This Is AuburnElectronic Theses and Dissertations

Laser-based Micro and Nano Manufacturing of Materials and Devices for Bio and Energy Applications




Fathi-Hafshejani, Parvin

Type of Degree

PhD Dissertation


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Restriction Status


Restriction Type

Auburn University Users

Date Available



Micro- and nanostructures have a wide range of applications in electrical, mechanical, biological, and energy fields. The need for micro and nanomanufacturing is driven not only by the requirement of increasingly hybrid devices and structures with novel properties but also by the trend of decreasing building block sizes, material usage, and energy consumption. To meet the demand for nano and microstructure in emergent large-scale manufacturing, logical steps are needed to achieve the desired high precision and speed at a large scale through the development and broad implementation of nanofabrication technologies. Traditional fabrication methods are usually time and cost-consuming and have limitations of scale-up or complex shape. In the vast landscape of advanced manufacturing, the integration of laser-based nano and micro manufacturing techniques represents not just an evolutionary step but a transformative leap. The acronym "laser," signifying "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation," is more than just a technical term; it encapsulates the essence of a powerful and versatile tool. This tool, in the form of focused light, promises precision and control that was once relegated to science fiction. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver a precise amount of energy onto a confined region of material to achieve the desired response. For different materials, this energy is absorbed near the surface, modifying the surface chemistry, crystal structure, and/or multiscale morphology without altering the bulk material. The nonequilibrium processes in the high-energy laser-material interaction dynamics can overcome energy barriers required for chemical reactions and increase their reaction kinetics far beyond equilibrium processes. In the following chapters, we shall delve into the multifaceted advantages that lasers bring to the forefront of advanced manufacturing of materials and devices for bio and energy applications. By examining their profound impact on material modification, additive manufacturing, and laser deposition, we aim to unveil the profound influence of lasers on the landscape of modern manufacturing. The innate precision of lasers is a marvel in itself. These beams of light can be focused to achieve minuscule spot sizes, endowing us with the capability to manipulate 2D materials such as Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs) at scales previously considered unattainable. In applications where precise detail is demanded, such as the fabrication of microelectronic components, energy storage, and intricate medical devices, the precision offered by lasers is nothing short of revolutionary. Speed, a hallmark of laser-based manufacturing processes, equips us with the ability to engage in rapid prototyping and production. This speed is particularly advantageous in industries where time-to-market is of paramount importance, allowing for swift adaptation and innovation, such as additive manufacturing. As we embark on the journey through the following chapters, we shall traverse uncharted territory, exploring laser-based nano and micro manufacturing of materials and devices and their applications. Through this exploration, we shall uncover the transformative potential of the laser-based method, a potential that is fundamentally reshaping the landscape of modern manufacturing of materials and devices and their unique applications in biomedical and energy storage.