This Is AuburnElectronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence to Teach Conceptual Understanding of Place Value, Rounding, and Expanded Notation to Elementary-aged Students with Learning Disabilities




Milton, Jessica

Type of Degree

PhD Dissertation


Special Education, Rehabilitation, Counseling

Restriction Status


Restriction Type


Date Available



The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of CRA instruction on teaching place value understanding, rounding to the tens and hundreds place, and making equations multiple ways. The intervention included identification of place value of digits, writing numbers in expanded notation, creating new equations, and rounding to the tens and hundreds place. Generalization assessed estimation and addition of three-digit numbers. All students met criteria and mastered each of the skills. Visual analysis showed a functional relation between CRA instruction and place value, rounding, and making equations knowledge with increases in student performance at three different points in time. In addition, a social validity survey was completed after the study which provided positive feedback regarding in the intervention. Implications for the intervention and future research are also discussed.