A Study on the Adsorption Properties of Quaternized Cellulose
Type of DegreeDissertation
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The aims of this investigation explore an efficient way to remove the anionic dye for textile wastewater, and characterize surface thermodynamics of quaternized cellulose fiber by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) using specific gas probes over different temperature, and establish the correlations between the surface characteristics and the adsorption capability of quaternized cellulose. The results of the treatment of cellulose (recycled newsprint) with 3-Chloro-2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-Propanaminium Chloride (quaternary ammonium) indicate that the nitrogen contents depend greatly on the pH. The favorable pH is more than 10 and less than 13. The process of dye removal can be completed removing waste dye within a second when the concentration of dye is less than 220 mg/l at room temperature. The saturation value of quaternized cellulose is 10 times higher than that of activated carbon and the quaternized cellulose shows it has the extremely high capability for dye adsorption. Surface energy characteristics such as interaction enthalpy, enthalpy, the dispersive component of the surface energy, and acid-base properties have been quantified by IGC. The dispersive components of surface energy are correlated with the supermolecular structures of cellulose based on the data of X-ray and FT-IR. The surface of the cellulose becomes more basic than acidic after quaternization in terms of electron acceptor and electron donor constants or Lewis acidity and Lewis basicity constants, KA and KD. The changes of surface properties result from the changes of chemical constitutions after quaternization. It has been proposed that the driving force of the surface thermodynamic adsorption is the heat of Lewis acid-base interaction between quaternized cellulose and anionic dyes. The correlation between the surface characteristics and adsorption capability of quaternized cellulose has been established by the data of IGC and adsorption isotherm. The study shows the fine structure of cellulose fibers does not affect the adsorption capability of cellulose, and the adsorption capability of cellulose is dramatically increased after quaterniztion. Therefore the acid-base interaction and the ionic bonding could strongly affect the adsorption capability. This study might supply a piece of useful information for selecting the best adsorbates and adsorbents in terms of KA and KD.