Complexed Trace Mineral Supplementation of Broiler Diets
Type of DegreeThesis
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Series of experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Zn and Mn complexes (C-Zn and C-Mn) on live performance, carcass, skin quality, and meat quality of male broilers. The first experiment evaluated the effects of C-Zn and C-Mn and post-mortem deboning time at 41 and 55 d of age. Body weight gain favored the standard inorganic control diet. No treatment effects (P>0.05) on feed conversion, mortality, carcass and parts yields and meat quality attributes were observed at 41 and 55 d of age. Post-mortem deboning time had a significant influence (P<0.05) on processing yield. Breast deboned at 2 h PM exhibited higher yield, drip, cook loss, and WHC as compared to those deboned at 24 h PM. At 41 d, cook loss was reduced with adding extra 40 ppm C-Zn. At 55 d, breast fillets were lighter in color when deboned at 24 h PM than at 2 h PM. No advantages were seen with organic Zn and Mn in live and processing performance at 41 and 55 d of age. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of C-Zn and C-Mn on carcass and skin quality. No differences (P>0.05) in live performance were observed among treatments at 41 d of age. Adding extra 40 ppm C-Zn significantly reduced skin sores, scabs and scratches in the back area. However, adding extra 40 ppm C-Zn and 40 ppm C-Mn increased drumstick bruising (P<0.05). Overall carcass grade, whole carcass and parts yields were not significantly different among the treatments at 41 and 55 d of age. There were few effects of treatments on carcass and meat quality at 41 d of age. The third experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of C-Zn on carcass, skin, and foot pad quality. Birds on C-Zn showed significant improvements in weight gain and feed conversion, breast yield, thigh sores, scabs, and scratches, and pododermatitis incidence and severity. However, no advantages were seen with complexed Zn in meat quality attributes at 49 d of age. Typical Corn-SBM based broiler diets provide adequate amounts of Zn and Mn. However, organic mineral products may increase mineral absorption over inorganic sources. Live and processing performance may be improved with complexed trace minerals. Complexed Zn appears to play an important role in wound healing as demonstrated in this study with improvements in skin quality and pododermatitis. Cost-benefit analysis of using complexed trace minerals may be warranted.