Practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei utilizing alternative ingredients
Type of DegreePhD Dissertation
Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
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Global shrimp production has steadily increased and is currently one of the primary users of fishmeal (FM). At the same time, Global fishmeal supply has reached a plateau, with demand still continuing to increase resulting in reduced availability and increased prices. From an economic standpoint, it is important to look for cost -effective protein sources from a variety of plant and terrestrial animal sources as replacements for more expensive proteins such as FM. This study was dedicated to exploring the usage of alternative protein sources which included two conventional yeast products (BY50 and BY70), corn processing product (CPC: corn protein concentrate), enzyme-treated soybean meal products (SPC: soy protein concentrate), grain processing product (HPDDG: high protein distiller’s dried grain) and by-products of salmon processing (SM and HSM: salmon meal and hydrolyzed salmon meal) as potential protein source to replace FM, CPC or SBM in practical shrimp diet. A series of 5 independent trials were conducted to evaluate those listed products. The first study results indicated that 180-240g/kg BY50 can be effectively used in shrimp diets as a replacement for FM, or up to 240g/kg when replacing SBM. Additionally, adding 20g/kg of BY70 does not cause impaired growth performance for the shrimp fed with low FM diet. Under green water conditions in the presence of natural foods, the second study results indicated that HPDDG is a good protein source and up to 20 or 15% HPDDG can be used to replace CPC or FM in practical shrimp diets. The third study demonstrated that total 92 or 138 g/kg of CPC and SPC (1:1 ratio) may be used in the diet of the Pacific white shrimp replacing 50 or 75% fishmeal in clear and green water under high stocking density and low salinity culture conditions, respectively. The fourth study results showed that up to 100 or 50% anchovy meal can be replaced by salmon meal or hydrolyzed salmon meal without causing impaired growth performance in both clear and green water conditions, respectively. The following up fifth study results indicated that the growth performance of shrimp has not influenced by HSM up to 60 g/kg to replace 50% of the SM in practical diets; however, higher levels resulted in significant decrease in performance. Based on those results of those studies, potential protein ingredients like BY50, HPDDG, CPC, SPC, SM and HSM can be used in practical shrimp diet as a replacement for FM, CPC or SBM. With the shortage of FM and the expansion of aquaculture production, it is necessary for us to evaluate these alternative ingredients and determine the optimum inclusion level to promote sustainable and economically viable aquaculture production.