This Is AuburnElectronic Theses and Dissertations

Investigate the dopaminergic neurotoxicity profile of designer drugs (Piperazine derivatives)




Almaghrabi, Mohammed

Type of Degree

Master's Thesis


Interdepartmental Pharmacy


Different botanical derived, or synthetic addictive substances have been “misused” and/or “abused” for centuries around the world. To overcome the abuse by these substances, strict legal laws were constituted globally. However, novel and drugs with chemical structures similar to illegal psychoactive drugs substances (with a slight structural change) were manufactured in undercover laboratories to have the same or augmented psychostimulatory effects. Currently, the major classes of designer drugs are piperazines, cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic opioids, tryptamines, and phenethylamines. These classes of designer drugs have shown to elicit significant psychostimulatory effect by a different mechanism of action. There are very few reports on the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of piperazine derivatives. However, they have shown to affect various monoaminergic neurotransmission. In the current study, we have synthesized and elucidated the neurotoxic mechanisms of new piperazines.