Short-Term Changes in Health Status after Cigarette Smoking and Moderate-Intensity Exercise
Type of DegreeThesis
Health and Human Performance
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The combined effects of cigarette smoking and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on physiological, inflammatory and blood clotting factors were examined in 12 casual smokers. Apparently healthy males between the ages of 19 and 35 years who self-reported that they smoked no more than 7 cigarettes per day were recruited to undergo each of three experimental conditions in randomized order: 1) a single bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, 2) cigarette smoking, and 3) cigarette smoking just prior to a single bout of exercise. Blood samples were drawn prior to, immediately after and 10, 20 and 40 minutes after completing each condition. One additional blood sample was obtained again 24-hours after completing each condition. Data were analyzed using 3 (condition) x time (depending on the variable of interest) ANOVA. Simple main effects and Duncan New Multiple Range tests were used to follow-up significant ANOVA findings. Smoking prior to exercise increased heart rate during moderate-intensity exercise and in the immediate period of recovery after exercise to a greater level than exercising or smoking alone. Systolic blood pressure was higher with smoking compared to exercise and diastolic blood pressure was significantly elevated after smoking. Pulmonary function was not significantly altered in any of the experimental conditions. White blood cell (WBC) count increased in all three conditions with a greater magnitude and duration in the exercise and combined smoking and exercise conditions versus smoking alone. C-reactive protein (CRP) was not significantly altered by smoking, exercise or the combination of the two conditions. Blood fibrinogen concentrations were greater with smoking and fibrinogen concentrations decreased similarly after each experimental condition. Smoking prior to exercise prolonged the elevation in platelet counts that occur after smoking or exercise alone. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was significantly greater with smoking and decreased after each condition; yet, prothrombin time (PT) was elevated similarly after each condition. We conclude from these results that smoking increases cardiovascular stress at rest, during exercise and recovery from exercise and smoking prolongs elevations in platelet counts that occur after exercise. However, smoking prior to exercise does not transiently alter inflammatory markers or appear to influence changes in blood clotting characteristics that are observed after exercise.