Salmonella and Campylobacter Reduction and Quality Characteristics of Poultry Carcasses Treated with Various Antimicrobials in a Finishing Chiller®
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With the implementation of more stringent regulatory guidelines, it is necessary for processors to employ new or additional pathogen intervention strategies for more effective control of Salmonella and Campylobacter throughout poultry processing. New innovations in poultry include implementation of antimicrobials in a post-chill decontamination tank. Additionally, because antimicrobials can affect the organoleptic properties of a product, it is important to determine quality aspects of carcasses treated with antimicrobials. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobials added to a Finishing Chiller® in reduction of Salmonella and Campylobacter and to evaluate any associated effects of the antimicrobials on quality characteristics of chicken breast meat. Seven chill water treatments consisting of 0.004% chlorine, 0.04%, 0.1% PAA, 0.003%, 0.01% buffered sulfuric acid, 0.1%, or 0.5% lysozyme were examined using a Finishing Chiller®. A total of 200 broiler carcasses were sampled (10 carcasses X 2 replications X 10 treatments) including postive, negative, and water controls. The skin of carcasses was inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (106 cfu/mL) and Campylobacter jejuni (106 cfu/mL). Following a 20 min attachment time, carcasses were dipped into the Finishing Chiller® for 20 s. Individual birds were then placed into a sterile rinse bag and rinsed with 200 ml buffered peptone water for 1 min. Serial dilutions were performed and 0.1 ml was spread plated on XLT4 and Campy-Cefex for enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter, respectively. Non-inoculated chicken breast meat from each treatment was used for sensory analysis. Treatment with 0.04 and 0.1% PAA was found to be most effective (P<0.05) in decreasing Salmonella and Campylobacter. Chlorine treatment at 0.004% in addition to acid treatment at 0.003% and 0.01% and lysozyme applied at 0.1% and 0.5% were found to be less effective (P<0.05), resulting in close to a 1-log10 reduction when compared to controls. Treatment with the various antimicrobials was not found to have negative impacts on sensory attributes. Utilizing PAA in a Finishing Chiller® is an effective application for reducing Salmonella and Campylobacter on carcasses while maintaining product quality.