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## Principal Eigenvalue Theory for Time Periodic Nonlocal Dispersal Operators and Applications

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##### Date

2014-07-02##### Author

Rawal, Nar

##### Type of Degree

thesis##### Department

Mathematics and Statistics##### Metadata

Show full item record##### Abstract

The dissertation is concerned with the
spectral theory, in particular, the principal eigenvalue theory for
nonlocal dispersal operators with time periodic dependence, and its
applications. Nonlocal and random dispersal operators are widely
used to model diffusion systems in applied sciences and share many
properties. There are also some essential differences between
nonlocal and random dispersal operators, for example, a smooth
random dispersal operator always has a principal eigenvalue, but a
smooth nonlocal dispersal operator may not have a principal
eigenvalue.
In this dissertation, we first establish criteria for the
existence of principal eigenvalues of time periodic nonlocal
dispersal operators with Dirichlet type, Neumann type, or periodic
type boundary conditions. Among others, it is shown that a time periodic nonlocal dispersal
operator possesses a principal eigenvalue provided that the nonlocal dispersal distance is sufficiently
small, or the time average of the underlying media satisfies some vanishing condition
with respect to the space variable at a maximum point or is nearly globally homogeneous
with respect to the space variable. We also obtain lower bounds of the principal
spectrum points of time periodic nonlocal dispersal operators in terms of the corresponding time averaged problems.
Next, we discuss the applications of the
established principal eigenvalue theory to the existence, uniqueness, and stability of time periodic positive solutions to Fisher or KPP type
equations with nonlocal dispersal in periodic media. We
prove that such equations are of monostable
feature, that is, if the trivial solution is linearly unstable, then there is a
unique time periodic positive solution $u^+(t,x)$ which is globally asymptotically stable.
Finally, we discuss the application of the
established principal eigenvalue theory to the spatial spreading and front propagation dynamics of KPP equations with nonlocal dispersal in
periodic media. We show that such an equation has a spatial spreading speed
$c^*(\xi)$ in the direction of any given unit vector $\xi$. A variational characterization of $c^*(\xi)$ is given.
Under the assumption that the nonlocal dispersal operator associated to the linearization of the monostable equation at the trivial solution
$0$ has a principal eigenvalue, we also show that the monostable equation has a periodic traveling wave solution connecting $u^+(\cdot,\cdot)$ and $0$ propagating in
any given direction of $\xi$ with speed $c>c^*(\xi)$.

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