Investigating Termite Behavior and Application Methods of Non-repellent Termiticides for the Control of Eastern Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
Type of Degreedissertation
Entomology and Plant Pathology
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The effects of three non-repellent termiticides were evaluated in the laboratory against the eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar, to determine their efficiency in controlling this species. Treating above-ground tunnels and soil treatment were used to evaluate the termiticides. The three termiticides that were used in this study include dry ready-to-use (RTU) Termidor (active ingredient: fipronil 0.5%), Altriset (active ingredient: chlorantraniliprole 18.4%), and Termidor H.E. Termiticide Copack (active ingredient: fipronil 9.1%). The non-repellent termiticide (Dry RTU Termidor) caused a decreased in termite population movement and 100% mortality at day 5 and 7 for the 0.30 and 0.15 mg dose treatments, respectively. Termites constructed significantly fewer tunnels post-treatment compared to control termites; this provided strong evidence that locally treating a single tunnel with dry RTU fipronil near feeding sites was effective for the control of termite group population. Altriset caused 100% termite mortality in 19 days post-treatment at 100 and 50 µg/g and 27% termite mortality at 25 µg/g when treating the soil contiguously to established foraging tunnels at a fixed 1m distance. When testing the distance effect of the soil treatment (2m and 4m) to satellite termite populations at a fixed 50 µg/g concentration, Altriset caused 100% termite mortality in 22 days post-treatment at both 2m and 4m. Finally when assessing the effect of differing application methods using 12.5 and 25 µg/g prior to the establishment of foraging tunnels at a fixed 1m distance, Altriset caused 100% mortality in 9 days post-treatment at 25 µg/g and 12 days post-treatment at 12.5 µg/g. Results amend label information on treatment concentration, distance and application methods of Altriset. Termidor H.E. was utilized to evaluate the interaction between termite-fipronil and termite-termite at the colony level using localized soil application. One ppm a.i. of the product caused control in of all the tested colonies of eastern subterranean termite in 50 days. Accordingly, exposed termites perished at the nest site where they received intensive grooming from active colony mates rather than in perish in the treated area or nearby adjacent tunnels. The presence of exposed termites neither repelled nor deterred the surrounding active colony mates. Similar results have been noted. The current work has provided a detailed understanding of the effectiveness of treating mud tunnels and soil using powdered and liquid formulations against eastern subterranean termites. The approach of localized treatment is an important step in reducing termiticide exposure to humans and the environment. It is critical for termite control methods to be continuously researched and to reflect newer, more advanced technologies.