Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Ferritic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys
Type of DegreeDissertation
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Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys possess excellent properties including resistance to oxidation, corrosion, creep and thermal fatigue. In addition, ferritic ODS alloys exhibit resistance to void swelling and are of particular interest to the nuclear industry. The present study involves the joining of fuel cans to end caps that will be utilized in the nuclear industry. Mechanically alloyed (MA) ODS alloys possess coarse columnar grain structure strengthened with nanosize yttria dispersoids. In that past, fusion welding techniques resulted in microstructural disruption leading to poor joints. This work investigated joining of two ferritic MA ODS alloys, MA956 and PM2000, using; (a) Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding and (b) Solid-state diffusion bonding. TLP bonds were prepared with MA956 and PM2000 in the unrecrystallized and recrystallized conditions using electron beam physical vapor deposited (EBPVD) boron thin films as interlayers. The use of thin interlayers reduced the amount of substrate dissolution and minimized the bondline microstructural disruption. Different bond orientations were also investigated. Successful bonds with better microstructural continuity were obtained when substrates were joined in the unrecrystallized condition followed by post bond recrystallization heat treatment with the substrate faying surface aligned along the working (extrusion or rolling) direction than when substrates were aligned perpendicular to the working direction. This was attributed to the number of yttria stringers cut by the bondline, which is less when the substrate faying surface is lying parallel to the working direction than when the substrate faying surface is lying perpendicular to the working direction. Solid-state diffusion bonding was conducted using MA956 and PM2000 in the unrecrystallized and recrystallized conditions. Bonding occurred only when an unrecrystallized substrate was involved. Bonding occurred at unusually low stresses. This may be attributed to the grain boundary diffusion, owing to submicron grain size of the unrecrystallized substrates. Post bond heat treatment was conducted in order to induce recrystallization in the bonds. Room temperature mechanical testing was conducted on the bonds and the bulk. Bond shear strengths and tensile strengths of up to 80% and 110% of bulk, respectively, were obtained. Defects in the bulk material such as porosity and unwanted fine grain formation were observed. Pore formation at the bondline during post bond heat treatment seems to decrease the bond strength. These defects were attributed to prior thermomechanical history of the materials.