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Prediction of Sensory Texture Characteristics of Deli Meat Using Instrumental Analysis




Baker, Bradley

Type of Degree

Master's Thesis


Animal Sciences


The objective of Experiment 1 was to develop a method that has the ability to measure multiple readings on the same deli meat sample and have those readings be highly correlated with descriptive sensory data. Texture profile analysis was applied to 4 deli meat brands: classic oven roasted turkey (CORT), brand oven roasted turkey (ORT), natural oven roasted turkey (NORT), and bulk oven roasted turkey (BORT). Descriptive sensory analysis was conducted by a 10-member, highly trained panel employed by a corporate deli meat producer. The objective of Experiment 2 was to determine how number of slices affects texture using 3 different types of deli meats, including: hard salami, original roasted turkey breast, and turkey bologna. Increasing the number of slices of deli meat analyzed from 1 to 5 slices stacked at a time. For Experiment 1, 3 treatments, 25% strain, 30% strain, and a distance of 5-mm was applied to samples. A total of 15 samples per treatment were analyzed, with 3 readings per sample- totaling 45 readings per treatment. Texture analyzer settings were: the treatment being applied, a pre-test speed of 2-mm/s, test speed of 0.5-mm/s, post-test speed of 0.5-mm/s, and a trigger force of 5-g. For Experiment 2, texture analyzer settings were a distance of 5-mm, a pre-test speed of 2-mm/s, test speed of 0.5-mm/s, post-test speed of 0.5-mm/s, and a trigger force of 5-g. Experiment 1 showed treatment distance was a ‘good’ indicator (R2 of 0.64 to 0.81) of mean hardness with sensory amount of striations (r=0.85 and R2=0.73) and showed a ‘good’ correlation between mean chewiness and amount of striations (r=0.72 and R2=0.67). Mean cohesiveness was a ‘good’ indicator of sensory fibrousness between teeth at treatment level 30% strain (r=0.71 and R2=0.70). For Experiment 2, increasing stack size proved to be an 'excellent' predictor (R2 > 0.81) of sample mean hardness and chewiness for brands Hillshire Farms Hard Salami (HFHS) and Oscar Mayer Oven Roasted Turkey Breast (OMORT), and a 'good' predictor of mean hardness for Oscar Mayer Turkey Bologna (OMTB). Increasing the number of slices on brand OMTB showed this had an ‘excellent’ correlation between slice number and average springiness, while the other two brands (HFHS and OMORT) depicted ‘good’ correlations. Increasing the number of slices showed a 'good' correlation between brands OMORT and OMTB and mean cohesiveness and mean resilience. In conclusion, some sensory attributes were correlated with texture profile analysis readings in Experiment 1; additionally, in Experiment 2, increasing the number of stacked slices showed to increase correlation coefficient (R2) values in most cases.