Effects of Intersection Features on Wrong-Way Driving
Type of DegreePhD Dissertation
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Wrong-way driving (WWD) crashes are much more likely to result in serious injuries or fatalities compared to all other crashes. The analysis performed in this dissertation shows, specifically, that the risk of a fatality is 20 to 27 times greater for WWD crashes compared with all other types of crashes. Improperly designed intersections can lead to operational and safety concerns along roadways when vehicles attempt to enter or exit roadways. WWD entries were mostly from median-crossroad intersections on roadways, where driver view of the intersection entrance can be restricted by various intersection features. Roadways with access that are not properly managed can experience lower safety. Due to limitations in the current “3Es of Traffic Safety” strategies (Engineering, Education, and Enforcement) on WWD prevention, this dissertation suggests the need for new safety countermeasures for reducing WWD crashes on roadways. To reduce WWD crashes, the drivers must be stopped from entering the wrong way in the first place. Wrong-way entry points are where drivers started to make a wrong-way maneuver and enter the wrong side of a roadway. Thus, this dissertation focuses on the wrong-way entry points addressing the effects of intersection features on WWD through evaluating the role of all components of the intersection traffic system that may restrict driver’s view and maneuvers, They are turn-prohibition signal control, signing and pavement marking traffic control devices, roadway geometric design elements, access management, intersection balance, length of median barrier, median type and width, as well as median opening treatments. It proposes a comprehensive systematic approach containing innovative safety countermeasures that are “practice ready” to reduce WWD entries. Data collected include crash data, field data, survey data, simulation data, and Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data. Statistical analyses and 3D simulation are used to accomplish the objectives of this study.