The Testing effect and the Components of Recognition Memory: What Effects do Test Type and Performance at Intervening Test Have on Final Recognition Tests
Type of DegreeDissertation
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The testing effect has been shown to be a robust phenomenon in recall. However, there have been inconsistencies demonstrating the testing effect in recognition final tests. This has led some to suggest that recollection, but not familiarity, benefits from intervening tests. The present studies attempted to determine if differences in type of intervening test affect recognition performance at final test, as well as whether intervening tests differentially impact recollection and familiarity using the rememberknow and source memory procedures. Results consistently demonstrated higher final test performance in intervening yes-no test conditions than in conditions that involve additional study presentations. Final performance in recall intervening test conditions was often lower than other conditions, with multiple-choice intervening test condition typically outperforming no-test conditions, but not by a significant margin. Potential explanations for these findings include transfer appropriate processing and the effect of intervening test performance. Comparison of the final test recollection probabilities of the different intervening test conditions did not suggest an advantage for testing over additional study trials. However, additional analysis showed that a testing advantage does exist, but only for correctly recalled items. Items that were correctly identified at intervening test were also more likely to be recollected than items that were not identified at intervening test. The results demonstrate convergence between process-estimation methods and emphasize the importance of intervening test performance in the testing effect.