Evaluating the Effects of Oat Fiber and Modified Corn Starch on the Characteristics of Smoked Sausage Utilizing Mechanically Separated Chicken
Type of DegreeMaster's Thesis
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There is an increasing demand for affordable, all-natural products in the food service industry. This category includes clean label products, which are generally recognized as being minimally processed and having simple and understandable ingredient statements. This study is to evaluate blends of clean label functional ingredients for a low cost, highly extended smoked sausage. Texture profile analysis (TPA), consumer sensory panels, objective color analysis, microbial analysis, and pH analysis were used to evaluate quality attributes of sausages made with three blends of oat fiber (OF) and modified corn starch (CSm) over a 13-week storage. All sausages were made with mechanically separated chicken (MSC; 0.325% NaNO2, 1.75% salt) in a hog intestine casing. Treatments included a With Phosphate (0.43% sodium phosphate), Without Binders (no sodium phosphate, OF, or CSm), and three blends of OF and CSm at 3.5% green weight. Five sausages were selected randomly from each treatment and batch for sensory, color, and pH. One sausage was randomly selected for TPA and one for microbiological analysis. Following cooking and chilling, sausages were vacuum sealed and stored at 2°C in a corrugated box. Three sensory sausages were reheated in an oven to 79.4°C, cut into 2.54 cm segments, and cut in half lengthwise for sensory analysis while the remaining two were evaluated for color and pH. Treatments were given a unique, random 3-digit code. Consumer panelists (n=30) evaluated juiciness, cohesiveness, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability on a 9-point scale. TPA sausages were cut into three 2.54 cm segments, and evaluated using a TA-XT2icon Texture Analyser and 25 mm cylinder press. Data was analyzed using a repeated measures design with x, y + z as independent variables in the proc mixed procedure of SAS 9.4. Means were separated sing leas squares means with significance set at P<0.05. Sensory, texture, pH, and color evaluations were performed every 7 days contingent upon microbial and sensory analysis of spoilage. There was a treatment by week interaction for pH and sensory texture. An overall reduction in pH over extended storage time after week 2 was observed. The with phosphate treatment was similar to an experimental blend for 8 of 9 weeks exhibiting differences when evaluating the texture interaction. The treatments with OF:CSm were less juicy (P<0.05) than those without and were more cohesive sensory analysis. Adding OF at 3.15% and 1.75% had a negative effect on flavor acceptability and overall acceptability. TPA values for hardness were greater (P<0.05) in experimental blends than treatments with phosphate or without binders. Adding OF and CSm made sausages more hard, gummy and chewy (P<0.05).