19.6k 20.58k 20.58k 18.62k
R2 = 196k 186.2k 205.8k 205.8k 205.8k 186.2k 186.2k
R3 = 147k 139.65k 147k 139.65k 139.65k 154.35k 147k
R4 = 1k 1050 1050 950 1000 1050 950
R5 = 71:5 75.075 67.925 75.075 71.5 75.075 67.925
R6 = 37:4k 37.4k 37.4k 37.4k 39.27k 39.27k 37.4k
R7 = 154k 154k 154k 154k 146.3k 154k 154k
R8 = 260 260 260 260 260 273 273
R9 = 740 703 777 777 703 777 777
R10 = 500 500 500 475 475 525 500
R11 = 110k 115.5k 104.5k 104.5k 104.5k 104.5k 110k
R12 = 110k 115.5k 104.5k 104.5k 110k 110k 115.5k
R13 = 27:4k 28.77k 26.03k 26.03k 26.03k 27.4k 26.03k
R14 = 40 40 40 38 40 40 40
R15 = 960 912 1008 912 960 912 960
C1 = 2:67 2.8035 2.5365 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.5365
C2 = 2:67 2.8035 2.67 2.8035 2.8035 2.5365 2.67
C3 = 2:67 2.8035 2.8035 2.67 2.5365 2.5365 2.5365
C4 = 2:67 2.8035 2.67 2.5365 2.67 2.5365 2.67
C5 = 2:67 2.8035 2.67 2.8035 2.5365 2.5365 2.67
C6 = 2:67 2.8035 2.5365 2.8035 2.5365 2.67 2.8035
C7 = 2:67 2.67 2.5365 2.8035 2.8035 2.67 2.5365
5.7 Fault Diagnosis in Low Noise Ampli er
We used the low noise ampli?er of Figure 5.8 to evaluate our test procedure. The circuit
has 16 components. Thus, there are 32 single catastrophic faults corresponding to opens and
shorts of the passive R, L and C elements. For an open fault, the element was replaced
by a 1G? resistance. For a short fault, the element was replaced by a 0V voltage source.
For the MOS transistor, the drain and source terminals were short circuited for a short and
were left open for an open fault. For these 32 faults to be uniquely identi?ed, we need at
least 5 moments. Each fault causes one or more moments to lie outside its tolerance band.
The total number of uniquely identi?able fault cases with N moments = ?Nn=1(Nn)= 2N ?1.
Two faults displacing the same set of moments will cause a diagnostic ambiguity. Evaluating
80
higher order moments, however, gives better diagnostic resolution, which comes at a price of
additional computation. Table 5.5 lists faults and the corresponding moments displaced by
each fault. We use up to the 6th order moment and observe that out of the 32 faults, only 5
are not uniquely diagnosed because they a?ect identical sets of moments. The number in the
last column identi?es number of faults displacing the same set of moments. For example, two
faults (indicated in the last column) Rbiasshort and Lcshort displace same set of moments
?2??6.
5.8 Conclusion
This chapter discussed a new approach for test and diagnosis of nonlinear circuits based
on probability density moments of the output was presented. We also showed the e?ective use
of RV transformation to sensitize the output moments to circuit parameters. The minimum
sizes of detectable faults in some of the circuit parameters are as low as 10% for an elliptic
?lter, which implies impressive fault coverage can be achieved with moments as a test metric.
Further, the prudent choice of RV transformations can enhance the fault detection resolution.
We also proposed a method for localizing catastrophic faults and showed that good diagnostic
coverages can be obtained by choosing expansions of moments of the order O(ln(N)) for N
faults.
The next chapter examines the upper bound on defect level and lower bound on fault
coverage achievable in signature based test techniques proposed in this chapter and the
previous two chapters ? namely polynomial coe?cients and Vtransform coe?cients. The
approach taken is general enough that bounds derived can be easily extended to any other
coe?cientbased signaturetest schemes.
81
Figure 5.8: Schematic of low noise ampli?er.
82
Table 5.3: Parameter combinations leading to minimum values of moments with device
tolerance ? = 0.05 in elliptic ?lter.
Circuit 1 2 3 4 5 6
Parameter (?;nF)
R1 = 19:6k 19.6k 18.62k 19.6k 19.6k 19.6k 20.58k
R2 = 196k 205.8k 205.8k 205.8k 196k 186.2k 205.8k
R3 = 147k 147k 154.35k 154.35k 139.65k 154.35k 154.35k
R4 = 1k 950 1000 1050 950 1050 950
R5 = 71:5 67.925 71.5 75.075 75.075 67.925 71.5
R6 = 37:4k 39.27k 37.4k 35.53k 39.27k 35.53k 35.53k
R7 = 154k 146.3k 161.7k 154k 161.7k 154k 154k
R8 = 260 247 273 247 273 260 247
R9 = 740 703 777 740 777 777 740
R10 = 500 500 500 475 475 525 475
R11 = 110k 104.5k 115.5k 115.5k 115.5k 110k 110k
R12 = 110k 115.5k 110k 115.5k 110k 104.5k 115.5k
R13 = 27:4k 27.4k 26.03k 27.4k 28.77k 28.77k 26.03k
R14 = 40 42 40 40 38 40 38
R15 = 960 1008 960 1008 1008 912 960
C1 = 2:67 2.67 2.5365 2.5365 2.67 2.5365 2.67
C2 = 2:67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.67 2.8035
C3 = 2:67 2.8035 2.8035 2.8035 2.8035 2.5365 2.8035
C4 = 2:67 2.8035 2.8035 2.8035 2.8035 2.8035 2.67
C5 = 2:67 2.67 2.8035 2.67 2.8035 2.8035 2.67
C6 = 2:67 2.8035 2.5365 2.8035 2.5365 2.67 2.8035
C7 = 2:67 2.67 2.5365 2.8035 2.67 2.67 2.8035
Table 5.4: Fault detection of some injected faults in elliptic ?lter.
Circuit Parameter Out of bound moment Fault detected?
R1 down 12% 3; 1 Yes
R2 down 10% 4 Yes
R3 up 12% 1; 2 Yes
R4 down 10% 2 Yes
R5 up 10% 4 Yes
R7 up 15% 5; 6 Yes
R11 up 15% 3 Yes
R12 down 15% 2; 6 Yes
C1 up 11% 1; 2 Yes
C4 up 12% 4 Yes
C5 down 15% 1; 6 Yes
83
Table 5.5: Fault dictionary for catastrophic faults in low noise ampli?er.
Component Nature 1 2 3 4 5 6 Uniquely
(ohm, nH, fF) of fault Diagnosable?
Rbias = 10 short X X X X X No (2)
LC = 1 short X X X X X No (2)
L1 = 1:5 short X X X X X X Yes
L2 = 1:5 short X X X X Yes
Lf = 1 short X X X X X X No (3)
Cf = 100 short X X X Yes
CC2 = 100 short X X X X X Yes
Rbias1 = 100k short X X X Yes
Rbias2 = 100k short X X Yes
RL = 100k short X X X No (3)
N0(D?S) short X X Yes
N1(D?S) short X X Yes
N2(D?S) short X X X X X Yes
N3(D?S) short X X X X X Yes
N4(D?S) short X X Yes
Rbias = 10 open X X X Yes
LC = 1 open X X Yes
L1 = 1:5 open X X X Yes
L2 = 1:5 open X X X X Yes
Lf = 1 open X X X Yes
Cf = 100 open X X X Yes
CC2 = 100 open X Yes
Rbias1 = 100k open X X X Yes
Rbias2 = 100k open X X X X Yes
RL = 100k open X X X X X X No (3)
N0(D?S) open X X X Yes
N1(D?S) open X X X X Yes
N2(D?S) open X Yes
N3(D?S) open X X X Yes
N4(D?S) open X X Yes
84
Chapter 6
Bounds on Fault Coverage and Defect Level in Signature Based Testing
6.1 Introduction
Faults in analog circuits can be fundamentally divided into two categories, namely,
catastrophic and parametric [33]. Catastrophic faults are those in which a circuit component
displays extreme deviant behavior from its nominal value. For example, in a resistor such
a fault could either be an electrical open or short. Such faults are easy to uncover because
they manifest themselves as a sizable deviation in circuit output or performance. On the
other hand, component faults are fractional deviations in circuit components from their
nominal values. They manifest themselves as subtle deviations in output or performance of
the circuit. It is therefore a nontrivial problem to uncover component faults.
Componentbased testing of analog circuits has been widely discussed in the litera
ture [16, 37, 53, 92, 93, 100, 111]. Typical methods of characterizing inputoutput relation
ship is based on coe?cients of transfer function [53], polynomial expansion [124], wavelet
transform [23], Vtransform [119] or Volterra series [96].
A popular and elegant method was proposed by Savir and Guo [53], in which, analog
circuit under test is treated as a linear time invariant (LTI) system. The transfer function
(TF) of this LTI system is computed based on the circuit netlist. Note that the coe?cients in
the numerator and denominator of TF, referred to as transfer function coe?cients (TFC), are
functions of circuit components. Therefore, any drift in circuit components from their fault
free (nominal) values will also result in drifts of the coe?cients, as they are linear functions
of circuit components. As a result minmax bounds for the coe?cients of a healthy circuit
are found and these are used to classify the circuit under test (CUT) as good or faulty.
Reference [111] shows some limitations of component based analog testing by treating CUT
85
this way. However, there has been no e?ort to quantify the achievable fault coverage (FC)
and defect level (DL) in TFC based testing of analog circuits. In this work we have derived
closed form expressions for upper bound on DL and lower bound on FC.
An approach proposed by Savir and Guo [53] ?nds component faults by measuring the
TFC estimates of the CUT. Minimum size detectable fault (MSDF) in their method is de
?ned as the minimum fault size or minimum fractional drift of the circuit component that will
cause the circuit characteristic (in this case the TFC) to lie beyond its permissible limits [53].
In general, computation of MSDF for a circuit component is a nonlinear optimization prob
lem and it is computationally expensive to evaluate MSDF for all the circuit components.
However, we have some respite in TFCs of linear analog circuit being a linear functions of
the circuit components. This implies that TFCs of the circuit take minmax values when
at least one of the circuit component is at the edge of its tolerance band (fault free drift
range) [53]. This fact is used to avoid solving the nonlinear optimization problem. Instead,
the circuit is simulated for all combinations of extreme values taken by circuit components
in its fault free drift range. The minimum deviation in circuit components causing the coef
?cients to move out of their minmax bands is thus obtained and is called nearly minimum
size detectable fault (NMSDF). The price paid for this simpli?cation is the nonzero di?er
ence between NMSDF and MSDF. We quantify this di?erence and thereby derive bounds
for the defect level and Fault coverage achievable through TFC based test methods. Main
results of this work have appeared recently [123]. In addition, we present a tradeo? between
computational overheads of simulation visavis the e?ort required to solve the nonlinear
optimization problem based on the defect level desired.
Most of the ideas in this chapter have been published in a paper [121]. This chapter is
organized as follows. In Section 6.2 we formulate the problem. Section 6.3 describes our ap
proach and present analytical proofs for the bounds on DL and FC. Section 6.4 comprises the
86
simulation results for some wellknown circuits. Section 6.5 is a discussion on ?simulation?
optimization? tradeo? based on bounds of defect level and fault coverage. Section 6.6
concludes the chapter.
6.2 Problem Formulation
A linear analog circuit [38, 61, 68] can be represented as a LTI system whose transfer
function is given by,
H(s) = K
s? +
??1?
k=0
aksk
s? +
??1?
k=0
bksk
(? 0.1). However, for smaller component count (e.g., N = 12 resistors and
capacitors) and uncertainty coe?cient (? = 0.07) simulation has to be carried out at a large
number of points. The number of points where simulation must be carried out to realize
a lower ? increases steeply for values of ? ? 0.07 (e.g., points along edges and planes of
hypercube enclosing the coe?cient instead of just the vertices are now to be simulated) and
optimization turns out to be computationally cheaper than simulation. The plot of CPU time
required in seconds against uncertainty for both optimization and simulation is plotted in
Figure 6.6. The CPU used for simulation in this plot was a Dell machine that has a 2.66 GHz
Pentium 4 processor, 1 GB RAM, and 250 GB hard disk space. Note that the time required
for optimization remains constant regardless of the value chosen for ?, as optimizing results
in actual MSDF where ? = 0. Time required for simulation decreases exponentially with
increasing ?. Thus there is a tradeo? between the number of circuit components, coe?cient
of uncertainty (and in turn defect level) that has to be evaluated before choosing to simulate
or optimize a circuit as the computational overheads with wrong choice can be substantial.
6.6 Conclusion
We have derived the bounds for defect level and fault coverage possible in transfer
coe?cient based analog circuit test. We observe that a higher component count yields lower
defect level and higher fault coverage in transfer function coe?cient (TFC) based approach
for testing linear analog circuits. A possible strategy for deciding whether to use simulation
or nonlinear optimization [53] to ?nd the bounds on coe?cient has been discussed. We ?nd
that for lower defect levels it is computationally more expensive to simulate and instead we
may use nonlinear optimization.
The proposed techniques can be applied to various forms of analog circuit test pro
cedures. In recent publications, we have discussed polynomial coe?cient based testing of
linear and nonlinear circuits [119, 124, 125, 127, 128]. The output function of the circuit is
99
Figure 6.6: CPU time (in seconds) to compute NMSDF by simulation versus coe?cient of
uncertainty, ?.
expressed as a polynomial in the input signal magnitude. Through a proper selection of the
test inputs, the coe?cients of this polynomial show high sensitivity to component variations.
The proposed technique could potentially allow the defect level and fault coverage analysis
of nonlinear analog circuits.
100
Chapter 7
Conclusion
Alternate test and faultmodel based test methodologies leverage the dependence of out
puts of the circuit to the variations in circuit components. In this thesis, we proposed circuit
signatures for bolstering both these test methodologies. In particular, we demonstrated para
metric and catastrophic fault testing in analog circuits using the proposed signatures. The
signatures are based on output?s polynomial function approximation for an input stimulus
swept across the voltage and frequency range; an exponential transformation of coe?cients
of the output?s polynomial function approximation; probabilistic moments of the output for
an random input signal (conforming to a known probability density function). Using the
proposed signatures su?ciently small parametric faults of sizes (? 5% or more) were un
covered. The proposed signatures have also been used for diagnosis of both catastrophic
and parametric faults based on sensitivity analysis of the signatures to the circuit compo
nents. Furthermore, the proposed highsensitivity test signatures increase the correlation
of RF/analog circuit outputs to speci?cation of the circuit as is desired in alternate test
methodology to minimize yield loss and defect level.
7.1 Thoughts on Future Work
Signatures proposed in this thesis can be used in a closed loop framework such that
the correlation of signatures to circuit speci?cations is further boosted up. Authors in [138]
propose an adaptive test methodology for analog circuits in the alternate/signature test
framework. Our preliminary studies on this approach have shown the feasibility of this
approach with in conjunction with the signatures such as polynomial coe?cients and V
transform coe?cients proposed in the previous chapters.
101
7.1.1 Adaptive Test With Signatures
Block diagram in Figure 7.1 shows the highlevel conceptual framework of the adaptive
test methodology using circuit signatures. The circuitundertest (CUT) is applied with a
carefully crafted stimulus, whose output is then postprocessed to generate the signatures
such as polynomial coe?cients or Vtransform coe?cients (proposed in previous chapters).
The signatures are then used to compute correlation with the actual speci?cation based on
actual speci?cation measurement of a small sampling of CUT at runtime. Based on the
prevailing correlation, the input stimulus is tuned to achieve optimally sensitive signatures
that has the highest degree of correlation to the circuit speci?cation.
7.1.2 Preliminary Experiments
To our knowledge, a runtime, closedloop tuning of the input stimulus to increase
the correlation of the circuit signature to circuit speci?cation for analog circuits has not
been attempted before. Our initial experiments on a sample of 400 LNA circuits show
promising results on the possibility of using such closedloop tuning on circuit stimulus
to achieve high correlation with speci?cation, which results in lower defect level and yield
loss. Figure 7.3 shows the improved correlation between the signature, in this case, V
transform of supply current (Idd), as opposed to just Idd and the speci?cation IIP3 (shown
in Figure 7.2). The penalty paid in this process is the extra testtime required to process
the signatures and compute the required adjustments to the input stimulus at runtime (for
example at production). However, it turns out that even minor adjustments in the input
stimulus parameters can give rich dividends in the amount of correlation achieved through
such closedloop tuning. Furthermore, the computation time required for computing the
change in stimulus along with the time required to initiate the change in the input stimulus
amounts to about 10% increase in the total testtime when compared to test?ows that do
not use such closed form tuning. Table 7.1 shows a comparison of three techniques, namely:
testing for the speci?cation ?as is,? using Vtransform coe?cients in openloop, and using
102
Figure 7.1: Block diagram of the adaptive test system based on circuit signatures.
Table 7.1: Comparison of defect level, yield loss, and test time for actual speci?cation test,
signature test in open loop, and signature test in closed loop.
Test Method Defect Level Yield Loss Test Time (per device)
Actual speci?cation test 0% 0% 15s
Signature test in open loop 8% 12% 100ms
Signature test in closed loop 0.8% 1.8% 105ms
Vtransform coe?cients in closedloop. Actual speci?cation testing serves as the baseline
case (or ideal scenario) for defect level (DL) and yield loss (YL). Notice that signatures
taken in openloop result in a DL and YL of 8% and 12% respectively. Having a closedloop
tuning of the stimulus improves DL and YL to 0.8% and 1.8% with a 5% timepenalty over
the openloop case. But both these techniques give close to a 100x improvement in testtime
over the baseline case (of measuring actual speci?cation). More experiments are needed to
study how this procedure would scale when the number of CUT are large and any other
inadequacies of this approach.
103
Figure 7.2: Scatter plot of tested devices showing defect level and yield loss for the open
loop signature test, where the input stimulus is not tuned adaptively.
7.1.3 Estimating Defect Level in Analog and RadioFrequency Circuit Testing
The strong correlation between circuit signatures and circuit speci?cations, and the
correlation among circuit speci?cations themselves can be used to design an optimal set of
tests for speci?cations that will achieve a desired defect level in the tested parts. A small
subset of speci?cations of the circuit that is strongly correlated with the all the speci?cations,
herein referred to as pretest covers all the speci?cations to the desired defect level. The
goodness of a pretest (could either be circuit signature or even speci?cation test) can then
be characterized as the number of speci?cation tests that it eliminates at a desired defect
level. Research along this line is important in making signature based testing relevant
and useful in a practical setting like production testing of highvolume integrated circuits
in foundries since the biggest concern in adoption of such alternate test strategies is the
unknown extent of defect level resulting from eliminating an actual speci?cation test in lieu
of signature [136, 26].
104
Figure 7.3: Scatter plot of tested devices showing defect level and yield loss for the closed
loop signature test, where the input stimulus is tuned adaptively.
105
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115
Appendix A
Some Theorems on Nonlinear Systems
Theorem A.1 If coe cient ai is a monotonic function of all parameters, then ai takes its
limit (maximum and minimum) values when at least one or more of the parameters are at
the boundaries of their individual hypercube.
Proof. Let ai be a function of three parameters say x, y and z. Let ai reach its maximum
value for (x0,y0,z0). Further let x0,y0 ?= ?. Now if we can show that the maximum value of
the coe?cientai occurs at z0 = ? we have proved the theorem. From de?nition of monotonic
dependence of ai on circuit parameters, (A.1) follows.
ai(x0,y0,?) ? ai(x0,y0,z0) ?z0 ?? (A.1)
As the maximum value taken by z = ?, it follows that z0 = ?. With similar arguments we
can show that the minimum value for coe?cient occurs when z0 = ??. Hence the statement
of theorem follows.
Theorem A.2 In polynomial expansion of NonLinear Analog circuit there exists at least
one coe cient that is a monotonic function of all the circuit parameters.
Proof. Consider the block diagram in Figure A.1 which models an 2nth order Non
Linear analog circuit. x is applied input and y is the response, a1???an are input summed
at each stage. The coe?cient corresponding to input x raised to the 2nth power is given by
G in (A.2).
G =
n?
i=1
g2ii (A.2)
116
x
g1
(.)2x +
a1
x
g2
(.)2+
a2
x
gn
(.)2+
an
y?
Figure A.1: A possible system model for a nonlinear circuit.
where gi ?i = 1...n are the monotonic gains of individual stages in the cascaded blocks.
As the product of two or more monotonic functions is also monotonic we have G to be a
monotonic function. G constitutes the coe?cient of the nth power of x in this expansion, as
it lies in the main signal ?ow path from input to output. Thus it is proved that there is at
least one monotonically varying coe?cient in a polynomial expansion of a nonlinear analog
circuit. Further, in general the coe?cient of 2nth power of such a polynomial expansion is
monotonic.
Theorem A.3 A continuous nonmonotonic function f : ? ? ? can be decomposed into
piecewise monotonic functions of the form:
f(x) = f(x)u(x0 ?x) +f(x)(u(x?x0)?u(x?x1))+
f(x)(u(x?x1)?u(x?x2)) +???
+f(x)(u(x?xn?1)?u(x?xn))
(A.3)
where x0,x1,???xn are all stationary points of f(x) and
u(x) =
?
???
???
1 ? x? 0
0 ? x< 0
Proof. By Rolle?s theorem [72], if f : ? ? ? is any continuous and di?erentiable
function in the open interval (a,b) and f(a) = f(b), then there exists c ? (a,b) such that
f?(c) = 0. To extend this result, suppose f(x) is increasing in the interval (a,c?), that is
f?(x) > 0 ?x ? (a,c?) and decreasing in the interval (c+,b) that is f?(x) < 0 ?x ? (c+,b)
then at point c, f?(c) = 0. In general for a continuous function f over arbitrary interval
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x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x
f(x) Decreasing
Increasing
Figure A.2: Nonlinear, nonmonotonic function decomposed into piecewise monotonic func
tions.
(?,?) there exists countable number of points xi such that f?(xi) = 0 as f(x) changes its
monotonicity. Now that we have shown xi are stationary points, it follows that f(x) is
monotonic between any two stationary points, i.e., in the interval (xi?1,xi). The windows
generated by the step function u(x) ensures that each term in the summation in (A.3) is
monotonic. A typical example is shown in Figure A.2, where f(x) alternates its monotonicity
at 6 points namely x0 through x5 and at each of these points slope is zero and f?(x)=0.
f(x) can be expressed as sum of monotonic functions separated by windows in the intervals
(x0,x1),(x1,x2),(x2,x3),(x3,x4),(x4,x5).
118
Appendix B
Output Variance of RC Filter
R
C vovin
Figure B.1: First order RC lowpass ?lter.
We use the frequency domain approach to ?nd the transformed RV for Gaussian noise
input excitation of a ?rst order RC ?lter of Figure B.1. The transfer function of that ?lter
is given by
H(s) = Vo(s)V
i(s)
= 1sRC + 1 =? H(j?)2 = 1(?RC)2 + 1 (B.1)
With white noise as the input, the discrete values are sampled Gaussian RV of zero mean
and variance = No2 . The output of this ?lter which is the ?ltered response is given by vo and
its frequency domain expression is given by
Vo(j?)2 = 1(?RC)2 + 1 Vi(j?)2 (B.2)
To compute the e?ective second order moment we integrate this output over all frequencies,
i.e., ? = (0,?).
?2 =
? ?
0
( d?
(?RC)2 + 1
)N
o
2
= 1RCNo2 arctan(?RC)?0 = No?4RC (B.3)
119