|dc.description.abstract||It is important to study bitterness among workers because the consequences of becoming bitter may be detrimental to both the organization and the individual worker. A questionnaire was developed to measure bitterness which included the constructs of avoidance, frustration, job satisfaction, negative affect, powerlessness, and rumination.
Data analysis showed that the data fit the model well. Significant differences were seen among Bitter and Not Bitter participants in how they responded to questions about frustration, job satisfaction, powerlessness, and rumination. Over thirty-two percent of the participants reported they were bitter as a result of mistreatment at work, which could lead to several negative emotional and behavioral consequences at work.||en_US