Comparing Lecture-Based and Flipped-Classroom Methods in the US Air Force's Officer Training School: An Analysis of Learners' Satisfaction and Achievement
Type of DegreePhD Dissertation
Education Foundation, Leadership, and Technology
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The problem this study analyzed was if lecture-based or flipped-classroom methods resulted in significant differences in academic achievement scores and course satisfaction ratings. To analyze the problem, this study examined archival achievement and satisfaction data from a sample of 916 cadets attending the USAF’s Officer Training School (OTS) Total Force Officer Training (TFOT) program. The purpose of this study was to determine if academic achievement (n = 916) and course satisfaction (n = 639) differed based on course teaching method for the cadets. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) was used to analyze the effect of teaching method on achievement and satisfaction, and to investigate if the effect of teaching method varied across the de-identified demographic variables of cadet-career status and age. The results of the HLR analyses revealed that teaching method did significantly affect academic achievement [R2 = .037, R2adj = .033, F(1, 895) = 8.674, p < .001] with cadets in the lecture courses scoring higher than cadets in the flipped courses, but that teaching method did not significantly affect course satisfaction in cadets [R2 = .005, R2adj = .000, F(1, 626) = 1.086, p = .354]. The HLR analysis results also indicated that the test of the incremental R2 for the interactions, above the main effects, was significant for academic achievement [R2 = .047, R2adj = .040, F(7, 892) = 6.303, p < .001; Pedhazer, 1997]. A HLR analysis revealed no interaction for the effect of teaching method across cadet-career status when predicting course satisfaction [R2 = .006, R2adj = -.002, F(5, 624) = .753, p = .584]. To interpret the contribution of each effect, separate simple effects analyses were conducted. The simple effects analyses for academic achievement indicated that the effect of teaching method did significantly vary across career status [F(2, 894) = 4.569, p = .011], but not for age [F(17, 862) = .963, p = .499]. The simple effects analysis revealed active duty cadets in both the lecture and flipped classes scored significantly higher [F(2, 894) = 4.569, p = .011] than Reserve component [t(894) = 3.49, p = .002] and non-prior service cadets [t(894) = 4.82, p < .001] in academic achievement.