Evaluating the Antimicrobial Efficacy of White Mustard Essential Oil against Salmonella
Type of DegreeMaster's Thesis
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Currently, it is estimated that non-typhoidal Salmonella causes approximately 1.2 million illnesses and 450 deaths per year in the United States. Reduction of Salmonella-related foodborne infections can be achieved through reducing or eliminating the pathogen by antimicrobials. Essential oils in combination with other antimicrobials can be added to raw poultry products to reduce the levels of the organism below the infectious dose for healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergy between WMEO and carvacrol or thymol and its potential to be used in the control of Salmonella. Additionally, the activity of WMEO and carvacrol were tested against Salmonella in ground chicken to see the effect a food product would have on the efficacy of the antimicrobial activity. The results showed that an additive effect was achieved between WMEO and carvacrol as well as thymol. In addition, 0.75% WMEO and 0.1% carvacrol combination had a bacteriostatic effect against Salmonella at a temperature abuse of 10 °C for 7 days. At 4 °C, the combination of 0.75% WMEO + 0.1% carvacrol had a 0.6 log CFU/g less count of Salmonella when compared to the positive control. The application of the antimicrobials controlled the growth of Salmonella by delaying the exponential phase at temperature abuse and reducing levels of Salmonella to be less than the positive control at 4°C. The use of these antimicrobials show potential in reducing levels of Salmonella below infectious doses and controlling the growth of the organism under temperature abuse conditions in raw poultry products. Further research is needed to investigate the toxicity of the compounds as well as the most efficient way to apply it to a food product to maximize antimicrobial activity.