|dc.description.abstract||The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is globally cultured due to its ability to tolerate and effectively grow and survive across a wide range of salinities, ease of reproduction, availability of domesticated strains and feeding habits. Following the worldwide trend of minimizing the usage of marine feed ingredients, the total substitution of marine protein sources for L. vannamei production diets using alternative, mainly plant based protein sources has been demonstrated. The next logical step is the substitution and/or reduction of the marine lipid sources from the diet. This goal has both advantages and disadvantages, as inappropriate substitutions could be problematic for the industry.
A series of experiments was conducted at different locations in the southern United States. These facilities included the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Marine Resources Division, Claude Peteet Mariculture Center in Gulf Shores, Alabama; the Alabama Fish Farming Center in Greensboro, Alabama; Greene Prairie Aquafarm in Boligee, Alabama; and the Texas Agrilife Research Mariculture Laboratory in Flour Bluff, Texas. Ponds, outdoor tanks and clear water laboratory tanks trials were carried out in parallel throughout the summers (May – September) of 2009 and 2010, with some of these studies representing one full commercial production cycle for L. vannamei.
Results from these studies demonstrated that formulated diets containing approximately 35% protein and 6 to 8% lipid with balanced amino acid and fatty acid profiles can be formulated using high levels of soybean meal as the primary protein source and alternative oils and fats as lipid sources. Satisfactory production results were demonstrated when using soybean oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil and poultry grease in combination with marine fish oil, and stearin fish oil replacing marine fish oil. Performing a 90% replacement of marine fish oil showed no significant statistical decrease in production performance of L. vannamei as mean final weights, survival, FCR, and final standing crop.
Overall, results from these studies reveal that use of high levels of alternative oils and fats as main lipid sources in combination with marine fish oil in formulated diets for L. vannamei is viable as long as essential nutrients in diet are properly balanced to meet shrimp nutritional requirements.
This work summarizes recent research that validates the possibility of a diet free of marine ingredients and/or those with very limited inclusion levels.||en_US