This Is AuburnElectronic Theses and Dissertations

The Lure of Non-credit Studio Art Classes for Adult Learners




Murray, Gina

Type of Degree



Education Foundation, Leadership, and Technology


The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation and satisfaction of adult learners who participated in non-credit studio art classes. Leisure motivation has been researched by educators, philosophers, psychologists, and social scientists (Candy, 1991; Brookfield, 2005: Dewey, 1980; Knowles, 1998; Maslow, 1970; Rogers, 1961, Stebbins, 1992). The impetus for motivation based on Maslow’s (1970) hierarchy of needs culminates in self- actualization. The self-actualized adult is typically a lifelong learner seeking personal development through leisure activities. A shift in an individual’s continuing education priorities has affected continuing education providers, leisure providers, and economic developers. This study used the Leisure Motivation Scale (Beard & Ragheb, 1983) to determine factors that motivated enrollment and levels of satisfaction among the adults enrolled in art classes. A priori factors established by Beard and Ragheb (1983) were assumed and a forced four-factor solution of the adapted Leisure Motivation Scale was analyzed using the Principle Component Analysis method. The data provided results within four factors making up 68.16 percent of the variance. Factors were social, intellectual, leisure, and competence. Results indicated that social was the highest motivating factor at 38.02 percent of the variance followed by intellectual at 13.80 percent of the variance. Demographics revealed the majority group of participants to be professional women over the age of 50, with a bachelor’s iii degree, and a minimum annual income of $55,000. The participants revealed a high level of satisfaction indicated by a 96 percent likelihood to recommend to others and a 77 percent likelihood to enroll in the future. A multiple regression analysis revealed that social and intellectual factors most strongly predicted satisfaction. Quantitative data analyzed in this study identified significant motivating factors for adult participation in art classes that may be useful to program developers, curriculum developers, and arts administrators.