Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to the house fly (Musca domestica)
Type of DegreeMaster's Thesis
Entomology and Plant Pathology
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The house fly, Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) is a worldwide agricultural and public health pest. Using essential oils is one method for controlling the house fly. This study assessed the toxicity and repellency of 3 essential oil blends and 17 individual essential oil components on adult house flies using topical application and olfactometer bioassay. Previous studies have shown that some of these chemicals are effective against insect pests, including the house fly, while others have not been evaluated on house flies. Of 20 selected blends and individual components, thymol showed the lowest LD50 of 43.767 and 41.101 μg/fly at 24- and 48-hour post treatment, respectively. (+)-Pulegone had the lowest LD95 of 155.568 and 104.767 μg/fly at 24- and 48-hour post treatment. House flies had greater relative sensitivity to (+)-pulegone and eugenol than the others. Most of the essential oils and compounds were more effective at 48-hour post treatment than at 24-hour post treatment. Correlation analysis detected a negative relationship between topical toxicity of essential oil blends and individual components and boiling point. Citronellic acid, p-cymene, eucalyptus oil, (R)-(+)-limonene, linalool, estragole, eugenol and γ- terpinene were repellency to house flies at different concentrations, whereas thymol and (-)- carvone were attractive to house flies.