Online self-directed learning readiness and learning outcome in online statistics learning environment: The mediating roles of self-efficacy to learn statistics and 2x2 Achievement goal orientations
Type of DegreePhD Dissertation
Education Foundation, Leadership, and Technology
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This study investigated the understanding of the effects of online self-directed learning readiness (OSDLR) on academic achievement. and course satisfaction for online learning statistics through the mediating variables of self-efficacy to learn statistics (SELS) and 2x2 achievement goal orientation. The current study sought to create awareness and inform learners and tutors engaging in online statistics courses how they can rely on self-directed learning readiness. The present study sought to investigate: i) the relationship between online self-directed learning readiness and academic outcomes as measured by course satisfaction and grades ii) how the relationship between OSDLR and learning outcomes (grade) is mediated by SELS iii) how the relationship between OSDLR and learning outcomes (grade) is mediated by achievement goal orientations iv) how the relationship between OSDLR and affective learning outcome (course satisfaction) is mediated by SELS and v) how the relationship between OSDLR and affective learning outcome (course satisfaction) is mediated by achievement goal orientations. This study employs a quantitative research design and a correlational research design utilizing a cross-sectional mediation model to investigate the relationships among variables. Data collection for this study was conducted using an online survey with a set of questionnaires, including part 1 for demographics, part 2 for online learning readiness, part 3 for 2x2 achievement goal orientations, part 4 for self-efficacy to learn statistics, and part 5 for course satisfaction. The participants in the current study were students enrolled in and studying at a large public university in the Southeastern United States who had registered for at least one statistics course delivered online during the 2020 Fall semester. Data analyses utilized path models, where a series of OLS regression analyses were performed. The analysis was divided into four different models: Model 1-1, Model 1-2, Model 2-1, and Model 2-2. The study established that OSDLR was positively related to grades. OSDLR is also positively related to SELS, and SELS was not related to the grade, and as such, it was not a significant mediator between OSDLR and grade. It is also established that OSDLR was positively related to mastery-approach goal orientation (MAP) but showed no positive relationship with any other orientations (mastery-avoidance goal orientation (MAV), performance-goal orientation (PAP), or performance-avoidance goal orientation (PAV)) The results also showed that MAP was positively related to the grade; therefore, that MAP is the significant mediator between the relationship between OSDLR and grade. MAV was negatively related to grade and neither PAP nor PAV was significantly associated with the grade. OSDLR was positively associated with course satisfaction, and SELS was positively associated with course satisfaction. Finally, none of the 2x2 achievement goal orientations were associated with course satisfaction. This study concludes with recommendations based on these findings, limitations of the current study, and implications of the present study. The findings of the current study provide a basis upon which future studies can be developed, as well as a basis upon which better educational programs can be implemented for online learning environments by instructors and institutions of higher learning.