Development and Application of Soybean Based Diets for Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
Type of Degreedissertation
Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
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Soybean meal is a readily available feedstuff that can be used in shrimp feed formulations. Soybean meal and its products have been found to be an acceptable protein ingredient with good digestibility for shrimp. Compared to marine animal meal, soybean meal has lower nutrient content in terms of protein, essential amino acids, highly unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. However, these shortages can be adjusted with supplements or blending with other products. Various mixtures of feed ingredients (e.g., animal by-product, vegetable protein, and plant protein concentrate) in association with soybean meal are options that provide more balanced nutrients than using soybean meal as a sole ingredient. There is little information on the use of diets containing high levels of soybean meal in combination with other ingredients. Therefore, a series of feeding experiments were conducted at the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Marine Resource Division, Claude Peteet Mariculture Center in Gulf Shores, Alabama between May 2007 and September 2009, to evaluate the use of high levels soybean meal as a main protein source in combination with other potential ingredients in formulated diets for L. vannamei. Results from these studies demonstrated that formulated diets containing approximately 36% protein and 8% lipid with balanced amino acid profiles can be formulated using high levels of soybean meal as the primary protein source. Good results were demonstrated when using high levels of soybean meal in combination with poultry by-product meal, distiller’s dried grains with solubles, pea meal or soy protein concentrates (SPC). Although better results were obtained at lower levels of inclusion, using soy protein concentrate as a substitute for soybean meal at inclusion of 20% and greater resulted in a reduction in mean final weights and an increase in FCR. The supplementation of methionine or fish soluble to the diets containing high level of SPC (40%) did not enhance growth of L. vannamei. Overall, results from these studies reveal that use of high levels of soybean meal as a main protein source in combination with other potential ingredients (poultry by-product meal, distiller’s dried grains with solubles, pea meal or soy protein concentrates (SPC) in formulated diets for L. vannamei is viable as long as essential nutrients in diet are properly balanced to meet shrimp nutritional requirements.