Exploring the Relationship between the ESL Learners' Preferred Individualized Classroom Environment and Language Learning Strategies
Type of DegreePhD Dissertation
Education Foundation, Leadership, and Technology
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This study examined the preferred individualized classroom environment and language learning strategies of the college-level ESL learners who registered in an English as a Second Language (ESL) program in a public four-year university in the southeast of the United States. Based on Fraser (1985)’s Individualized Classroom Environment’s theoretical framework and Oxford (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning’s framework, this study examined the difference of individualized classroom environment and language learning strategies of the ESL learners by gender and explored the relationship of these two sets of variables among the ESL learners. A quantitative research design was used in this research. One-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to address the first two research questions. A series of regression were used to address the third research question. The Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) (preferred short version) (Fraser, 1985) and Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) (Version 7.0) (Oxford, 1990) were used in this study. Participants were ESL students enrolled in the ESL programs at a public four-year university in the southeast of the U.S. during the Spring semester, 2018. Survey data was analyzed through one-way MANOVA and multiple regression analyses. Results showed that the female college-level ESL learners tend to use more Memory strategy significantly than the male college-level ESL learners. The results also illustrated that the influence of individualized classroom environment to college-level ESL learners’ choice of language learning strategies. To summarize, Independence and Investigation of individualized classroom environment were significant predictors to Compensation, Metacognitive, and Social language learning strategies. Personalization, Investigation and Differentiation of individualized classroom were significant predictors to Memory language learning strategy. Independence, Investigation and Differentiation of the individualized classroom environment were significant predictors to Cognitive language learning strategy. Personalization, Independence and Investigation of the individualized classroom environment were significant predictors to Affective language learning strategy. This study suggested that teachers provide certain aspects of individualized classroom environment for ESL learners through strategy instruction or encourage them to develop certain language learning strategies. ESL educators are encouraged to choose appropriate teaching methods and learning strategies suitable for the ESL learners to better understand and use appropriate learning strategies. ESL administrators are encouraged to provide classroom guidelines to the teachers and instructors, in order to help the ESL learners to employ proper language learning strategies and improve their English proficiency.