Specificity in Links between Parenting Style, Peer Relationship Difficulties, and Adjustment Problems in Preadolescences
Type of Degreethesis
Human Development and Family Studies
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This study examined specificity linkages among peer relationship difficulties, negative parenting, and preadolescent adjustment problems. Of particular interest was whether specificity exists between bullying, hostile parenting and externalizing problems and, between victimization, psychological control, and internalizing problems. Also of interest was whether negative parenting and peer relationship difficulties had additive effects on preadolescent's adjustment problems. Data were collected in 2012 when participants were 12-years-old (N = 100). Information collected from parents, teachers and preadolescents was used to create measures; demographic data also were collected. Findings show that: (1) there was specificity in linkages between bullying and externalizing problems and between victimization and internalizing problems; (2) hostile parenting more strongly predicted peer difficulties and adjustment problems than did psychological control; (3) cumulative risk effect of hostile parenting and peer relationship difficulties on preadolescent's adjustment problems, in which hostile parenting and bullying uniquely predicted externalizing problems, whereas hostile parenting and victimization uniquely predicted internalizing problems. Moreover, the general pattern of findings was consistent across informants. Collectively, these findings suggest that negative parenting and adjustment difficulties are significantly and uniquely associated with preadolescents’ adjustment problems. Implications for programs designed to decreases the adjustment problem as well as prevention for peer relationship problems are discussed.