Disruption of the Relational and Item-specific Processing Supports the Negative Outcomes of Multiple-Choice Testing with Additional Lures
Type of DegreePhD Dissertation
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Multiple-choice retrieval practice with additional lures reduces retention on a later test (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). However, the mechanism underlying the negative outcomes with additional lures is poorly understood. Given that the positive outcomes of retrieval practice are associated with enhanced relational and item-specific processing (Zaromb & Roediger, 2010), it is plausible that the negative outcomes are due to disrupted relational and item-specific processing. The main goal of this dissertation was to examine whether the negative outcomes are related to disruption of the relational and item-specific processing. Experiment 1 compared the relational and item-specific processing in a non-inclusive intervening multiple-choice test (1 lure versus 5 lures), whereas experiment 2 compared these processing in an inclusive multiple-choice test (correct none of the above versus wrong none of the above). Across two experiments, results show that retrieval practice with additional lures disrupts both the relational and item specific processing resulting in reduced retention.