Trends in Advertising Typology and Facial Cosmetic Emphasis, 1940-2010
Type of Degreethesis
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This research investigated the existence of trends or cyclical patterns in cosmetic emphasis on the lips or eyes and the advertising typology used in fashion magazines for the young adult (18-35) and adult (25+) female target markets. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorize lip and eye products and advertising typology in 2,197 cosmetic advertisements from 316 Mademoiselle/Glamour and Vogue issues. There was limited evidence of clear cycles in shifting emphasis between the eyes and lips and some evidence of differences by target market. Overall, advertising for lip products trended down and eye products up to the 1980s and then reversed. Lip products were advertised more in Vogue than in Mademoiselle/Glamour and eye products more in the latter than the former for five of seven decades. There were shifts in advertising typology used over the period, with a few types being used more early and more evenness in types used later. Identification, storytelling, and aesthetics types of advertising were observed most for adult women, and description, demonstration, and association were observed most for young adult women. Some differences in advertising typology were observed for target markets. Overall, this research showed that fashion cycles and advertising could be explored for non-apparel products to expand on research.