This Is AuburnElectronic Theses and Dissertations

The Effects of Self-Compassion, Attachment-styles, and Intolerance of Uncertainty on Trauma Outcomes




Collins, Joanna

Type of Degree

PhD Dissertation


Special Education, Rehabilitation, Counseling


Research shows that a complex life experience, such as trauma, will most likely be experienced in a person’s life (Nelson, 2019). Experiences with trauma can have a lasting effect on all aspects of a person’s life, and one area of significant concern is the parts unseen, the psychological impact (Sperry, 2016). For example, studies have found that increased adverse childhood experiences are linked to health concerns and chronic health conditions, such as heart disease and early death (Petruccelli et al., 2019). In addition, trauma outcomes can develop into psychopathological symptoms of PTSD (Jones & Cureton, 2014). Counselors must understand the individual factors contributing to a person’s trauma outcomes, specifically, psychosocial factors such as attachment, intolerance of uncertainty, and self-compassion. This quantitative research study investigated the effects of the psychosocial variables of self-compassion, attachment style, and intolerance of uncertainty on the relationship between early childhood adversity and adult psychopathology. Further, this study aimed to understand how the potential protective factor of self-compassion relates to the following factors: attachment style and Intolerance of Uncertainty. Results from this study indicated that psychosocial variables are significantly related to trauma psychopathology outcomes. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between anxiety attachment and high levels of trauma psychopathology.