Self-Efficacy and Medication Adherence of Individuals with Vision Impairments
Type of DegreeDissertation
Rehabilitation and Special Education
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Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the self-efficacy and medication adherence of individuals with vision impairments who were served at the time by one or more of the three non-profit consumer organizations that provide advocacy and other services for individuals with vision loss in Georgia. In addition, the study examined an individual’s confidence associated with tasks such as ability to ready medication labels, ability to take medications as prescribed, and use of assistive technology aids when managing their medications. In conducting the study, the researcher selected three non-profit consumer organizations whose focus is to provide advocacy services to individuals with vision loss. The researcher contacted each president of the three local non-profit consumer organizations that provide advocacy services for individuals with vision impairments by telephone to request the organization’s participation in the study and to provide information on the purpose of the study. A formal letter was e-mailed to each president to reiterate the purpose of the study and to request support. In addition, a request was made for permission to attend one monthly meeting of each organization to inform the members of the project and to solicit participation in the study. All participation was voluntary. The survey instruments were self-reported and were to be completed independently or with the use of a proxy (family member or friend). After completing the surveys, participants placed surveys in the drop box at the meeting of their organization. The survey data remained anonymous. The total number of individuals with impairments in the data set was 52. Individuals with vision impairment demographic variables were as follows: (a) gender, (b) type of vision impairment, (c) marital status, (d) age range, (e) education, (f) current employment status, (g) housing arrangement, (h) travel independently outside the home (yes, no), (i) travel methods, (j) assistance in taking medications, (k) use of assistive technology to take medication, (l) ability to read large print on newspaper headings, (m) ability to read small print on newspaper, (n) ability to read medication labels, (o) ability to see the medication pills, and (p) requires the assistance of others in reading. Participants also responded to four open-ended questions that addressed their coping skills. The researcher organized comments into central themes. All participant responses provided implications for the results. Results from the statistical analysis showed that in terms of individuals with impairments confidence level, participants were ‘somewhat’ to ‘very confident’ in taking their medication independently. There was no statistically significant difference in following prescribed medication regimens or refilling their medication on schedule, and there was no difference in the confidence level of those who used assistive technology/aids and those who did not use assistive technology in taking their medication. This finding indicated individuals felt confident in managing their medications at the .05 level; however, the finding also implied that they had challenges in being able to manage their medication regimens independently.