This Is AuburnElectronic Theses and Dissertations

An Investigation of Teachers’ Knowledge and Use of Positive Behavior Supports and Applied Behavior Analysis Strategies in Saudi Arabia




Abubakr, Abdullah

Type of Degree

PhD Dissertation


Special Education, Rehabilitation, Counseling

Restriction Status


Restriction Type


Date Available



Behavior management can be a challenge for elementary and secondary classroom teachers in Saudi Arabia. Some elementary and secondary teachers in Saudi Arabia report a lack of preparedness in implementing effective behavior management techniques (i.e., applied behavior and or positive behavior support strategies; Al-Hadithi, 2015). In this study, special and general education teachers from Saudi Arabia (n = 415) completed a Likert-type online survey where they reported their knowledge and frequency of use of applied behavior analysis and positive behavior support strategies. Results indicated teachers were familiar or very familiar with the 19 strategies described and that positive strategies were frequently used instead of punishment. Positive reinforcement and group contingency strategies were among the most familiar and frequently used while punishment and Check-In Check-Out strategies were among the least familiar. The researcher used simultaneous multiple regression to examine the relationship of demographic predictor variables with survey results. Three significant predictor variate models recovered a range of 11.1% to 16.8% variance. A significant relationship was found for the predictor variable, training and preparation (i.e., respondents with a graduate degree in special education or respondents who completed three behavior courses and professional development) scored higher in total knowledge and use of strategies than other respondents. A significant positive relationship was found for the predictor variable, job type/experience for years of teaching with teachers’ self-reported use of strategies. Respondents who indicated positive behavior support was used in their school or district had significantly higher scores in knowledge of strategies than other respondents. Respondents who taught in inclusion or special education classrooms had significantly higher scores for knowledge and use of strategies. No significance was found for the demographic variables of gender and grades taught. For this investigation, these findings underscore the significant relationship of teacher preparation and training and teacher experience in the classroom with teachers’ self-reported knowledge and use of strategies.